1829 Braille invented. 1864 Institution for the Deaf and Dumb and Blind grants college degrees. 1869 First wheelchair patent given. 1890-1920 Push for state worker’s compensation program: no. of states: 1913, 21 ; 1919-43. 1916 British Braille is English standard. 1921 AFB (Helen Keller) is founded. 1927 Forced sterilization is not violation of constitutional rights; 1970s, 60,000; 27 states. 1935 Social Security Act sets aside federal funds for old age and blind and disabled children 1947 First President’s Committee on National Employ the Physically Handicapped Week is celebrated. 1960 Social Security Amendment eliminates restriction of 50 years or older. 1961 ANSI publishes specs for access. 1971 National Center for Law and the Handicapped is founded. 1975 Education of All Handicapped Children Act is passed. 1990 Americans with Disabilities Act is passed. 35% (vs 78%) employed 26% (vs (%) in poverty 21% (vs 10%) drop out of high school 31% (vs 13%) have inadequate transportation 18% (vs 7%) go without health care Less likely to socialize 34% (vs 61%) are satisfied 50% (vs 25%) worry about being a burden Inadequate Social Structure Cultural Assumptions *Are unreliable *Accommodation is costly *Are likely to sue employer Disincentives Imagine how you would like to be treated if you were he/she. Interact with the person, not the disability. If you do not know, ask. Always speak to him/her directly. Be patient and willing to learn. Offer assistance, wait for acceptance before acting. Make effective communication a priority. Relax. Have a sense of humor. There are many types. Illness can be chronic or short-term. Causes can be: biochemical, emotional, environmental. There are many types of medication. Disability does not automatically preclude him/her from working. Some medication have side effects. Some individuals are uncomfortable talking about it. It is an ‘invisible disability’…confidentiality is extremely important. It is the most frequent disability encountered in the workplace. Discuss in private. Treat him/her with respect; involve him/her in problem-solving. Do not provide therapy. In the workplace, behavioral policies must apply to all. There is a wide range of reasons; wide range of capabilities. Assistive devices come in all shapes and sizes. Do not consider any space for which you are responsible to be accessible unless you know it for sure. If you are not sure, ask. His/her assistive device is his/her extension. When talking with someone in a wheelchair, try to be at his eye level. When expecting someone in a wheelchair, see that a wide path is clear. When possible, provide places to sit and rest. Learning problems are common. They affect how people process information and may influence many of their thinking functions. There are many types of learning disabilities; dyslexia is only one of them. Begin by asking. Be prepared to communicate in many formats. Be prepared to allow him/her to practice a new skill or physically experience an action. Say literally what you mean. Encourage him/her to work creatively and to develop nontraditional methods. There are many levels of intellectual deficiency. Often, they are treated condescendingly or as children. They are extremely reluctant to discuss their learning problems. They are particularly sensitive to signs of approval or disapproval. Avoid condescension and childish treatment. Keep conversation simple. Avoid noisy, busy, confusing environments. Do not hurry. Be prepared to repeat or paraphrase. Break down instructions into component steps. Encourage use of aids: charts, lists, colored folders, pictures, labels, etc. Some consider deafness, not as a disability, but as a different culture. There are many different levels of hearing loss. Not all deaf use sign language. Not all can read lips or speak. Not all use hearing aids. Those who do may not do so all the time. Not all lip-read; of those who do, only 35% of words are successfully understood. Sign language is not English. Excessive volume is inappropriate. Find our preferred way to communicate. Politely tap him/her to get attention. Be prepared to use notes or interpreter. Always look at the person, not the interpreter. Avoid conversations in noisy places if he/she uses a hearing aid; speak clearly in normal tone. If he/she prefers to read lips, keep obstructions away from your face. Use short, simple sentences, simple gestures and facial expressions. Be patient and repeat your message if necessary. Many things can cause speech impairments. They are frequently misperceived as intoxicated or mentally disabled. They may be easier to understand at particular times and harder with fatigue or stressful situation. Allow time for him/her to express himself/herself; allow yourself time to understand. Ask politely for repetition if needed. Consider moving to quieter location. Help them to speak up in meetings or group discussions. Do not speak for him/her or finish his/her sentences. Ask short, simple questions to confirm your understanding. Consider using written communication. There is a wide range of visual impairment. Legal blindness is 20/200 to the best correction. Many blind people do have some sight. They consider it more of an inconvenience than a disability. Most do not use braille. Many use adaptive equipment. Introduce yourself and the names of those with you. Excuse yourself before you leave. Offer to describe physical layout, position of food on a plate, etc. Do not grab him/her; let them take your arm; walk half a step ahead; point out obstructions ahead. Don’t pet a guide dog; he is working. Changing a physical environment can cause problems; inform him if you must.