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4.4.1 THE OPERATING SYSTEM
VIDEO
• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5AjReRMoG3Y
FILE MANAGEMENT
• File management
• The operating system manages the storage of files and
directories (folders). The operating system stores files in
a hierarchy of directories.
INPUT / OUTPUT (I/O) MANAGEMENT
• Input / output management
• The operating system manages data transfers between the CPU
and the input and output devices, such as the keyboard and
printers. The software that allows this data transfer may
already be part of the operating system, or the user might
need to install a driver to handle input and output from a
particular device.
RESOURCE MANAGEMENT/ALLOCATION
• Resource allocation
• A resource is any part of the computer system. Examples include a printer,
memory, hard disk drive or processor time. The operating system allocates
the computer system’s available hardware to the programs running
(processes) at any one time. While a program is running, the data and
instructions are stored in the main memory and it is the operating system
that allocates appropriate memory to each program. The operating
system also ensures that instructions and data do not interfere with each
other.
PROCESS MANAGEMENT
• Process Management
• multi-processing operating systems allow many processes to be
run at the same. The CPU can only execute one task at a time.
To perform multi-processing it switches quickly between the
processes. It is the operating system that schedules which
process to run.
• See Task Manager (Processes Tab)
PROCESS MANAGEMENT (2)
• The operating system:
• gives each process a unique process ID
• allocates space in memory to hold the instructions and data for a
program
• assigns priority which determines the order in which processes will
run
• links processes with a user.
NETWORK MANAGEMENT
• Network management
• It is the operating system that manages the operation
of the computer system’s network connections.
• See Task Manager (Networking tab)
USER MANAGEMENT
• User management
• The operating system also manages the user(s) of the
computer system, providing users with an interface to
the computer system, privileges to perform certain tasks
and security features to protect the users and the
system.
SINGLE USER AND MULTI-USER OPERATING SYSTEMS
•
some operating systems, such as those found on mobile phones, are single user
operating systems, while other operating systems are multi-user which allows more
than one user to “log on” using a username and a password.
•
Many operating systems have an administrator or “superuser” who has full privileges
to alter any aspects of the computer system including adding new user accounts.
Users can be granted different privileges, such as the right to access particular files
or directories. Restricting users’ access is one of the ways in which system
administrators protect the integrity of the computers and network.
• P:\GCSE Computer Science\4 - Computers and Assembly
Language\Lesson 4\ Operating System Link.docx
4.4.2 APPLICATION SOFTWARE
•
Web Browser – Internet Explorer, FireFox, Google Chrome, Safari…etc
•
•
Word Processors – MS Word, Open Office Word…etc
•
•
•
Used to create models of real world situations (e.g. businesses, financial projections, pupils in
a class…etc)
Used to perform calculations, using formulae
Databases – MS Access
•
•
Used to create presentations for lessons/lectures, business meetings…etc
Spreadsheets – MS Excel, Open Office Spreadsheet…etc
•
•
Used to type reports, letters, evaluations…etc
Presentation Software – MS PowerPoint, Open Office Presentation…etc
•
•
Used to view webpages (HTML files) and content on the WWW.
Used to store data records on people, objects/items, animals…etc
Mobile Apps – A mobile type of applications software to be accessed through
mobile devices (e.g. smartphones and tablets).
4.4.2
4.4.2
4.4.1
4.4.1
4.4.2
4.4.1
4.4.1
4.4.3
4.4.3