Download VERBS - MAKE WRITING STRONGER

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Transcript
VERBS - MAKE WRITING
STRONGER
Lyla Nabulsi
VERB FORMS-SPELLING
AND PRONUNCIATION
§ Regular verbs l
l
l
to + verb = the infinitive = present tense form
Past tense = present tense form + d, ed, or t
Past participle = to have + past form
§ Irregular verbs l
l
l
to + verb = the infinitive = present tense form
Past tense = vowel change, new word, other
Past participle = another vowel change, new
word, other
Regular Verbs
§ Present form = (to) like
§ Past form = (add d, ed, or t) liked
(not likeed or liket)
§ Past Participle = (have) liked (the
same as the past)
§ Present Participle = liking
§ 3rd person singular - likes
Irregular Verb - Vowel Change
§ Present form - (to) sing
§ Past form - sang(vowel from i to a)
§ Past participle - (have) sung (i to u)
§ Present participle - singing
§ 3rd person singular - sings
Irregular Verb- new words
TO BE
§ Present - to be
§ I am, you are, (s)he is, we are, your
are, they are
§ Past Tense - I was, you were, (s)he
was, we were, they were
§ Part Participle - (have) been
§ Present Participle - being
OTHER FORMS
§ No change - I hit today
I hit yesterday
I have hit before.
Other verbs that don’t change include hurt, let,
put,quit, shut.
§ Past participle changes to en Break, broke, broken
Speak, spoke, spoken
§ Special problems
l
l
lay (to place) laid laid
lie(to recline) lay lain
SIMPLE VERB TENSES
§ TENSE MEANS “TIME”
§ Present tense - Now- She cooks well.
§ Past tense - Completed - She cooked
yesterday
§ Future tense - yet to happen - She will cook
tomorrow.
What does person mean?
§ First Person - person speaking (I, we)
§ Second Person - person spoken to (you)
§ Third person - person spoken about (she,
he, it, they)
§ Singular - one person
§ Plural - more than one person
§ Third person singular - usually ends in s
Conjugating a verb
Taking a verb through all the tenses
Start with the principle parts of the verb
§
§
§
§
Present - (to) cook
Past
- cooked
Past Participle – (have) cooked
Present Participle - cooking
Regular Verb conjugation
Simple tenses
Infinitive - To Cook
Present forms – cook, cooks
§
SINGULAR
§ 1st I cook
PLURAL
We cook
§ 2nd
You cook
You cook
§ 3rd
(S)he, it cooks
They cook
Past Tense of regular verb (add d, ed, t)
Past tense form - cooked
§ SINGULAR
§ 1st
I cooked
PLURAL
We cooked
§ 2nd
You cooked
You cooked
§ 3rd (S)he, it cooked
They cooked
Future tense adds shall or will
Future tense – shall/will cook
§ SINGULAR
§ 1st
I shall cook
PLURAL
We shall cook
§ 2nd
You will cook
You will cook
§ 3rd (S)he, it will cook
They will cook
PERFECT TENSES: action in the
past continuing in the present
§ Present Perfect - have + past participle
§ Past Perfect - had + past participle
§ Future Perfect - will (shall) + have + past
participle
§ I have cooked; he has cooked
§ I had cooked
§ I shall have cooked
Present Perfect – Have/has plus past participle
§ SINGULAR
§ 1st I have cooked
PLURAL
We have cooked
§ 2nd
You have cooked
You have cooked
§ 3rd (S)he,it has cooked
They have cooked
Past Perfect – had plus the past participle
§ SINGULAR
§ 1st I had cooked
PLURAL
We had cooked
§ 2nd
You had cooked
You had cooked
§ 3rd (S)he,it had cooked
They had cooked
Future Perfect shall/will+have+past particple
§ SINGULAR
PLURAL
§ 1st
I shall have cooked
We shall have cooked
§ 2nd
You will have cooked
You will have cooked
§ 3rd (S)he,it will have cooked They will have cooked
Progressive Tense
Verb of being plus present participle
Present Progressive Present form of be plus
present participle (ing form of the verb)
§ SINGULAR
§ 1st I am cooking
PLURAL
We are cooking
§ 2nd
You are cooking
You are cooking
§ 3rd (S)he,it is cooking
They are cooking
Past Progressive – past form of be
plus present participle
§ SINGULAR
§ 1st I was cooking
PLURAL
We were cooking
§ 2nd You were cooking
You were cooking
§ 3rd (S)he,it was cooking They were cooking
Future Progressive
shall/will + be + present participle
§ SINGULAR
§ 1st I shall be cooking
PLURAL
We shall be cooking
§ 2nd
You will be cooking
You will be cooking
§ 3rd
(S)he,it will be cooking They will be cooking
Emphatic Tense
Do, does, did plus present form of verb
Present emphatic
Do or does plus present form
§ SINGULAR
§ 1st I do cook
PLURAL
We do cook
§ 2nd
You do cook
You do cook
§ 3rd (S)he,it does cook
They do cook
Past Emphatic
Did plus the present form of the verb
§ SINGULAR
§ 1st I did cook
PLURAL
We did cook
§ 2nd
You did cook
You did cook
§ 3rd (S)he,it did cook
They did cook
Why is tense important?
§ Maintain one tense in a paper, if
possible
§ Maintain one tense in a paragraph-a
must
§ TENSE SHIFT constitutes a serious
problem
§ The tense of the verb in the main
clause determines the verb of the
paragraph.
Subject-Verb-Agreement
§ Only third person singular has an s on it, but
third person singular must have an s.
§ I sees it. NO
§ He see it. NO
§ The object of a prepositions does not
determine the person of the verb
§ The boys in the band are talented.
§ The girl on the stairs is beautiful.
VOICE - Active and Passive
§ This is not tense. Tense exists within voice.
§ ACTIVE VOICE - Has to do with the logic
of the sentence. The SUBJECT does the
ACTION. Tom ate the pie. TOM is the
ACTOR. The action is ATE. The thing
being eaten is PIE -the direct object
§ Must be an ACTION verb.
§ Must be a TRANSITIVE verb - has an
object.
PASSIVE VOICE -BOO HISS
§ What is it?
§ Be + Past Participle
§ Examples: was thrown, was being thrown,
was dented, is gone, were elevate
§ Sentences in passive voice:
l
l
l
The ball was thrown by Tom.
He was being thrown out of the park.
The car was dented by the vandal.
Change passive to active voice
§ The bacon was cooked by Mary Lou. (p)
§ Mary Lou cooked the bacon.(a)
§ The job was done well. (No prep. phrase)
(p)
§ To solve this problem ask, “Who did the
job?”
§ The plumber did the job well.(a)
Editing Compositions for Verb
Errors
§ After writing the paragraphs edit by
l
l
l
l
Checking the verbs in each main clause for
consistency (all present, all past)
Avoid future tense by checking for the use of shall
and will
In what person are you writing? Third person
singular is the best to use. Check your verbs for
correct 3rd person singular form for subject-verb
agreement if in present tense.
NO passive voice.
Consistency in tense demands
consistency in person
§ Write in third person singular or plural
§ Never use second person - you § Avoid I and one.
§ Avoid there + be structures
§ Use concrete nouns
§ Use action verbs
§ After this, that, these or those , use a
noun
PASSIVE VOICE - BEWARE
§ Avoid passive voice when at all possible
§ Why? Not logical, makes the receiver of the action the
subject, buries the actor in a prepositional phrase at the
end of the sentence, adds words
§ The pie was eaten by Tom.
§ Verb was (be) eaten (PP)
§ Subject -Pie - thing acted upon
§ Object of Preposition - Tom - actor
§ Added words - was, by.
§ Logical order of words results in ACTIVE voice, no verb
of being, and fewer words.
§ Tom ate the pie.
Worksheet
§
§
§
§
§
§
§
My mother cleaned the living room
ASK – WHAT IS THE ACTION?
cleaned simple predicate
cleaned the living room complete predicate
Ask – WHO IS DOING THIS ACTION?
Mother simple subject
My mother complete subject
Diagram
§
Subject
predicate
§
Mother
cleaned
room
www.superteacerworksheets.com
§
§
§
§
§
§
§
§
§
§
§
§
Jordan slept on the sofa.
A tiny mosquito landed on my arm.
The gray spider spun a beautiful web.
The window in my bedroom blew open.
My friends and I played lacrosse in the field behind the
school.
Sara picked up a stick from the ground.
The brown cow gazed in the meadow.
Mark sneezed loudly.
We played darts in the garage.
Marcia baked a chocolate cake in the oven.
The candles on the birthday cake burned brightly.
Isabella opened up her umbrella.
§
§
§
§
§
§
§
§
§
§
Complete subjects, complete predicates,
simple subject, simple predicate
The horse trotted.
Three mice ran across the floor.
Greg’s dog chews his bone.
Santa came on Christmas Eve.
The dusty book fell off the table.
Sheila brought a new car.
A taxi driver stopped at the corner.
The laundry basket was full.
I read that book last week.
Karen’s sister came over.