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A High Performance, Low Noise, 128Channel Readout Integrated Circuit for
Instrumentation and X-Ray Applications
E.Beuville, M.Belding, A.Costello,
R.Hansen, S.Petronio
Operation
Indigo Systems Background
INDIGO OPERATIONS
(Merged with FLIR, January 2004)
 Infra-Red Systems Manufacturer
 Imaging and Thermography
 Surveillance, Firefighting, Industrial, Military…
• IR sensor fabrication facility (GaAs, InSb, mBolo)
• Readout Integrated Circuit (ROIC) Core Capability
• Large 2D ROIC pixel arrays (1k x 1k at 15um pixel size)
• Custom IC (mixed signal)
 IR applications
 X-ray and mammography applications
 Implantable devices
 Space applications
 Instrumentation
IEEE NSS N8-4– October 18, 2004
INDIGO OPERATIONS
ISC9717 ROIC Description
 Design 128 Channels, Low-Noise ROIC for Flat
Panel Array and Instrumentation
•
•
•
•
•
80um channel pitch
Low noise charge amplifier (programmable gain)
Low Pass Filter (programmable time constant)
Correlated Double Sampling (programmable gain)
On-Chip ADC (programmable 9 to 14 bits gray-code
output)
Charge
Integrator
Gain
Gain
Low Pass Filter
Time
TimeConstant
Constant
2
Integrator
IEEE NSS N8-4– October 18, 2004
LPF
C.D.S.
Amplifier
Track-and-Hold 9-14 Bit ADC
Gain
Gain
Resolution
Resolution
4
CDS
4
T/H
ADC
9 to 14bit
9 to 14bit
INDIGO OPERATIONS
Applications and Detectors
Compatibility
Wide Range of Applications
Wide Range of Detectors
 Digital X-ray Medical Imaging
 Flat Panel X-ray Sensors (TFT)
- Radiography
- Fluoroscopy
- Mammography
- Angiography
- Tomography
 Instrumentation
- Airport screening
- Non-Destructive Testing
- CT scan, PET imaging
- Astrophysics applications
- Nuclear Science
- Industrial Instrumentation
IEEE NSS N8-4– October 18, 2004
- Cesium Iodide (CsI) or other
scintillators
- Selenium (Se)
- Amorphous Silicon
- Photodiode
 Solid-State Detectors
- Silicon Detectors (Si)
- Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CdZnTe)
- Gallium Arsenide (GaAs)
- Germanium (Ge)
- Photodiode
INDIGO OPERATIONS
Application to X-ray Flat Panel
 ISC9717 reading out TFT flat panel array
• Wire bonded or Tape Automated Bonding (TAB)
• Programmable readout direction
TFT Array (split in 2)
Gate Driver
Gate Driver
14 bits
14 bits
14 bits
14 bits
Column
Select Line
DATA Line
+
Sensor
Pixel
IEEE NSS N8-4– October 18, 2004
Detector
Bias
INDIGO OPERATIONS
ISC9717 Serial Command Register
 Gain Control (Integrator and CDS)
• Full dynamic range from 48fC (3x105 e-/hole) to 12pC (75x106 e-/hole)
 Integration While Read mode
• Higher readout rate
 Integration Then Read mode
• Lower noise
 Integration time control
• Integration time adjusted by controlling the clock (24us to few ms)
 Readout direction (left or right)
• Allows the readout IC to be connected on both sides of 2D sensors
 Averaging mode (two adjacent channels averaged)
• Improved signal-to-noise ratio
• Higher readout rates
 ADC resolution (9 to 14 bit)
• Higher readout rate for lower ADC resolution
• Current mode output (reduced clock feedthrough)
IEEE NSS N8-4– October 18, 2004
Charge TransImpedance Amplifier
(CTIA)
 Folded cascode architecture
INDIGO OPERATIONS
• Differential amplifier
• P channel input transistors
• Folded cascode
• Adjustment of reference
 large PSRR
 low 1/f noise
 high gain and dynamic range
 hole or electron collection
VREF_IN = 1.5 to 3.5V
4.5V
5V
6
5
VREF_IN
INPUT
2.5V range
(hole coll.)
2
1
VREF_IN=3.5V
3.0V range
(e- coll.)
VREF_IN=1.5V
3
4
1.0V
GND
IEEE NSS N8-4– October 18, 2004
CF = 0.5pF, 1pF, 2pF, 4pF
INDIGO OPERATIONS
Low Pass Filter (LPF)
 Simple first order low pass filter
 Limit the bandwidth (f-3dB from 32 to 200kHz)
• Noise attenuation
 RC filter implementation
• RC=1us with Resistor (1Meg) and Capacitor (1pF)
• Resistor can be too large to implement (HiRes poly=1k/SQ)
 Using transistor’s transconductance gm
• Time constant = CLPF/gm
 Programmable time constant
• 0.8us, 1.3us, 2.8us, 3.3us
• 1us, 2us, 4us, 5us with external voltage adjustment
IEEE NSS N8-4– October 18, 2004
INDIGO OPERATIONS
Low Pass Filter
(Slew / Rise Time Constraint)
 Slew rate and settling
• Measurement time for 14bit settling increases
for large signal amplitude due to slew rate
Slew rate:
SR 
I
VP
 SR
t
CLPF
VP
settling
SR
Settling:
VP (1  e
(t t1 ) 
Approximation:
t1
t2 t3
IEEE NSS N8-4– October 18, 2004
TM t
TSET  VP
CLPF
  N.ln(2)  1
ISR
)
INDIGO OPERATIONS
Low Pass Filter Implementation
RC+SR
 = CLPF/gm
Cf
out
VIN
gm
VGS
1.0E-05
10us
LPF
VLPF
CLPF
RST
SPICE sim.
Tsettle
RC+SR
8.0E-06
8us
LPF
• At t=0, VGS is large
 large current  large SR
 large gm  small 
When VLPF reaches VIN
 small current (settles with )
6us
6.0E-06
10bit settling
4us
4.0E-06
0.01
0.01
0.1
0.1
IEEE NSS N8-4– October 18, 2004
11
10
Log(VIN) 10
 non-linear settling
 linear (no bulk effect)
 adjustable time constant
INDIGO OPERATIONS
Correlated Double Sampling
Amplifier (CDS)
 Remove offset and CTIA kTC noise
• After integrator reset released  store and subtract
kTCINTEG
 Reduces 1/f noise (increases thermal noise)
 Programmable gain
2
C


2
H (f ) CDS   1   4  Sin 2 (  f  TS )
 C2 
• X1, x2, x4, x8, x32
1.E+01
CLAMP2
V2/Hz
C2
CDS_BIT[0-3]
1.E+00
CLAMP1
1.E-01
TRACK
VREF_CDS
1.E-02
1.E-03
1.E-04
1.E+02
C1
1.E+03
1.E+04
1.E+05
IEEE NSS N8-4– October 18, 2004
1.E+06
f(Hz)
+
VREF_CDS
Gain =C1/C2
INDIGO OPERATIONS
Analog-to-Digital Converter
 One ADC per channel
 Single slope ADC
• On-chip voltage ramp generator (programmable)
• Grey code counter  1 bit changing at a time
VREF_ADC
RST
RST_ADC
VREF_ADC
Cc
RAMP_IN
Latches
14
Signal (held)
Input
INPUT
RST
14
IEEE NSS N8-4– October 18, 2004
Latch
9-14bit
Gray Code
Counter
t
Gray Code
Counter
INDIGO OPERATIONS
ADC Ramp Generator
• Charge pump architecture
• Programmable ramp for 9 to 14 bit conversion
Clock = 40ns (twice Master clock)
VPOS
VLSB = VADJ_RAMP
C2
RST_ADC
RAMP_OUT
C1
C2+CL
CL
40ns
VADJ_RAMP
C1
f
f
f
Non-overlapping
clock
f
GND
IEEE NSS N8-4– October 18, 2004
VLSB
C1
• Slope controlled by VADJ_RAMP
and the C1/(C2+CL) ratio
 Adjustment of the LSB level
from 9bit to 14bit
Current Mode Output
INDIGO OPERATIONS
• Current mode output (0.5mA)
 high speed output
 low voltage output
 low power
 reduced clock feedthrough
ROIC
Current Mode Receiver
Low Impedance
 DV < 50mV
VPD
CLOCK
SYNC
10k
BIT9
.
BIT8
BIT7
Data Out
0.5mA
PN3640
CL<30pF
1V
700
Suggested current mode receiver
IEEE NSS N8-4– October 18, 2004
Data rate = 12.5MHz
ISC9717 Noise Analysis and
Measurements
 All noise sources taken into account
INDIGO OPERATIONS
RST
CF
1  (2  f  CLPF gm )2
VkTCf
VkTCcds
CC2
Detector Noise
SELECT
1
2
H (f ) LPF 
vLine
v1/f
CLAMP
vAmp
CC1
+
CINT
T/H
LPF
+
CT/H
BWAmp
VkTC INT
VkTC
T
H (f ) INTEG   S
 CF
2
2
 Sin 2 (  f  TS )
 
(  f  TS )2

For detector current integration
IEEE NSS N8-4– October 18, 2004
H (f )
2
2
CDS
Vout
T/H
C 
  1   4  Sin 2 (  f  TS )
 C2 
+Quantization
Noise
+
INDIGO OPERATIONS
Noise Acquisition
• External input capacitor added on few channels
• 60Hz noise pick up from the inputs / test board
 Removed by subtracting 2 channels (increases the noise by √2)
No input cap
10pF
100pF
50pF
60Hz
time
128 channel
IEEE NSS N8-4– October 18, 2004
INDIGO OPERATIONS
Noise Measurement
• Equivalent Noise Charge (ENC) referred to the input
4000
ENC (e-RMS)
3500

Analysis
High resolution setting:
■
▲
3000
2500
2000
■
▲
1500
■▲ Measurement

■
▲
■
▲
500
1000
00
00
2E-11
20pF
IEEE NSS N8-4– October 18, 2004
4E-11
40pF
6E-11
60pF
8E-11
80pF
1E-10
100pF
1.2E-10
CDET
Cf = 1pF
LPF=1us
GainCDS = 32
ADC = 14bit
Noise as a Function of LPF
INDIGO OPERATIONS
• Dominant thermal noise (V2RMS)  1/LPF
2200
CDET= 50pF
Cf = 0.5pF
GainCDS = 8
ADC = 14bit
ENC (e-RMS)
■
2000
2000
▲
1800
1800

Analysis
▲
■
1600
1600
■

■
▲Measurement
1400
1400
 ENC  1600e-RMS
■
▲
1200
1200
1000
1000
0
0.00E+00
1us
1.00E-06
2us
2.00E-06
3us
3.00E-06
4us
4.00E-06
5us
5.00E-06
LPF
6.00E-06
 Optimum noise for 5us LPF time constant
IEEE NSS N8-4– October 18, 2004
INDIGO OPERATIONS
ISC9717 Averaging Mode
 Averaging mode
• SNR improvement
• Increase readout rate by a factor 2
T/H
VAVG = (V1 + V2) / 2
V1
To ADC
Odd channel
SNR =
CHOLD
AVG
T/H
Even channel
V2
CHOLD
IEEE NSS N8-4– October 18, 2004
(V1 + V2)
2√ (V2n1 + V2n2)
 √2 SNR improvement
INDIGO OPERATIONS
ISC9717 Performance Summary
Specifications
Nominal
Comments
Number of channel
128 channel/chip
80um Input bonding pad pitch
Clock frequency
 12.5MHz
Low voltage differential clock
Integrator gain control
CF=0.5pF, 1pF, 2pF, 4pF
2BIT gain control
Charge collection
Electrons (≤ 75x106 e-)
Hole (≤ 62x106 hole)
VREF_INTEG = 1.5V for e- collection
VREF_INTEG = 3.0V for hole collection
Low-Pass-Filter time constant
0.8us, 1.3us, 2.8us, 3.3us
(1us, 2us, 4us, 5us)
2BIT (2 capacitors selectable) 10% tolerance
With external voltage adjustment
Correlated Double Sampling
Gain = x1, x2, x4, x8, x32
Removes the ROIC kTC and 1/f noise
Crosstalk
  0.25%
(internal to ROIC)
Total power dissipation
 220mW
200mW nominal
ADC resolution
9 to 14 bits (gray code output)
Programmable ADC resolution
(ADC frequency=25MHz)
Current mode output
9 to14 output used
Parallel output (single ended 0.5mA 20%)
ENC (GINTEG =2mV/fC,
GCDS=32, ADC=9bit)
 1200 e-RMS referred to input
Measured noise with 50pF input capacitor
Noise depends on systems noise performance
ENC (GINTEG =2mV/fC,
GCDS=8, ADC=14bit)
 1400 e-RMS referred to input
Measured noise with 50pF input capacitor
Noise depends on systems noise performance
ENC (GINTEG =2mV/fC,
GCDS=1, ADC=14bit)
 2300 e-RMS referred to input
Measured noise with 50pF input capacitor
Noise depends on systems noise performance
IEEE NSS N8-4– October 18, 2004
INDIGO OPERATIONS
Standard ASIC Product Package
ISC9717 ROIC
USER MANUAL
DOC # 400-9717-10 VERSION 2.3
October 14, 2003
Copyright Indigo Systems Corporation 2003
Information furnished by Indigo Systems Corporation is believed to be
accurate. However, no responsibility is assumed by Indigo Systems
Corporation for its use, nor for any infringements of patents or other rights
of third parties that may result from its use. No license is granted by
implication or otherwise under any patent or patent rights of Indigo Systems
Corporation.
 Standard ASICs
• By the die in fully tested wafer
form
• 487 die / wafer
 AMI 0.5um process
 Typical yield is above 90%
IEEE NSS N8-4– October 18, 2004
 Each wafer:
 Complete set of documentation
•
Design and Users Guide
 complete test data on CD•
Technical Application Notes
ROM
•
Physical Interface Drawings
 CD-ROM contains PRISM test
 Applications engineering
data explorer software
support
 Physical database in GDSII
 successful integration of
format provided on CD-ROM
sensor with ROIC
Integration While Read
INDIGO OPERATIONS
 Simultaneous integration, A/D conversion and readout


 Higher frame rate
28.6kHz conversion rate at 9 bit resolution (Clock = 12.5MHz)
1.49kHz conversion rate at 14 bit resolution
Stop CLK for longer integration time
tINTEG=11.68us + 2(N-1)/fCLK
IEEE NSS N8-4– October 18, 2004
Integration Then Read
INDIGO OPERATIONS
 Integration, ADC and readout performed sequentially


 Lower Noise
15.1kHz conversion rate at 9 bit ADC resolution (Clock = 12.5MHz)
1.42kHz conversion rate at 14 bit ADC resolution
Stop CLK for longer integration time
tINTEG=34.4us
IEEE NSS N8-4– October 18, 2004
INDIGO OPERATIONS
Noise Measurement (1 of 2)
• Equivalent Noise Charge (ENC) referred to the input
4000
3500
3500
ENC (e-RMS)

Analysis
▲
High gain setting:
Cf = 0.5pF
LPF=1us
GainCDS = 32
ADC = 9bit
3000
3000
■
2500
2500
2000
2000
▲
■
■▲ Measurement

1500
1500
1000
1000
▲
■
■
▲
500
500
00
00
2E-11
20pF
4E-11
40pF
IEEE NSS N8-4– October 18, 2004
6E-11
60pF
8E-11
80pF
1E-10
100pF
1.2E-10
CDET
CBOARD  4.0pF
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