Operant Conditioning Activity Download

Transcript
[REPLACES OPERANT CONDITIONING ACTIVITY ON PP. 29-32]
Operant Conditioning Activity
<WKH2>Section I: <WKTXL>Fill in the table with the following terms: positive
reinforcement, negative reinforcement, positive punishment, and negative punishment.
<UNTB_CH>Adding/Applying <UNTB_CH>Removing
a Stimulus
a Stimulus
<UNTB_SH>Increases
likelihood the behavior
will be repeated
<UNTB_SH>Decreases
likelihood the behavior
will be repeated
<WKH2>Section II: <WKTXL>The following examples will give you practice
identifying positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, positive punishment, and
negative punishment.
<WKNL>
1. When his master calls, Clyde runs to his master. His master then gives him a dog
treat. The next day Clyde again comes when his master calls.
<WKNLUL>
a. What was the first thing Clyde did?
b. What consequence followed this behavior?
c. Was a stimulus added or removed as part of the consequence?
d. Did the consequence make the behavior more likely to occur or less likely to
occur?
e. Based on your previous answers, this is an example of (circle one):
<WKNLULLL>
A. Positive reinforcement
C. Positive punishment
B. Negative reinforcement
D. Negative punishment
<\WKNLULLL>
2. Maria, a three-year-old, draws on the wall in her room. Her mother takes away her
favorite toy for five minutes. Maria doesn’t draw on the wall for several days.
<WKNLUL>
a. What was the first thing Maria did?
b. What consequence followed this behavior?
c. Was a stimulus added or removed as part of the consequence?
d. Did the consequence make the behavior more likely to occur or less likely to
occur?
e. Based on your previous answers, this is an example of (circle one):
<WKNLULLL>
A. Positive reinforcement
C. Positive punishment
B. Negative reinforcement
D. Negative punishment
<\WKNLULLL>
3. Sally, an inquisitive three-year-old, touches the hot oven. She pulls her hand back and
starts to cry. For the next several days, Sally avoids the oven altogether.
<WKNLUL>
a. What was the first thing Sally did?
b. What consequence followed this behavior?
c. Was a stimulus added or removed as part of the consequence?
d. Did the consequence make the behavior more likely to occur or less likely to
occur?
e. Based on your previous answers, this is an example of (circle one):
<WKNLULLL>
A. Positive reinforcement
C. Positive punishment
B. Negative reinforcement
D. Negative punishment
<\WKNLULLL>
4. A college student puts change in the parking meter and avoids a parking ticket. The
next time the student parks in a space with a parking meter, he again puts change in it.
<WKNLUL>
a. What was the first thing the student did?
b. What consequence followed this behavior?
c. Was a stimulus added or removed as part of the consequence?
d. Did the consequence make the behavior more likely to occur or less likely to
occur?
e. Based on your previous answers, this is an example of (circle one):
<WKNLULLL>
A. Positive reinforcement
C. Positive punishment
B. Negative reinforcement
D. Negative punishment
<\WKNLULLL>
5. Andre’s little league coach made him sit on the bench for the rest of the game after
calling a player on the opposing team a bad name. Andre did not insult anyone in the next
several games.
<WKNLUL>
a. What was the first thing Andre did?
b. What consequence followed this behavior?
c. Was a stimulus added or removed as part of the consequence?
d. Did the consequence make the behavior more likely to occur or less likely to
occur?
e. Based on your previous answers, this is an example of (circle one):
<WKNLULLL>
A. Positive reinforcement
C. Positive punishment
B. Negative reinforcement
D. Negative punishment
<\WKNLULLL>
6. Julia loudly demands candy whenever her mother enters the checkout line at the
grocery store. Julia’s mother, embarrassed by her daughter’s unruly display, gives Julia a
Snickers bar. Julia’s protests stop. The next time Julia and her mom are in the grocery
checkout line, Julia screams and her mom gives her a candy bar.
<WKNLUL>
a. What was the first thing Julia did?
b. What consequence followed this behavior?
c. Was a stimulus added or removed as part of the consequence?
d. Did the consequence make the behavior more likely to occur or less likely to
occur?
e. Based on your previous answers, this is an example of (circle one):
<WKNLULLL>
A. Positive reinforcement
C. Positive punishment
B. Negative reinforcement
D. Negative punishment
<\WKNLULLL>
7. Repeat the analysis for question 6 from the perspective of Julia’s mother. Note how
your conclusion changes depending on your perspective.
<WKNLUL>
a. What was the first thing Julia’s mother did?
b. What consequence followed this behavior?
c. Was a stimulus added or removed as part of the consequence?
d. Did the consequence make the behavior more likely to occur or less likely to
occur?
e. Based on your previous answers, this is an example of (circle one):
<WKNLULLL>
A. Positive reinforcement
C. Positive punishment
B. Negative reinforcement
D. Negative punishment
<\WKNLULLL>
<WKH2>Section III: <WKTXL>Notice how many ways operant conditioning occurs in
our everyday lives. For each of the following examples, identify the type of
<KT>consequence<\KT> (i.e., PR = positive reinforcement, NR = negative
reinforcement, PP = positive punishment, NP = negative punishment).
<UNTB_CH>Consequence
<UNTB_CH>Behavior
<UNTB>1. You notice that class is more enjoyable if you
have completed the required reading assignment. From then
on, you always finish the reading assignments on time.
<UNTB>2. A basketball player who commits a flagrant
foul is removed from the game; his fouls decrease in later
games.
<UNTB>3. A soccer player rolls her eyes at a teammate
who delivered a bad pass; the teammate makes fewer errors
after that.
<UNTB>4. The annoying child jumps up and down, hand
raised, yelling “Me, me, me!” until the teacher calls on her.
The child jumps and yells even more in the future.
<UNTB>5. A good workout always leaves you feeling
relaxed and happy. You start exercising more often.
<UNTB>6. Homeowners who recycle get to deduct 5
percent from their utility bill. Recycling increases after this
program begins.
<UNTB>7. After completing an Alcohol Education
Program, the suspension of your driver’s license is lifted.
More DWI drivers now complete the program.
<UNTB>8. After Jodi flirted with someone else at the
party, her boyfriend stopped talking to her. Jodi didn’t flirt
at the next party.
<UNTB>9. A dog is banished to his doghouse after soiling
the living room carpet. The dog has fewer accidents after
that.
<UNTB>10. A professor allows those students with perfect
attendance in the class to skip the final exam. Students skip
fewer classes as a result.
<UNTB>11. You clean up your stuff more regularly now to
avoid your roommate’s nagging.
<UNTB>12. You’ve learned a particular response in your
videogame gets rid of one of the “bad guys.” You now
always respond that way at the appropriate time.
<UNTB>13. Making just the right facial expression softens
up your sweetie when he or she is mad at you. You make
that facial expression more often now.
<WKH2>Section IV: Continuous versus partial reinforcement
<WKTXL>When an organism is learning a new behavior, learning happens faster when
every occurrence of the behavior is reinforced (i.e., continuous reinforcement). However,
once the behavior is learned, the trainer may switch to partial reinforcement. In partial
reinforcement, only some of the behaviors are reinforced. For each of the following
examples, identify whether continuous reinforcement (CR) or partial reinforcement (PR)
is being used.
<UNTB_CH>CR
<UNTB_CH>Behavior
or PR?
<UNTB>14. Every time I push the button on my garage-door opener, the garage
door opens.
<UNTB>15. One particular vending machine sometimes dispenses two bottles of
soda instead of one.
<UNTB>16. Turning the key in the ignition always starts your car.
<UNTB>17. The refrigerator beeps whenever the door is ajar more than five
seconds.
<UNTB>18. Sometimes, flirting with that gorgeous person who sits next you in
class makes you happy. Sometimes, it makes you miserable.
<UNTB>19. Most of the time, you violate without getting caught. Sometimes,
though, you do get caught.
<UNTB>20. Although most people are average golfers, every once in a while a
person hits the perfect shot.
<UNTB>21. Most of the time, a good night’s sleep makes yesterday’s problems
seem less awful.
<WKH2>Section V: Schedules of partial reinforcement
<WKTXL>For each of the following examples, identify the type of partial reinforcement
schedule. Some common “schedules” of reinforcement are:
<WKUL>
Fixed ratio (FR)—reinforcement after a fixed (set) number of correct responses
has occurred
Variable ratio (VR)—reinforcement after a variable (unpredictable) number of
responses has occurred
Fixed interval (FI)—reinforcement of the first response after a fixed (set) amount
of time has passed
Variable interval (VI)—reinforcement of the first response after a variable amount
of time has passed
<\WKUL>
<UNTB_CH>Schedule
<UNTB_CH>Behavior
<UNTB>22. You get paid once every two weeks.
<UNTB>23. A worker is paid $2 for every 100 envelopes
stuffed.
<UNTB>24. Playing the lottery results in a pay off after a
variable number of plays.
<UNTB>25. Students are released from class when the end-ofperiod bell rings.
<UNTB>26. A fly fisherman casts and reels back his line
several times before catching a fish.
<UNTB>27. You get a nickel for every pop can that you return.
<UNTB>28. Every time you buy lunch your card is punched;
after ten punches you get a free lunch.
<UNTB>29. Sometimes the mail is delivered at 1:00, but
sometimes it is delivered closer to 2:00.
<UNTB>30. A car salesman gets a commission on each sale.
<UNTB>31. A worker gets a small increase in her hourly wage
every six months.
<UNTB>32. Every so often you like to surprise your special
other with something nice.