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Full file at http://testbanksinstant.eu/ SolutionManual-for-Introduction-to-Forensic-Anthropology,Fourth-Edition-
Instructor's Manual
Steven N. Byers
Introduction to Forensic Anthropology
4th Edition
by
Steven N. Byers
download full file at http://testbankinstant.com
Table of Contents
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................ 5
CHAPTER AT-A-GLANCE.............................................................................................................. 5
CHAPTER OVERVIEW ................................................................................................................... 5
LEARNING OBJECTIVES ................................................................................................................ 6
ANSWERS TO EXERCISES .............................................................................................................. 6
CHAPTER 2. BASICS OF HUMAN OSTEOLOGY AND ODONTOLOGY ............ ERROR!
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CHAPTER 10. CALCULATION OF STATURE..... ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED.
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CHAPTER 11. DEATH, TRAUMA, AND THE SKELETON... ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT
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download full file at http://testbankinstant.com
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CHAPTER 15. ANTEMORTEM SKELETAL CONDITIONS. ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT
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CHAPTER 16. POSTMORTEM CHANGES TO BONE ........... ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT
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CHAPTER 17. ADDITIONAL ASPECTS OF INDIVIDUALIZATION ................... ERROR!
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Chapter 1. Introduction
Chapter 1. Introduction
Chapter At-a-Glance
Detailed Outline
Key Terms and Concepts
Historical Background
p. 4
 Formative Period
 Consolidation Period
 Modern Period
Forensic Anthropology
and the Medicolegal
Community p. 9
Formative Period
Consolidation Period
Modern Period
Forensic Anthropology
and Jurisprudence p. 9
The Forensic
Anthropology Protocol
and the Layout of This
Book p. 11
Methods of Forensic
Anthropology p. 13
 Data Gathering
Methods
 Data Analysis
Methods
 Decision Tables
 Range Charts
 Indexes
 Discriminant
Function Analysis
 Regression
Equations
Relevant
Chapter
Exercises
Forensic Anthropology
Forensic Archeology
Forensic Odontology
Ballistics
Forensic Entomology
Forensic Botany
Frye v. United States
Federal Rules of Evidence
Daubert v. Merrill Dow
Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
General Electric v. Joiner
Kumho Tire Company, Ltd. v.
Carmichael
Clyde Snow's protocol
Ex. 1, 2, 3,
4.
Scales of Measurement
Anthroposcopy
Osteometry
Metric Methods
Chemical Methods
Histology
Decision table
Range chart
Indexes
Discriminant Function Analysis
Sectioning Point
Regression Equations
Intercept
Slope
Standard error
Ex. 7, 8, 9.
Professor's
Notes
Ex. 5, 6.
Chapter Overview
This introductory chapter presents general information on
forensic anthropology, including a description of the goals of
the field, a brief history, a presentation of its protocol, and a
5
Instructor Manual
short description of the methods employed in this field. Most
students will find the first 3 subjects interesting but will not
find the discussion of methods appealing. However, the use of
interesting examples might grab students' attention early in the
class and time spent on this topic will make subsequent chapters
more understandable.
Learning Objectives
After reading Chapter 1, students should be able to:
 Define forensic anthropology and differentiate it from other
specialties in the field of forensics.

Understand the legislative and judicial decisions that
affect forensic anthropology.

List the forensic anthropology protocol.

Discuss the three phases of the history of this field.

Describe the two major methods of data collection.

Describe the major methods of data analysis.
Answers to Exercises
1.
Yes. If a body is found that is only partially skeletonized,
a forensic anthropologist should be called. This is because
partial skeletonization denotes the loss of enough soft
tissue to render ineffective the methods of forensic
pathologists and other specialists.
2.
Yes. As mentioned in the answer to Exercise 1, it would be
appropriate to call a forensic anthropologist immediately if
a body is partially skeletonized. The loss of a significant
amount of soft tissue requires the skills of such persons in
the analysis of the remains.
3.
Although normally forensic anthropologists study the
skeletonized remains of persons who have died within the
6
Chapter 1. Introduction
last 50 years, these people are unique in the forensic
sciences in their ability to analyze human bone. Thus,
information on a person, of who there is only left skeletal
remains (no matter how much time has passed since that
person’s death), is best gathered by a forensic
anthropologist. Besides, these types of cases can be very
interesting; forensic anthropologists, being only human, are
drawn naturally to the puzzle they represent.
4.
As stated in the text, forensic pathologists are persons who
normally do their work on "fresh" bodies (i.e., bodies with
soft tissue that can be used to determine matters relevant
to death). Since the bodies of the victims of Alfred Packer
had missing soft tissue due to being eaten, forensic
anthropologists (in this case Walter Birkby, Todd Fenton,
and Bruce Anderson) were the most logical persons to analyze
the remains.
5.
Some of Clyde Snow's questions, which make up the protocol,
may be known or surmised in the cases of atrocities while
others would have to be performed. For example, "Are the
remains human?" and "When did death occur?" would probably
be known. Similarly, "What was the decedent's sex?" (Most
victims were males of military age), and "What was the
decedent's race?" might be fairly evident as would be the
"cause of death" and "manner of death" (gunshot wounds).
However, these are assumptions that need to be proven. Thus,
to ensure proper analysis, all of the steps in the forensic
anthropology protocol should be performed.
6.
From information in the textbook, Thomas Dwight provided
information on the "What was the decedent's sex?", "What was
the decedent's stature?", and "How old was the decedent?"
steps in the protocol. Paul Stevenson's work dealt with the
"What was the decedent's stature?" and, "How old was the
decedent?" steps of the protocol.
7.
In his analysis, Dr. Snow used the most common method of
data collection in forensic anthropology: anthroposcopy. Dr.
Snow examined the remains for the telltale indicators of age
at death to ascertain the characteristics of the skeleton
that could be used to determine this demographic
characteristic. After (or while) doing this, he plotted the
time spans known for the characteristics on a Range Chart to
best ascertain the most likely age at death.
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Instructor Manual
8.
Dr. Mildred Trotter used regression to determine the
relationship between long limb bone length and stature.
(Indeed, she was one of the pioneers in the use of this
statistical method in forensic anthropology.) This is
apparent from the fact that the problem involved predicting
one dimension from another.
9.
Dr. France used discriminant function analysis to
distinguish the humeri of males from females. This was a
logical choice since this method is used for problems
involving the determination of membership of an unknown
specimen in a discrete category.
8
Chapter 18. Positive Identification
9