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Table B.1 Gage linearity and bias report for force measurements. Force platform 1 Forcec platform 2 Predictor Constant Slope Gage linearity Coef SE Coef -1.14 0.30 -0.007 0.001 P 0.000 0.000 Predictor Constant Slope Gage linearity Coef SE Coef -0.70 0.22 -0.02 0.0008 P 0.000 0.000 S Linearity 1.74 0.10 17.5% 0.7 S Linearity 1.25 0.26 76% 2.0 Reference Average 98 196 294 392 Gage bias Bias %Bias -2.92 22.5 -3.33 25.6 -0.24 1.8 -4.45 34.2 -4.14 31.9 P 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.000 Reference Average 98 196 294 392 Gage bias Bias %Bias -5.62 43.2 -3.66 28.1 -2.68 20.6 -7.53 57.9 -8.61 66.2 R-Sq %Linearity R-Sq %Linearity P 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 and of the force platform 2 was â5.62 N. They represent the 22.5% and 43.2% of the process variation, respectively, which was specified to be 13.015 N for both force platforms. The linearity (change in bias across the range of product variation) represents 0.7% and 2% of that range for force platform 1 and force platform 2, respectively. These are statistically significant changes in the bias over the range of the reference values at the 5% significance level. B.2. Gage Repeatability and Reproducibility Study for Force Measurements B.2.1. Background A R&R study is a designed experiment to study the variation (Repeatability & Reproducibility) in the measurements results. The Repeatability is an estimation of the variation between measurements made by the same operator on the same part, usually attributed to the gage. The reproducibility is an estimation of the variation between measurements made by different operators on the same part, usually attributed to the operator. Since two force platforms were used in the study, an expanded R&R analysis carried on with additional factor the force platforms (operators and parts are the typical factors). Therefore, the variation between the measurements made by the two force platforms can be added to the total Gage R&R variation. The objective of the current experiment design was to estimate the repeatability and reproducibility of the force measurement system, and to determine if the two force platforms are equally capable for measuring the different parts. The response variable was the Fz of the ground reaction force. B.2.2. Design of Gage RR Experiment A full factorial design of experiment (DOE) with 3 factors (Operators: 2-levels, Force platforms: 2-levels, Parts: 4-levels) and 16 treatment combinations that replicated 50 times in randomized order was run to chart the response of the measurement process (expanded R&R design). The 144