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Table B.2 Contribution of each error source on force measurement systemâs variation. Source Total Gage R&R Repeatability Reproducibility Operators Force platform Parts*Operators Parts*Force platform Part-To-Part Parts Total Variation Std. Dev (SD) Study Var (6 Ã SD) %Study Var (%SV) %Tolerance (SV/Toler) 2,169 0,410 2,130 0,000 1,769 0,101 1,182 124,970 124,970 124,989 13,015 2,460 12,780 0,000 10,613 0,605 7,095 749,820 749,820 749,933 1,74 0,33 1,70 0,00 1,42 0,08 0,95 99,98 99,98 100,00 4,43 0,84 4,35 0,00 3,61 0,21 2,41 255,04 255,04 255,08 design of the gage experiment allowed to compare the measurement capability of the two force platforms. B.2.3. Procedure A calibrated load was placed by the operator at the geometrical center of the top plate of the force platforms and the Fz of the GRF was recorded for 5 sec at sampling rate of 30 Hz. This process was repeated for the 16 treatment combinations and their replications. The mean value and standard deviation was computed for each sample. The force measurement system was zeroed before each measurement. The force measurement system uses a 12-bit precision A/D converter (resolution of 100 212 â 0.024%). The Fz range during the measurements was set at 0 - 1250 N. Therefore, the Fz can be resolved to 1250 N 212 = 0.31 N. As a guideline, the resolution should not be greater than 5% of the process tolerance limits. Hence, the tolerance intervals of the measurement process should not be less than 6.4 N. Manufacturer specified the maximum force error at e = 2% of the applied force, which corresponds to e1 = 1.96 N, e2 = 3.92 N, e3 = 5.88 N, and e4 = 7.84 N. The conformance zone is the tolerance interval reduced by the measuring uncertainty at each end. Therefore, if the uncertainty is the 30% of the tolerance and the rest 70% is the conformance zone, the tolerance intervals for each load and for the corresponding errors are T1 = 6.53 N, T2 = 13.07 N, T3 = 19.6 N, and T4 = 26.13 N. B.2.4. Statistics Prior to model analysis, the Grubbsâ test was used to check for outliers. A three-factor random-effect linear model with 2-order interactions was fitted to the data to analyze the factorial design experiment and hence to quantify the R&R variance component. To compare measurement capability between force platforms, a two-factor random-effect linear model with 2-order interactions was fitted to the data for every part seperately and the R&R variance components were compared. It was supposed that reproducibility is less than repeatability, indicating that most of the variability is accounted for by the inaccuracy of the measurement system and not by operatorsâ variability 145