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History study day
GREECE 500-440BC
Topics today
1. The syllabus, exam questions, the
marking criteria –new rubric.
2. Main focus-The origins of the Persian
wars – causes of the Persian Wars
3. exam rubric and examiner feedback.
4. Essay Advice: writing the introduction,
body paragraph topic sentences,
integrating source references, the
conclusion.
SYLLABUS LISTING HSC questions
Option H Greece: The Greek world 500 – 440 BC: Students learn about:
1 Persian Wars
1.origins: Persian imperialism, Ionian Revolt
2.invasion of 490 BC: Battle of Marathon, role of Miltiades
3.inter-war period: preparation and developments in Persia and Greece
4.invasion of 480–479 BC: Battles of Thermopylae and Artemisium, Salamis,
Plataea and Mycale
5.role and contribution of Themistocles, Leonidas, Pausanias, Eurybiades
6.reasons for Greek victory and Persian defeat
2 Development of Athens and the Athenian Empire
1.Delian League: origins, aims, organisation and activities to the Battle of
the Eurymedon River; role and contribution of Cimon and Aristides the
Just
2.transformation of the Delian League into the Athenian empire
3.nature of Athenian imperialism; changing relations with allies
4.key democratic developments: influence of the thetes, ostracism,
citizenship law
3 Athens and Sparta
1.impact of Persian Wars
2.nature, composition and activities of the Peloponnesian League: Spartan
responses to Athenian imperialism
EXAM RUBRIC and KEY WORD OF
QUESTION
2010
2011 hsc: Question 39 — Option H – Greece: The Greek world 500–440 BC
(25 marks)
(a) [In my opinion] ... if the Athenians, through fear of the approaching danger,
had abandoned their country, or if they had stayed there and submitted to Xerxes,
there would have been no attempt to resist the Persians by sea. Herodotus, The
Histories VII.139 The Histories by Herodotus, (Penguin1954). Translation © by
Aubrey de Selincourt, Penguin Books Ltd, London, 2003, pages 460-461.
Reproduced by Permission of Penguin Books Ltd.
With reference to this quotation, to what extent was the Athenian navy
responsible for the defeat of the Persians in 480–479 BC?
Persian Wars
1.origins: Persian imperialism, Ionian Revolt
2.invasion of 490 BC: Battle of Marathon, role of Miltiades
3.inter-war period:
preparation and
developments in Persia and Greece
4.invasion of 480–479 BC: Battles of Thermopylae and
Artemisium, Salamis, Plataea and Mycale
5.role and contribution of Themistocles, Leonidas,
Pausanias, Eurybiades
6.reasons for Greek victory and Persian defeat
The causes of the Persian Wars.
Before you answer any question on the Persian
Wars, establish whether you are being asked
about the whole period from 499BC to 479BC
OR a segment of this period.
– If the question asks about the first Persian
invasion (490BC), and you write about 480BC,
you will earn no marks.
– If the question asks about the second Persian
invasion of 480BC and you include the Battle
of Marathon, you will be wasting time as it will
not count.
Sample questions
Sample question 1: Account for for the Persian invasions of Greece?
Sample question2:
“This was the beginning of trouble for Greece and the barbarians”
Herodotus.
Evaluate the responsibility of the Greeks for the Persian invasions of
490BC and 480BC.
Sample question 3: To what extent were the Persian invasions of
490BC and 480BC caused by Persian Imperialism?
Persian Imperialism
Rapid expansion from 550BC to 500BC (Cyrus the Great, Cambyses II,
Darius I
A fundamental consideration when evaluating the causes of the wars
between the Persians and the Greeks is the extent to which Persian
Imperialism rather than revenge, was the primary cause of the Persian
expeditions into Greece.
Some options:
1. Persian imperialism meant that invasion was inevitable. The Ionian
revolt issue simply brought it forward.
2. Persian imperialism created the context which meant that the Ionian
revolt was the catalyst for an invasion which was not inevitable.
3. The Greeks were responsible for provoking the Persian invasion
Persian Imperialism
559-530BC
Cyrus the Great (Cyrus II)
547BC Cyrus the Great
539BCCyrus the Great
530BC
530-522BC
Cambyses II.
522BC
522-486C BC Darius I
Darius I
Darius I
Expansionary tradition initiated; Overthrew the
Kingdom of Media and established Persian control of
the Median empire. Building tradition initiated; building
at pasargadae and Susa
Conquered the Lydian empire. Conquered the eastern
empire including Bactria to the Jaxartes river.
Conquered the Babylonian empire.
Cyrus killed in battle.Succeeded by his son, Cambyses
II.
525BCAdded Egypt to the empire. Maintained
expansionary tradition.
Cambyses died on his way back to Persia. Darius,a
distant relative, succeeded him. (Behistun rock tells
story of succession).
522 faced series of revolts - had to assert his control .
Possibly began building at Persepolis at this point, and
building at Susa.
514BCLed forces and added Thrace in west and Indus
valley in East to the empire: maintained expansionary
tradition. Building at Susa - maintained building
tradition.
512BC possibly began building at Persepolis at this
time: maintained building tradition.
CYRUS THE GREAT: 550-530BC
Bactria
Lydia
Assyria
Babylon
Satrapy
Satrapies
tribute
Expansion after Cyrus II
Cambyses II
added Egypt
Darius I added
the Indus valley
and Thrace
Persian Imperialism: Why
expand?
This map shows the
origin of workmen and
materials used in the
building of Darius’
palace complex at
Susa.
Motives? Expected feature of Persian Kingship / economic benefits of
expansion
Issue for Kings: potential for rebellion. Egypt and Babylon as too valuable to
lose.
Summary of context
• From about 550BC to 500BC the Persian Kings
Cyrus II, Cambyses II and Darius I had established
an expansionary process – building an empire.
• The western frontier of the Persian Empire was the
coast of Asia Minor (Aegean sea coast) including
some Aegean islands, and the land frontier of
Thrace. This brought Persian control over some
Greek poleis (city states) along the Aegean coast
and Black Sea coasts.
• “Persian Imperialism” – your syllabus term.
Debatable issue: Did Persian imperialism mean
that invasion was inevitable. Did the Ionian
revolt issue simply bring it forward?
The two kings involved in the
wars with Greece
Darius I - King of Kings in the first period of
contact with mainland Greece
– * the Ionian revolt period 499BC-493BC
– * the attempted invasion of 492BC
– * the 490BC invasion / the battle of Marathon
Xerxes I – King of Kings in the second period
of contact with mainland Greece
* the interwar period after 486BC
* the 480BC invasion (Thermopylae, Artemesium,
Salamis) and the 479 battles of Plataea and Mycale.
Two aspects of Darius as king
• Darius: King of Kings Image
– The king as a proud autocrat - King Darius on his throne
(source Behistan rock) The king punished rebellion, expected
loyalty.
– Building at Susa, building at Persepolis, image of protector of
kingdom.
• Imperialism: The king as an expansionist with
– Political expansionary tradition,
– frontier security motives
– Economic motives
Behistan rock
Susa
Persepolis
Protector of
kingdom
EXPANSION MOTIVE
Ehrenberg viewpoint
Darius always
intended to continue
expansion into
Europe and Greece
was the next region in
line for Persian
invasion.
The mainland Greek
involvement in the
Ionian revolt
accelerated this
expansionary pattern.
Ehrenberg :
• Herodotus called this dispatching of ships from
Athens and Eretria "the beginning of trouble for
both the Greeks and the Barbarians". The clash
would come at any rate, but that particular
event served as a pretext for the Persian
attackers. Darius' intention to make the
Aegean a Persian sea was confirmed and
strengthened
A combination of Causes?
• What alternative views of the cause of the
war can be argued?
• Could you argue that although Persian
Imperialism is a strong cause of the war,
other causes also exist.
– A) the 490 Invasion – revenge for mainland
interference in the Ionian revolt.
– B) the 480BC invasion – revenge for mainland
interference in the Ionian revolt and for the
Persian loss in the battle of Marathon.
Darius I 499-493BC suppressed the Ionian revolt: retained control of the empire.
Darius I 492BC first invasion of Greece attempt led by Mardonius, was aborted.
Darius I 490BC sent an expedition to Greece led by Persian nobles Datis and
Artaphernes. Invasion force defeated at Marathon.
486BC Darius I died - was planning a larger invasion of Greece. Xerxes became king.
Xerxes suppressed a rebellion in Egypt. (Led forces himself)
484 and 482 BC Xerxes resumed Darius plan for major invasion. Also suppressed two
rebellions in Babylon -sent Megabyxus as leading general .
480BC Xerxes led the unsuccessful invasion force to Greece. Battles of Thermopylae,
Artemesium, Salamis
479BC – battles of Plataea and Mycale
479-65BC Xerxes resumed his building program at Persepolis. Small expansion in
eastern Empire.
Assassinated in 465BC.
Geographic Context
Hellespont
Thessaly
Aegean
Sea
Ionia
Central Greece
Peloponnese
Isthmus
Ionia –
Ionian revolt
IONIAN REVOLT 499-494/3BC
• Herodotus is the source for the events and the
Greek responses.
• 499BC Ionian states rebelled (led by Miletus).
Aristogoras.
• Requested help from mainland Greek poleis (plural
of polis).
• Athens sent 20 ships, Eretria sent 5. Note that other
states refused esp. Spartans.
• Mainland Greek hoplites left ships and moved inland
to Sardis. Burnt what they could, then retreated to
coast.
• Greeks left – realised that the Persian forces would
overwhelm them.
Herodotus:“Beginning of trouble for Greece
and the barbarians”
IMPACT OF IONIAN REVOLT- view 1
(revenge for an insult to the Great King)
• Herodotus presents one view – stemming from
the mainland involvement in the Ionian revolt,
revenge motive, a response to the insult to the
Great King – the interference in his Imperial
politics.
– Sending help to the Ionians – Athens 20 ships and
Eretria 5 ships.
– Burning a temple at Sardis
– Herodotus: “Remember the Athenians” - Darius
• Associate Prof. Iain Spence (UNE)
“ an outside state had attempted to interfere in the
running of the empire”
Implication of events: 492BC
Mardonius led
the forces.
Combined
land-sea
expedition.
The goal?
Conquest of
Macedonia?
Or conquest
of Greece?
Implication of events:
? Revenge
? Threat to security
? Persian imperialism
THE FIRST
INVASION -490BC
Iain Spence
“One of the big questions concerning this expedition
is whether it was a punitive attack or an attempt to
conquer Greece. The former is perhaps more
likely given the size of the force used (unless the
Persians had underestimated the numbers
required to pacify Greece) and the fact that it was
Eretria and Athens which seemed to be the focus
of the attack.
However, the demand for earth and water prior to
the invasion suggests that the Persians would
have accepted the opportunity to take over Greece
had the opportunity arisen.” Iain Spence
Arguments for Revenge motive – first
invasion 490BC: Spence
• The targetting of Athens and Eretria
“suggests that it was a punative expedition
rather than a serious attempt to conquer
all of Greece.” Iain Spence.
• Spence also supports this viewpoint with
the size of the Persian force; 20,000
infantry carried by ships.
Arguments for Revenge motive – first
invasion 490BC: Dr D. Kelly (ANU)
Revenge: Kelly: “The Persian King Darius
presented himself to his subjects and
wanted to be seen as an invincible
conqueror….. Therefore he did plan a major
expedition into Greece which would wipe
out this humiliation.”
Secondary motive
• Kelly: Whole of Greece was the target,
therefore a secondary motive was
continuation of expansion into Europe.
• Iain Spence: “On the other hand: demand
to all Greek states for earth and water!
This suggests wider aim.” Spence
believes this was opportunism rather than
evidence of an imperialistic aim.
•
To what extent were the Greeks
responsible for the Persian
invasions?
• Rather than Persian imperialism and
revenge motive being responsible for the
Persian invasions, is it possible to view this
Persian reaction as provoked by Greek
interference in Persian Imperial affairs.
• Were the Greeks responsible for provoking
invasion
Greeks at fault: Persian need to
respond to potential threat to imperial
security
Alternative implications of the interference in the Ionian revolt Modern views – rather than revenge, the impetus for Persian
reaction was the threat to Persian Imperialism
Modern Historians frequently suggest a second view of the Greek
involvement and Persian King’s response. Political and
economic motives
1. Threat to frontier security (Stanton)
– Rebellions in the Empire – primary concern of Persian Kings.
(ref. Behistan rock)
– The possibility of further interference? Support for future Ionian
rebellions? (ref. Ehrenberg comment)
2.
Ehrenberg: Threat to economic dominance in north Aegean
(Hellespont) region.
Persian response to Ionian revolt:
Political and Economic issues
• Greg Stanton - Main issue was “frontier
security” - “The Persians were holding the
Ionian area and as long as mainland
Greece was free there was a danger that
they would help the Ionians revolt again.”
– Behistun rock reminder
Athenian responsibility: Athenian
political and economic motives
• Can you argue that to some extent the
Athenians were responsible for the war
(perhaps not the most significant cause, but
a contributing cause).
– Interfered in Persian imperial politics (Spence’s
argument)
– Why? Hippias or was it economic? (Ehrenberg’s
argument)
Why did Athens and Eretria get
involved?
Herodotus account:
1. Herodotus emphasises the Athenian support
for freedom from tyranny. Athens at this time
was a very new "democracy" - the ONLY
democratic polis.
2. “Aristagoras reminded them also that Miletus
was a colony from Athens”
3. “....five triremes of the Eretrians; which had
joined the expedition, not so much out of
goodwill towards Athens, as to pay a debt
which they already owed to the people of
Miletus”.
Ehrenberg:
It was freedom that the Ionian cities had lost, not so much
through direct Persian rule, although they had to pay
tribute, but because they were governed by local tyrants.
The Ionian Greeks had other complaints as well; they
suffered economic setbacks under Persian rule.
It is not justifiable to ascribe the discontent of the Ionians to
any kind of national feeling, and it is almost by chance that
from their general discontent an actual revolt developed.
Aristagoras, following his failure to capture Naxos,
provided this leadership in the context of the widespread
discontent among the Ionians.
With the decision to ask for support from mainland Greece the
whole affair lost its character as a domestic concern and
became involved in the developing conflict between east
and west. Aristogoras went to Athens. Here the new
democracy, led by aristocrats had still to fear the return of
Hippias who found open support in Persia. That probably
was the strongest argument in favour of a movement by
which the local tyrants of Asia were to be deposed
Athenian
interference
in the Empire
Ehrenberg believes the Athenians were also
motivated by economic factors in particular the
need to keep the grain trade from the black sea,
operating freely. ("You will be aware that we eat
more imported corn than any other people and we
import more of it from the Black Sea than anywhere
else." Demosthenes in a speech in the fourth
century).
RECAP: Causes of The Persian Invasion ordered by Darius. 490BC
Evaluate these possible causes. For each of these causes be able to
include lots of details such as the implication of the size of the Persian
forces. (Knowledge and opinion)
• Expansionary nature of Persian dynasty. Darius used Greek
mainland involvement in the Ionian revolt as an excuse. Refer to one
modern historian who puts this view forward. Ehrenberg Here’s your
chance to include a brief comment about the Persian kings, especially
Darius - Thrace. Include a reference to the aborted expedition of
Mardonius in 492BC extending Persian control to northern Macedonia–
or was it really a first attempt to take forces into the Greek mainland?
• Strategic or security reason. To secure control around the Aegean
sea and prevent any further military help to the Ionian coastal Greek
city states. Secure trade lines, secure the Hellespont (Black sea
entrance). Stanton. Establish a base in Greece at Athens or Eretria
from which to maintain a watch on the Greeks.
• Revenge motive. Ionian revolt – you must be able to discuss this as a
cause – know the Herodotus facts about the involvement of Athens
and Eritrea. Be careful not to tell a story – instead, argue a case.
Herodotus quote –“beginning of trouble for Greece”. Refer to the
opinions of Spence and Kelly also.
• Did the Greeks contribute to the causes by interfering in the
Persian Empire? Ionian revolt. Trade issue in the Hellespont area.
Marathon -490BC
The Second Invasion 480BC
1. Persian Imperialism
2. Revenge
3. Persian concerns - Frontier security, economic
security
4. Greek provocation
Did the relative importance of each
of these change for the second
invasion?
486BC
• Darius died while preparing for a major
invasion of Greece by a combined land-sea
force travelling around the north Aegean
• What is the implication of his renewed plan to
invade Greece? A bigger expedition?
• His son Xerxes became King. After
suppressing rebellions in Egypt and Babylon,
Xerxes completed preparations for this
invasion and in 480BC personally
commanded the land and sea forces which
invaded Greece from the north.
The image of the King?
A new king / the pressure on the king
to expand
Herodotus – his account of Xerxes ambition
• What need have I to tell you of the deeds of Cyrus
and Cambyses, and my own father Darius, how
many nations they conquered, and added to our
dominions? Ye know right well what great things
they achieved. But for myself, I will say that, from the
day on which I mounted the throne, I have not
ceased to consider by what means I may rival those
who have preceded me in this post of honour, and
increase the power of Persia as much as any of
them.
• Xerxes was the commander in chief. He personally
led the forces into Greece.
Reliability comment
Herodotus
7.138] To return, however, to my main subject
- the expedition of the Persian king, though
it was in name directed against Athens,
threatened really the whole of Greece.
(Herodotus presents an account of the Court
of Xerxes – view this as a fabrication
which represents Herodotus’ belief about
the motive for the invasion)
Ian Spence from UNE believes that while the
motive for the first invasion was primarily
revenge, the motive for the second was
Persian imperialism motivated by Xerxes’
need to enhance his image as a new king
and to follow the expansionary tradition of
his predecessors
Multiple motives
Size of forces
• Herodotus’s figures for the Persian land
forces are not correct.
– 1.7 million infantry
– 80,000 cavalry
– a total force of 5 million when support groups are
included.
– (Grant: misread the Persian records, got the
decimal wrong; 170,000 infantry, 8000 cavalry)
• Triremes 1207. Realistic total but most
historians e.g.Ehrenberg, believe not all
were involved at Salamis.
Plataea
Mycale
The Second Invasion 480BC
•
•
•
•
•
Revenge motive; Increased because of the Marathon failure. Did
Xerxes have to avenge his father’s problems with the Greeks or was
this an excuse for expansion? Note Herodotus' view that although
Xerxes' declared objective was to punish Athens for the burning of the
temple at Sardis and the defeat at Marathon, his real ambition "was in
fact the conquest of all Greece".
Expansionary motive – the pressure on Xerxes. Does the size of
forces (provide details) support this view? Use his preparations
including demands for earth and water from large number of poleis, to
support your discussion.
Xerxes’ personal reputation motive…use the Mardonius arguments
from Herodotus here. Does Xerxes’ assumption of command support
this view?
Expectation of easy win - Mardonius expresses this view because the
Greeks are disunified.
Personal ambition- Aeschylus refers to this in his play. In the
Herodotus account Mardonius also appeals to Xerxes' ambition.
Answering an HSC question
Sample question 1:
Account for for the Persian invasions of Greece?
Sample question2:
“This was the beginning of trouble for Greece and the
barbarians” Herodotus.
Evaluate the responsibility of the Greeks for the
Persian invasions of 490BC and 480BC.
Sample question 3:
To what extent were the Persian invasions of
490BC and 480BC caused by Persian Imperialism?
Key words;
explain, assess, evaluate, to what extent, discuss,
why, account for, how accurate is this statement.
EXAM RUBRIC and KEY WORD OF
QUESTION
What do some of these terms
mean?
•
•
•
•
•
Sustained - the essay is 6 exam booklet pages or 1000 words long, the
argument you are presenting is well supported, detailed.
Logical - the pattern or flow of your argument is organised, makes
sense, doesn’t jump all over the place. You achieve this through essay
structure: introduction, body paragraphs in a logical sequence, and then
conclusion. You are consistent in your argument (don’t contradict
yourself)
cohesive- your essay is not disjointed. One way to achieve this is to
build on your essay structure – as you move through the body
paragraphs systematically, you include flow-on words e.g. A further
reason for, While x is undoubtedly a significant cause, there were
further contributing factors. Make each stage of your body paragraphs
build on the preceding stage.
Incorporates sources - ancient and modern writers, archaeological
sources too.
Uses appropriate historical terms. Achaemenid, trireme, polis, Ionian
revolt, medize, hoplite, phalanx, Darius, Xerxes, Miltiades, Themistocles
Some examiner comments.
Many candidates did not allocate enough time to give justice to the essay
answer required. A large number of candidates presented scripts that were
extremely short, only one or two paragraphs, and many more wrote less
than one page.
A large number also attempted both parts (a) and (b) to the question, ignoring
the ‘OR’, and in some cases candidates attempted answers to every
question (including parts) set in Section IV.
The best responses paid attention to the terms of the question and were well
structured with logical, sustained arguments supported by balanced
judgements and evidence from both ancient and modern sources. Better
responses were able to evaluate the reliability of the sources cited.
Weaker responses were restricted to a chronological narrative of the period and
failed to provide the information relevant to the question. The weakest
responses were able to mention only very basic facts about the period,
usually with no regard to the question asked.
Candidates had difficulty ‘assessing the significance’ in questions where this
was required. Many candidates struggled with the ‘to what extent’ question.
Teachers and candidates should be aware that questions starting with ‘how’,
‘why’ and ‘to what extent’ can appear, as indicated in the specimen paper.
More examiner comments
•
A distinguishing feature of superior responses was the incorporation of
ancient and modern sources into the arguments presented. This was
particularly evident with responses to questions on Egypt and the Near East.
• Another feature of superior responses was their
structure, typically an introduction which responded
directly to the question and outlined the argument to be
presented, followed by a well-organised response that
addressed all aspects of the question.
•
Candidates who take time to plan their answers have a better chance of
producing a well-structured response focusing on relevant information than
those who try to write as much as possible without a plan to guide them.
Knowledge and Understanding
Persian Imperialism and other
possible causes
• Persian Imperialism –
– expansionary tradition,
– Specific motives of Darius in 490BC,
– Specific motives of Xerxes in 480BC
• Other causes -The Ionian revolt / revenge
–
–
–
–
reasons for Greek involvement Herodotus
Reasons for Greek involvement Modern comments
Events and the implication of these,
impact on Persian King – revenge? Security issue?
This is different from Persian Imperialism.
Account for…
Give reasons for / account for / explain
Your thesis matters – the introduction must present a clear
thesis and a clear outline of the sequence of your
supporting arguments.
Example: First sentence/s thesis - number of reasons?
Variety of reasons? Combination of reasons? Will you
mention Darius and Xerxes in direct thesis sentence.
Maybe controversy over relative importance of the Persian
and Greek contribution to the causes. Oomph factor.
Next sentence/s: the blueprint for your body paragraphs.
Imperialism, Revenge-Ionian revolt, other political and
economic factors.
Body paragraph topic sentences
• Make sure your first sentence in each body
paragraph – the topic sentence – clearly links
to the question.
• A significant contributing factor to the Persian
invasion was Persian Imperialism.
• The most significant cause of the Persian wars
was Persian Imperialism.
• Arguably the most significant cause of the
Persian wars was Persian Imperialism.
Include sources - integrated
• While Herodotus stresses the revenge
motive in his remark that the Athenian
interference in the Ionian revolt was “the
beginning of trouble for Greece..”,
Ehrenberg believes that Persian
Imperialistic history indicates that a Persian
invasion of Greece was inevitable and the
Ionian affair simply provided a pretext for
Darius to launch an offensive once the
revolt had been suppressed.
Conclusion – make it work for you
How will you manage the conclusion?
An option: don’t write “In conclusion”. It’s
obvious you are writing this.
Write a strong summary sentence about your
first body paragraph/s argument. A strong
summary sentence about the second section
of your body. Etc. A FINAL SENTENCE
back to your overall thesis.
Answering a question
QUESTION 2: “This was the beginning of
trouble for Greece and the barbarians.”
Herodotus. (source 1)
To what extent was Persian Imperialism
responsible for the invasions by the Persians in
490 and 480BC?
Planning the points- the argument
• To what extent..= evaluate the importance of one reason
against the other reasons
To what extent? What do you believe – what will you argue? It is
your argument and you use the evidence to support this
stance, as well as discount alternative stances.
* to a large extent, to some extent, to a lesser extent???
* Although the Persians do bear some responsibility for the
wars with Greece, the greater culpability lies in the Greek
interactions with Persia on its empire’s border.
* While the Greeks did contribute to the outbreak of war with
the Persians in 490BC and 480-479BC, the Persians are
equally responsible.
Decide on your overall argument
• Use the key word/s of the question – discuss?
To what extent? Explain?
• You have the potential to CRITICALLY
EVALUATE your reasons e.g. write “The most
significant reason for the Persian invasion
is…….”
• Example: Although the Greeks were initially
responsible for the Persian wars, the Persian
contribution to the causes of the conflict was
far greater.
Discussion style
• Primary motive? Most significant reason?
Although… However….
• Combination of motives? Moreover….., In
addition, also……
Plan your sequence – write this
into the introduction
What sequence will you follow – Persian responsibility
first followed by Greek? Keep the key term/s of the
question in mind. to what extent.
? Do you think Persian imperialism is most significant?
Will you expand on this first and then Greek
responsibility?
? Do you think the Ionian rebellion and Greek
responsibility are more significant? Will you begin
with this and then follow it with Persian
responsibility?
? Do you think the balance of responsibility changed
between the first and second invasions? Will you
arrange your essay into these two sections?
• The order of importance of the reasons
(determined by you) is
– the order in which you write these points in your
introduction
– and the order in which you discuss these in your
body paragraphs.
– Logical pattern within the essay structure
Write the Intro
• LOGICAL;
– * a thesis which addresses the question
– * points in a logical order of descending
importance
• Beginning of a cohesive answer; a well
structured introductionwhich follows essay
conventions (thesis and points)
– Work out the thesis; A GENERAL STATEMENT
= the first sentence
– Second sentence – the points without
elaboration.
The introduction; thesis, points
Although the Greeks were initially responsible
for the Persian wars, the Persian
contribution to the causes of the conflict
was far greater. The Greeks initiated conflict
through their involvement in the Ionian
revolt. However, it was Persian imperialism
both in 490BC and more fully in 480BC
which resulted in the actual invasions of
Greece.
Logical development in body
•
The introduction identified the sequence –THE BODY FOLLOWS THIS
SEQUENCE. By doing this you are contributing to logical development and
creating a sense of cohesiveness.
– Ionian rebellion / Greek responsibility for causing the wars with Persia.
• The Ionian revolt and the level of Greek involvement
• The actions of the Greeks at Sardis
• Herodotus – the response of Xerxes
• Ehrenberg – an alternative reason for Greek involvement in the Ionian revolt.
• Final statement about “extent” of Greek responsibility for the Persian invasions which
followed.
– Persian Imperialism
• The Persian Achaemenid expansionary tradition – Darius and the Hellespont region.
Aegean expansion.
• The 492BC and 490BC expeditions; two views of these – either revenge or preliminary
expansion on a small scale. Use Spense, Kelly and consider opposing viewpoints BUT
reassert your argument that the Persian response was excessive in view of the level of
Greek involvement.
• The Xerxes decision to resume the invasion plans; preparations. Herodotus account of
his reasons. Remarks by modern historians – note level of preparation including details
here, Xerxes decision to lead the expedition personally. The 480BC expedition.
Alternative introduction; thesis,
points
Although Persian Imperialism both in 490BC
and 480BC was the most significant cause
for the Persian invasions of Greece, the
Greeks also bear some responsibility as a
result of their involvement in the Ionian
revolt and interference in the Persian
sphere.
Logical development in body
•
The introduction identified the sequence –THE BODY FOLLOWS THIS
SEQUENCE. By doing this you are contributing to logical development
and creating a sense of cohesiveness.
– Persian Imperialism
• The Persian Achaemenid expansionary tradition – Darius and the Hellespont
region. Aegean expansion.
• The 492BC and 490BC expeditions; two views of these – either revenge or
preliminary expansion on a small scale. Use Spense, Kelly and consider
opposing viewpoints BUT reassert your argument that the Persian response
was excessive in view of the level of Greek involvement.
• The Xerxes decision to resume the invasion plans; preparations. Herodotus
account of his reasons. Remarks by modern historians – note level of
preparation including details here, Xerxes decision to lead the expedition
personally. The 480BC expedition.
– Ionian rebellion / Greek responsibility for causing the wars with Persia.
• The Ionian revolt and the level of Greek involvement
• The actions of the Greeks at Sardis
• Herodotus – the response of Xerxes
• Economic motives associated with the Aegean and Black sea trade :
Ehrenberg – an alternative reason for Greek involvement in the Ionian revolt.
New Introduction
Although Persian Imperialism both in 490BC and 480BC
was the most significant cause for the Persian invasions
of Greece, the Greeks also bear some responsibility as a
result of their involvement in the Ionian revolt and
interference in the Persian sphere. The Persian
Achaemenid expansionary tradition made expansion
inevitable and contributed to the 492 and 490 invasion
plans of Darius. Xerxes decision to resume the
invasion plans was also motivated mainly by
Imperialism. However, Greek involvement in the Ionian
revolt and Athenian economic concerns in the Aegean
and Black sea trade contributed in some degree to the
wars between Greece and Persia.
Body paragraphs
• Logical and cohesive;
– the first sentence in each paragraph is a topic sentence introducing the
point.
– the second sentence expands on this point in general.
– The remaining sentences incorporate source references and specific
factual details to support your topic sentence statement.
To some extent the Greeks were responsible for the
Persian wars because of their involvement in the Ionian
revolt. In 499BC when the Ionian states rebelled against
Persian imperial control, the revolt was essentially a
domestic incident with no mainland Greek involvement.
In response to Aristagoras’ persuasion, both Athens and
Eritrea provided military support and this, according to
Herodotus, was as source 1 indicates, “the beginning of
trouble for Greece and the barbarians.” Athens sent 20
ships and Eretria 5. .......
Good body paragraphing
RESULT: YOU ARE WRITING A WELL
STRUCTURED AND SUSTAINED ANSWER as
well as being logical and YOU ARE USING
SOURCES.
• Don’t forget historical terms where
appropriate e.g. hoplite, trireme, polis,
medize.
• add to the (cohesion and logic) flow with
linking words in your topic sentence like
“also” “furthermore”, The most significant,
Another significant……
conclusion
• Cohesive means your essay functions as a whole rather than a
disjointed random grouping of points. To achieve this, follow essay
structure. Well-structured means you follow essay conventions and
have a logical introduction, a sequence of paragraphs in a logical
flow and a logical conclusion. Many students lose this cohesion at
the conclusion when they fail to round off the argument properly.
• The conclusion sums up the argument – (it is the other end to the
introduction). One great tactic is to write a sentence for each of your
body paragraphs. Then write a final sentence which refers to your
thesis and the question again.
• The Athenian and Eretrian decision to send support to the Ionian
rebels was a contributing factor to the Persian wars. However, the
level of their support was low and consequently they cannot be held
entirely responsible for the invasions of 490 and 480BC nor is the
revenge motive a reasonable cause for such costly invasions.
Rather, Persian expansionary tradition, the need for the Persian
kings to maintain an image of strength and the need for Xerxes to
establish a military reputation beyond that of Darius, were more
significant as causes of the Persian wars than Greek causes.