Name:____________________________________ Period:______________________Date:_________________ Flipped Learning Practice – The Reformation Video Link: http://bit.ly/reformationvid Big Picture: Criticism of the Roman Catholic Church led to a religious movement called the Protestant Reformation and brought changes in religion and politics across Europe. Catholics at all levels recognized the need for reform in the church. Their work turned back the tide of Protestantism in some areas and renewed the zeal of Catholics everywhere. Essential Question: Why did Martin Luther challenge the Catholic Church? What reforms were made in the Catholic Church in response to the Protestant Reformation? Golden Hawk Historians will… Analyze the reasons for the Protestant Reformation and the effects of Renaissance society. Evaluate the success Luther’s efforts at reform and the Catholic response. Catholicism in the 1400s The Roman Catholic Church had gained power and wealth in Europe over the centuries, but many thought ____________________________________________________________________________. The reform movement that emerged in a response to people’s desire for the church to return to its roots became known as the _________________________________________________. People’s dissatisfaction with the church stemmed from ______________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________. The church funded many Renaissance artists but did so through heavy taxation on the middle class and peasants. __________________________________________________, or pardons issued by the Pop that people could buy to reduce the soul’s time in purgatory, were sold to help raise money for the projects as well. ___________________________________________, or the devotion to a particular state or nation, grew in opposition to the church. Martin Luther _____________________________________________ was one of the leading critics of the Catholic Church, particularly the sale of indulgences. Martin Luther’s biggest criticism of the Catholic Church was __________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________, Luther argued that _________________________________________________ God’s grace was won. He posted his criticism of the church, called the ____________________________________, for church leadership on the church door. He asserted that the true head of the Christian church was ___________________________. Luther translated the bible into ____________________________________, or the language spoken by the people, German so that it could be read by all without the aid of the clergy. In 1520, Pope Leo X excommunicated Martin Luther from the church. In 1521 he was summoned to appear before the newly crown Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, and the German Diet, or assembly, at the city of Worms, but he still refused to change his opinions. The Holy Roman Emperor handed down the ______________________________________________ that declared Luther to be an outlaw and condemned his writings. Although he did not set out to ____________________________________ was formally recognized as a branch of Christianity by 1530. Eventually they became known as ________________________________. The Spread of Protestantism __________________________________________________ reforms in Switzerland went even further than that of Martin Luther’s. He believed in a ______________________________________ or government in which the church and state are joined and in which officials are considered divinely inspired. ___________________________________ was influenced by the humanist ideas of the Renaissance. He preached the idea of… ________________________________ viewed people as sinful by nature and strict laws were enacted that regulated people’s behavior. __________________________________ became the spokesman for Protestantism in Scotland and his church structure laid the foundation for the Presbyterian denomination that formed later. The _________________________________________ insisted that baptism should not happen until adulthood and insisted on rebaptizing adults. Protestantism Spreads in England Henry VIII became king of England in 1509 and was deeply critical of Martin Luther’s reforms of the Catholic church. In 1525 his wife birthed him one child, a female, which left him without an heir. He decided to have the marriage ___________________________, or declared invalid based on church laws, so that he could marry again. The pope offered him many solutions but refused to annul the marriage. Henry VIII summoned parliament and petitioned that they approve an order that would remove the English from the authority of the pope. Henry VIII became the head of the ________________________________________________. Henry VIII went on to have six wives, one of which gave him a male heir Edward VI. Edward died before the age of 16 and Henry VIII’s daughter Mary became the queen of England. Mary returned England to the authority of the pope. Mary’s half sister Elizabeth I became queen and restored the Church of England. Reforming the Catholic Church Some Catholics had been working, even before Martin Luther, to reform the church through a series of reforms that became known as the ______________________________________________________. Many of the criticisms the church faced were… The ______________________, led by Ignatius of Loyola, emphasized obedience to the church and education to combat the Protestant Reformation. The Catholic _____________________________________________ met to examine the criticisms that the Protestants made against them and refined some of the Catholic teachings. Reforms the council issued focused on... The council rejected… During the Renaissance women in religious orders began to take more active roles in the Church. Nuns were known for helping the poor and children through education and service. To counter the Reformation, the church established a church court, called the ___________________________________________________, to fight Protestantism. They… The Roman Inquisition also issued a list of banned books that they warned would cause people to lose their souls. Religious and Social Effects Through the work of the Jesuits zeal for the Catholic faith increased but treatment of non-Catholics was harsh. Divisions appeared amongst the Protestants over _____________________________________. Catholics and Protestants both viewed Jews and Muslims as heretics, or not true believers. Jews and Muslims were forced to convert to Christianity or move into ghettos, large walled compounds. In times of hardship or bad harvests, the people blamed witches for working with the devil to kill children and ruin harvests. Witches were often rounded up and killed – many were innocent. The Protestant Reformation encouraged… Religious Wars and Unrest King Charles VIII of France invaded Italy to gain control over the Italian peninsula. The Protestant Reformation increased ____________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________. The main significance of the Italian Wars is that the… The Peasant’s Wars occurred when the Peasant’s stormed the castles and monasteries demanding social equality. Holy Roman Emperor Charles V began a war against the Lutheran Princes of Germany and Protestantism. The __________________________________________ was signed that allowed for each prince to choose the religion that his subjects would practice. The only choices were Catholicism or Lutheranism and the choice was not up to the people. The _____________________________, a protestant minority in France, fought for years against the Catholics led by Henry of Navarre. The Huguenots only stopped when Henry became Catholic giving France stability.