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History study day GREECE 500-440BC Topics today 1. The syllabus, exam questions, the marking criteria –new rubric. 2. Main focus-The origins of the Persian wars – causes of the Persian Wars 3. exam rubric and examiner feedback. 4. Essay Advice: writing the introduction, body paragraph topic sentences, integrating source references, the conclusion. SYLLABUS LISTING HSC questions Option H Greece: The Greek world 500 – 440 BC: Students learn about: 1 Persian Wars 1.origins: Persian imperialism, Ionian Revolt 2.invasion of 490 BC: Battle of Marathon, role of Miltiades 3.inter-war period: preparation and developments in Persia and Greece 4.invasion of 480–479 BC: Battles of Thermopylae and Artemisium, Salamis, Plataea and Mycale 5.role and contribution of Themistocles, Leonidas, Pausanias, Eurybiades 6.reasons for Greek victory and Persian defeat 2 Development of Athens and the Athenian Empire 1.Delian League: origins, aims, organisation and activities to the Battle of the Eurymedon River; role and contribution of Cimon and Aristides the Just 2.transformation of the Delian League into the Athenian empire 3.nature of Athenian imperialism; changing relations with allies 4.key democratic developments: influence of the thetes, ostracism, citizenship law 3 Athens and Sparta 1.impact of Persian Wars 2.nature, composition and activities of the Peloponnesian League: Spartan responses to Athenian imperialism EXAM RUBRIC and KEY WORD OF QUESTION 2010 2011 hsc: Question 39 — Option H – Greece: The Greek world 500–440 BC (25 marks) (a) [In my opinion] ... if the Athenians, through fear of the approaching danger, had abandoned their country, or if they had stayed there and submitted to Xerxes, there would have been no attempt to resist the Persians by sea. Herodotus, The Histories VII.139 The Histories by Herodotus, (Penguin1954). Translation © by Aubrey de Selincourt, Penguin Books Ltd, London, 2003, pages 460-461. Reproduced by Permission of Penguin Books Ltd. With reference to this quotation, to what extent was the Athenian navy responsible for the defeat of the Persians in 480–479 BC? Persian Wars 1.origins: Persian imperialism, Ionian Revolt 2.invasion of 490 BC: Battle of Marathon, role of Miltiades 3.inter-war period: preparation and developments in Persia and Greece 4.invasion of 480–479 BC: Battles of Thermopylae and Artemisium, Salamis, Plataea and Mycale 5.role and contribution of Themistocles, Leonidas, Pausanias, Eurybiades 6.reasons for Greek victory and Persian defeat The causes of the Persian Wars. Before you answer any question on the Persian Wars, establish whether you are being asked about the whole period from 499BC to 479BC OR a segment of this period. – If the question asks about the first Persian invasion (490BC), and you write about 480BC, you will earn no marks. – If the question asks about the second Persian invasion of 480BC and you include the Battle of Marathon, you will be wasting time as it will not count. Sample questions Sample question 1: Account for for the Persian invasions of Greece? Sample question2: “This was the beginning of trouble for Greece and the barbarians” Herodotus. Evaluate the responsibility of the Greeks for the Persian invasions of 490BC and 480BC. Sample question 3: To what extent were the Persian invasions of 490BC and 480BC caused by Persian Imperialism? Persian Imperialism Rapid expansion from 550BC to 500BC (Cyrus the Great, Cambyses II, Darius I A fundamental consideration when evaluating the causes of the wars between the Persians and the Greeks is the extent to which Persian Imperialism rather than revenge, was the primary cause of the Persian expeditions into Greece. Some options: 1. Persian imperialism meant that invasion was inevitable. The Ionian revolt issue simply brought it forward. 2. Persian imperialism created the context which meant that the Ionian revolt was the catalyst for an invasion which was not inevitable. 3. The Greeks were responsible for provoking the Persian invasion Persian Imperialism 559-530BC Cyrus the Great (Cyrus II) 547BC Cyrus the Great 539BCCyrus the Great 530BC 530-522BC Cambyses II. 522BC 522-486C BC Darius I Darius I Darius I Expansionary tradition initiated; Overthrew the Kingdom of Media and established Persian control of the Median empire. Building tradition initiated; building at pasargadae and Susa Conquered the Lydian empire. Conquered the eastern empire including Bactria to the Jaxartes river. Conquered the Babylonian empire. Cyrus killed in battle.Succeeded by his son, Cambyses II. 525BCAdded Egypt to the empire. Maintained expansionary tradition. Cambyses died on his way back to Persia. Darius,a distant relative, succeeded him. (Behistun rock tells story of succession). 522 faced series of revolts - had to assert his control . Possibly began building at Persepolis at this point, and building at Susa. 514BCLed forces and added Thrace in west and Indus valley in East to the empire: maintained expansionary tradition. Building at Susa - maintained building tradition. 512BC possibly began building at Persepolis at this time: maintained building tradition. CYRUS THE GREAT: 550-530BC Bactria Lydia Assyria Babylon Satrapy Satrapies tribute Expansion after Cyrus II Cambyses II added Egypt Darius I added the Indus valley and Thrace Persian Imperialism: Why expand? This map shows the origin of workmen and materials used in the building of Darius’ palace complex at Susa. Motives? Expected feature of Persian Kingship / economic benefits of expansion Issue for Kings: potential for rebellion. Egypt and Babylon as too valuable to lose. Summary of context • From about 550BC to 500BC the Persian Kings Cyrus II, Cambyses II and Darius I had established an expansionary process – building an empire. • The western frontier of the Persian Empire was the coast of Asia Minor (Aegean sea coast) including some Aegean islands, and the land frontier of Thrace. This brought Persian control over some Greek poleis (city states) along the Aegean coast and Black Sea coasts. • “Persian Imperialism” – your syllabus term. Debatable issue: Did Persian imperialism mean that invasion was inevitable. Did the Ionian revolt issue simply bring it forward? The two kings involved in the wars with Greece Darius I - King of Kings in the first period of contact with mainland Greece – * the Ionian revolt period 499BC-493BC – * the attempted invasion of 492BC – * the 490BC invasion / the battle of Marathon Xerxes I – King of Kings in the second period of contact with mainland Greece * the interwar period after 486BC * the 480BC invasion (Thermopylae, Artemesium, Salamis) and the 479 battles of Plataea and Mycale. Two aspects of Darius as king • Darius: King of Kings Image – The king as a proud autocrat - King Darius on his throne (source Behistan rock) The king punished rebellion, expected loyalty. – Building at Susa, building at Persepolis, image of protector of kingdom. • Imperialism: The king as an expansionist with – Political expansionary tradition, – frontier security motives – Economic motives Behistan rock Susa Persepolis Protector of kingdom EXPANSION MOTIVE Ehrenberg viewpoint Darius always intended to continue expansion into Europe and Greece was the next region in line for Persian invasion. The mainland Greek involvement in the Ionian revolt accelerated this expansionary pattern. Ehrenberg : • Herodotus called this dispatching of ships from Athens and Eretria "the beginning of trouble for both the Greeks and the Barbarians". The clash would come at any rate, but that particular event served as a pretext for the Persian attackers. Darius' intention to make the Aegean a Persian sea was confirmed and strengthened A combination of Causes? • What alternative views of the cause of the war can be argued? • Could you argue that although Persian Imperialism is a strong cause of the war, other causes also exist. – A) the 490 Invasion – revenge for mainland interference in the Ionian revolt. – B) the 480BC invasion – revenge for mainland interference in the Ionian revolt and for the Persian loss in the battle of Marathon. Darius I 499-493BC suppressed the Ionian revolt: retained control of the empire. Darius I 492BC first invasion of Greece attempt led by Mardonius, was aborted. Darius I 490BC sent an expedition to Greece led by Persian nobles Datis and Artaphernes. Invasion force defeated at Marathon. 486BC Darius I died - was planning a larger invasion of Greece. Xerxes became king. Xerxes suppressed a rebellion in Egypt. (Led forces himself) 484 and 482 BC Xerxes resumed Darius plan for major invasion. Also suppressed two rebellions in Babylon -sent Megabyxus as leading general . 480BC Xerxes led the unsuccessful invasion force to Greece. Battles of Thermopylae, Artemesium, Salamis 479BC – battles of Plataea and Mycale 479-65BC Xerxes resumed his building program at Persepolis. Small expansion in eastern Empire. Assassinated in 465BC. Geographic Context Hellespont Thessaly Aegean Sea Ionia Central Greece Peloponnese Isthmus Ionia – Ionian revolt IONIAN REVOLT 499-494/3BC • Herodotus is the source for the events and the Greek responses. • 499BC Ionian states rebelled (led by Miletus). Aristogoras. • Requested help from mainland Greek poleis (plural of polis). • Athens sent 20 ships, Eretria sent 5. Note that other states refused esp. Spartans. • Mainland Greek hoplites left ships and moved inland to Sardis. Burnt what they could, then retreated to coast. • Greeks left – realised that the Persian forces would overwhelm them. Herodotus:“Beginning of trouble for Greece and the barbarians” IMPACT OF IONIAN REVOLT- view 1 (revenge for an insult to the Great King) • Herodotus presents one view – stemming from the mainland involvement in the Ionian revolt, revenge motive, a response to the insult to the Great King – the interference in his Imperial politics. – Sending help to the Ionians – Athens 20 ships and Eretria 5 ships. – Burning a temple at Sardis – Herodotus: “Remember the Athenians” - Darius • Associate Prof. Iain Spence (UNE) “ an outside state had attempted to interfere in the running of the empire” Implication of events: 492BC Mardonius led the forces. Combined land-sea expedition. The goal? Conquest of Macedonia? Or conquest of Greece? Implication of events: ? Revenge ? Threat to security ? Persian imperialism THE FIRST INVASION -490BC Iain Spence “One of the big questions concerning this expedition is whether it was a punitive attack or an attempt to conquer Greece. The former is perhaps more likely given the size of the force used (unless the Persians had underestimated the numbers required to pacify Greece) and the fact that it was Eretria and Athens which seemed to be the focus of the attack. However, the demand for earth and water prior to the invasion suggests that the Persians would have accepted the opportunity to take over Greece had the opportunity arisen.” Iain Spence Arguments for Revenge motive – first invasion 490BC: Spence • The targetting of Athens and Eretria “suggests that it was a punative expedition rather than a serious attempt to conquer all of Greece.” Iain Spence. • Spence also supports this viewpoint with the size of the Persian force; 20,000 infantry carried by ships. Arguments for Revenge motive – first invasion 490BC: Dr D. Kelly (ANU) Revenge: Kelly: “The Persian King Darius presented himself to his subjects and wanted to be seen as an invincible conqueror….. Therefore he did plan a major expedition into Greece which would wipe out this humiliation.” Secondary motive • Kelly: Whole of Greece was the target, therefore a secondary motive was continuation of expansion into Europe. • Iain Spence: “On the other hand: demand to all Greek states for earth and water! This suggests wider aim.” Spence believes this was opportunism rather than evidence of an imperialistic aim. • To what extent were the Greeks responsible for the Persian invasions? • Rather than Persian imperialism and revenge motive being responsible for the Persian invasions, is it possible to view this Persian reaction as provoked by Greek interference in Persian Imperial affairs. • Were the Greeks responsible for provoking invasion Greeks at fault: Persian need to respond to potential threat to imperial security Alternative implications of the interference in the Ionian revolt Modern views – rather than revenge, the impetus for Persian reaction was the threat to Persian Imperialism Modern Historians frequently suggest a second view of the Greek involvement and Persian King’s response. Political and economic motives 1. Threat to frontier security (Stanton) – Rebellions in the Empire – primary concern of Persian Kings. (ref. Behistan rock) – The possibility of further interference? Support for future Ionian rebellions? (ref. Ehrenberg comment) 2. Ehrenberg: Threat to economic dominance in north Aegean (Hellespont) region. Persian response to Ionian revolt: Political and Economic issues • Greg Stanton - Main issue was “frontier security” - “The Persians were holding the Ionian area and as long as mainland Greece was free there was a danger that they would help the Ionians revolt again.” – Behistun rock reminder Athenian responsibility: Athenian political and economic motives • Can you argue that to some extent the Athenians were responsible for the war (perhaps not the most significant cause, but a contributing cause). – Interfered in Persian imperial politics (Spence’s argument) – Why? Hippias or was it economic? (Ehrenberg’s argument) Why did Athens and Eretria get involved? Herodotus account: 1. Herodotus emphasises the Athenian support for freedom from tyranny. Athens at this time was a very new "democracy" - the ONLY democratic polis. 2. “Aristagoras reminded them also that Miletus was a colony from Athens” 3. “....five triremes of the Eretrians; which had joined the expedition, not so much out of goodwill towards Athens, as to pay a debt which they already owed to the people of Miletus”. Ehrenberg: It was freedom that the Ionian cities had lost, not so much through direct Persian rule, although they had to pay tribute, but because they were governed by local tyrants. The Ionian Greeks had other complaints as well; they suffered economic setbacks under Persian rule. It is not justifiable to ascribe the discontent of the Ionians to any kind of national feeling, and it is almost by chance that from their general discontent an actual revolt developed. Aristagoras, following his failure to capture Naxos, provided this leadership in the context of the widespread discontent among the Ionians. With the decision to ask for support from mainland Greece the whole affair lost its character as a domestic concern and became involved in the developing conflict between east and west. Aristogoras went to Athens. Here the new democracy, led by aristocrats had still to fear the return of Hippias who found open support in Persia. That probably was the strongest argument in favour of a movement by which the local tyrants of Asia were to be deposed Athenian interference in the Empire Ehrenberg believes the Athenians were also motivated by economic factors in particular the need to keep the grain trade from the black sea, operating freely. ("You will be aware that we eat more imported corn than any other people and we import more of it from the Black Sea than anywhere else." Demosthenes in a speech in the fourth century). RECAP: Causes of The Persian Invasion ordered by Darius. 490BC Evaluate these possible causes. For each of these causes be able to include lots of details such as the implication of the size of the Persian forces. (Knowledge and opinion) • Expansionary nature of Persian dynasty. Darius used Greek mainland involvement in the Ionian revolt as an excuse. Refer to one modern historian who puts this view forward. Ehrenberg Here’s your chance to include a brief comment about the Persian kings, especially Darius - Thrace. Include a reference to the aborted expedition of Mardonius in 492BC extending Persian control to northern Macedonia– or was it really a first attempt to take forces into the Greek mainland? • Strategic or security reason. To secure control around the Aegean sea and prevent any further military help to the Ionian coastal Greek city states. Secure trade lines, secure the Hellespont (Black sea entrance). Stanton. Establish a base in Greece at Athens or Eretria from which to maintain a watch on the Greeks. • Revenge motive. Ionian revolt – you must be able to discuss this as a cause – know the Herodotus facts about the involvement of Athens and Eritrea. Be careful not to tell a story – instead, argue a case. Herodotus quote –“beginning of trouble for Greece”. Refer to the opinions of Spence and Kelly also. • Did the Greeks contribute to the causes by interfering in the Persian Empire? Ionian revolt. Trade issue in the Hellespont area. Marathon -490BC The Second Invasion 480BC 1. Persian Imperialism 2. Revenge 3. Persian concerns - Frontier security, economic security 4. Greek provocation Did the relative importance of each of these change for the second invasion? 486BC • Darius died while preparing for a major invasion of Greece by a combined land-sea force travelling around the north Aegean • What is the implication of his renewed plan to invade Greece? A bigger expedition? • His son Xerxes became King. After suppressing rebellions in Egypt and Babylon, Xerxes completed preparations for this invasion and in 480BC personally commanded the land and sea forces which invaded Greece from the north. The image of the King? A new king / the pressure on the king to expand Herodotus – his account of Xerxes ambition • What need have I to tell you of the deeds of Cyrus and Cambyses, and my own father Darius, how many nations they conquered, and added to our dominions? Ye know right well what great things they achieved. But for myself, I will say that, from the day on which I mounted the throne, I have not ceased to consider by what means I may rival those who have preceded me in this post of honour, and increase the power of Persia as much as any of them. • Xerxes was the commander in chief. He personally led the forces into Greece. Reliability comment Herodotus 7.138] To return, however, to my main subject - the expedition of the Persian king, though it was in name directed against Athens, threatened really the whole of Greece. (Herodotus presents an account of the Court of Xerxes – view this as a fabrication which represents Herodotus’ belief about the motive for the invasion) Ian Spence from UNE believes that while the motive for the first invasion was primarily revenge, the motive for the second was Persian imperialism motivated by Xerxes’ need to enhance his image as a new king and to follow the expansionary tradition of his predecessors Multiple motives Size of forces • Herodotus’s figures for the Persian land forces are not correct. – 1.7 million infantry – 80,000 cavalry – a total force of 5 million when support groups are included. – (Grant: misread the Persian records, got the decimal wrong; 170,000 infantry, 8000 cavalry) • Triremes 1207. Realistic total but most historians e.g.Ehrenberg, believe not all were involved at Salamis. Plataea Mycale The Second Invasion 480BC • • • • • Revenge motive; Increased because of the Marathon failure. Did Xerxes have to avenge his father’s problems with the Greeks or was this an excuse for expansion? Note Herodotus' view that although Xerxes' declared objective was to punish Athens for the burning of the temple at Sardis and the defeat at Marathon, his real ambition "was in fact the conquest of all Greece". Expansionary motive – the pressure on Xerxes. Does the size of forces (provide details) support this view? Use his preparations including demands for earth and water from large number of poleis, to support your discussion. Xerxes’ personal reputation motive…use the Mardonius arguments from Herodotus here. Does Xerxes’ assumption of command support this view? Expectation of easy win - Mardonius expresses this view because the Greeks are disunified. Personal ambition- Aeschylus refers to this in his play. In the Herodotus account Mardonius also appeals to Xerxes' ambition. Answering an HSC question Sample question 1: Account for for the Persian invasions of Greece? Sample question2: “This was the beginning of trouble for Greece and the barbarians” Herodotus. Evaluate the responsibility of the Greeks for the Persian invasions of 490BC and 480BC. Sample question 3: To what extent were the Persian invasions of 490BC and 480BC caused by Persian Imperialism? Key words; explain, assess, evaluate, to what extent, discuss, why, account for, how accurate is this statement. EXAM RUBRIC and KEY WORD OF QUESTION What do some of these terms mean? • • • • • Sustained - the essay is 6 exam booklet pages or 1000 words long, the argument you are presenting is well supported, detailed. Logical - the pattern or flow of your argument is organised, makes sense, doesn’t jump all over the place. You achieve this through essay structure: introduction, body paragraphs in a logical sequence, and then conclusion. You are consistent in your argument (don’t contradict yourself) cohesive- your essay is not disjointed. One way to achieve this is to build on your essay structure – as you move through the body paragraphs systematically, you include flow-on words e.g. A further reason for, While x is undoubtedly a significant cause, there were further contributing factors. Make each stage of your body paragraphs build on the preceding stage. Incorporates sources - ancient and modern writers, archaeological sources too. Uses appropriate historical terms. Achaemenid, trireme, polis, Ionian revolt, medize, hoplite, phalanx, Darius, Xerxes, Miltiades, Themistocles Some examiner comments. Many candidates did not allocate enough time to give justice to the essay answer required. A large number of candidates presented scripts that were extremely short, only one or two paragraphs, and many more wrote less than one page. A large number also attempted both parts (a) and (b) to the question, ignoring the ‘OR’, and in some cases candidates attempted answers to every question (including parts) set in Section IV. The best responses paid attention to the terms of the question and were well structured with logical, sustained arguments supported by balanced judgements and evidence from both ancient and modern sources. Better responses were able to evaluate the reliability of the sources cited. Weaker responses were restricted to a chronological narrative of the period and failed to provide the information relevant to the question. The weakest responses were able to mention only very basic facts about the period, usually with no regard to the question asked. Candidates had difficulty ‘assessing the significance’ in questions where this was required. Many candidates struggled with the ‘to what extent’ question. Teachers and candidates should be aware that questions starting with ‘how’, ‘why’ and ‘to what extent’ can appear, as indicated in the specimen paper. More examiner comments • A distinguishing feature of superior responses was the incorporation of ancient and modern sources into the arguments presented. This was particularly evident with responses to questions on Egypt and the Near East. • Another feature of superior responses was their structure, typically an introduction which responded directly to the question and outlined the argument to be presented, followed by a well-organised response that addressed all aspects of the question. • Candidates who take time to plan their answers have a better chance of producing a well-structured response focusing on relevant information than those who try to write as much as possible without a plan to guide them. Knowledge and Understanding Persian Imperialism and other possible causes • Persian Imperialism – – expansionary tradition, – Specific motives of Darius in 490BC, – Specific motives of Xerxes in 480BC • Other causes -The Ionian revolt / revenge – – – – reasons for Greek involvement Herodotus Reasons for Greek involvement Modern comments Events and the implication of these, impact on Persian King – revenge? Security issue? This is different from Persian Imperialism. Account for… Give reasons for / account for / explain Your thesis matters – the introduction must present a clear thesis and a clear outline of the sequence of your supporting arguments. Example: First sentence/s thesis - number of reasons? Variety of reasons? Combination of reasons? Will you mention Darius and Xerxes in direct thesis sentence. Maybe controversy over relative importance of the Persian and Greek contribution to the causes. Oomph factor. Next sentence/s: the blueprint for your body paragraphs. Imperialism, Revenge-Ionian revolt, other political and economic factors. Body paragraph topic sentences • Make sure your first sentence in each body paragraph – the topic sentence – clearly links to the question. • A significant contributing factor to the Persian invasion was Persian Imperialism. • The most significant cause of the Persian wars was Persian Imperialism. • Arguably the most significant cause of the Persian wars was Persian Imperialism. Include sources - integrated • While Herodotus stresses the revenge motive in his remark that the Athenian interference in the Ionian revolt was “the beginning of trouble for Greece..”, Ehrenberg believes that Persian Imperialistic history indicates that a Persian invasion of Greece was inevitable and the Ionian affair simply provided a pretext for Darius to launch an offensive once the revolt had been suppressed. Conclusion – make it work for you How will you manage the conclusion? An option: don’t write “In conclusion”. It’s obvious you are writing this. Write a strong summary sentence about your first body paragraph/s argument. A strong summary sentence about the second section of your body. Etc. A FINAL SENTENCE back to your overall thesis. Answering a question QUESTION 2: “This was the beginning of trouble for Greece and the barbarians.” Herodotus. (source 1) To what extent was Persian Imperialism responsible for the invasions by the Persians in 490 and 480BC? Planning the points- the argument • To what extent..= evaluate the importance of one reason against the other reasons To what extent? What do you believe – what will you argue? It is your argument and you use the evidence to support this stance, as well as discount alternative stances. * to a large extent, to some extent, to a lesser extent??? * Although the Persians do bear some responsibility for the wars with Greece, the greater culpability lies in the Greek interactions with Persia on its empire’s border. * While the Greeks did contribute to the outbreak of war with the Persians in 490BC and 480-479BC, the Persians are equally responsible. Decide on your overall argument • Use the key word/s of the question – discuss? To what extent? Explain? • You have the potential to CRITICALLY EVALUATE your reasons e.g. write “The most significant reason for the Persian invasion is…….” • Example: Although the Greeks were initially responsible for the Persian wars, the Persian contribution to the causes of the conflict was far greater. Discussion style • Primary motive? Most significant reason? Although… However…. • Combination of motives? Moreover….., In addition, also…… Plan your sequence – write this into the introduction What sequence will you follow – Persian responsibility first followed by Greek? Keep the key term/s of the question in mind. to what extent. ? Do you think Persian imperialism is most significant? Will you expand on this first and then Greek responsibility? ? Do you think the Ionian rebellion and Greek responsibility are more significant? Will you begin with this and then follow it with Persian responsibility? ? Do you think the balance of responsibility changed between the first and second invasions? Will you arrange your essay into these two sections? • The order of importance of the reasons (determined by you) is – the order in which you write these points in your introduction – and the order in which you discuss these in your body paragraphs. – Logical pattern within the essay structure Write the Intro • LOGICAL; – * a thesis which addresses the question – * points in a logical order of descending importance • Beginning of a cohesive answer; a well structured introductionwhich follows essay conventions (thesis and points) – Work out the thesis; A GENERAL STATEMENT = the first sentence – Second sentence – the points without elaboration. The introduction; thesis, points Although the Greeks were initially responsible for the Persian wars, the Persian contribution to the causes of the conflict was far greater. The Greeks initiated conflict through their involvement in the Ionian revolt. However, it was Persian imperialism both in 490BC and more fully in 480BC which resulted in the actual invasions of Greece. Logical development in body • The introduction identified the sequence –THE BODY FOLLOWS THIS SEQUENCE. By doing this you are contributing to logical development and creating a sense of cohesiveness. – Ionian rebellion / Greek responsibility for causing the wars with Persia. • The Ionian revolt and the level of Greek involvement • The actions of the Greeks at Sardis • Herodotus – the response of Xerxes • Ehrenberg – an alternative reason for Greek involvement in the Ionian revolt. • Final statement about “extent” of Greek responsibility for the Persian invasions which followed. – Persian Imperialism • The Persian Achaemenid expansionary tradition – Darius and the Hellespont region. Aegean expansion. • The 492BC and 490BC expeditions; two views of these – either revenge or preliminary expansion on a small scale. Use Spense, Kelly and consider opposing viewpoints BUT reassert your argument that the Persian response was excessive in view of the level of Greek involvement. • The Xerxes decision to resume the invasion plans; preparations. Herodotus account of his reasons. Remarks by modern historians – note level of preparation including details here, Xerxes decision to lead the expedition personally. The 480BC expedition. Alternative introduction; thesis, points Although Persian Imperialism both in 490BC and 480BC was the most significant cause for the Persian invasions of Greece, the Greeks also bear some responsibility as a result of their involvement in the Ionian revolt and interference in the Persian sphere. Logical development in body • The introduction identified the sequence –THE BODY FOLLOWS THIS SEQUENCE. By doing this you are contributing to logical development and creating a sense of cohesiveness. – Persian Imperialism • The Persian Achaemenid expansionary tradition – Darius and the Hellespont region. Aegean expansion. • The 492BC and 490BC expeditions; two views of these – either revenge or preliminary expansion on a small scale. Use Spense, Kelly and consider opposing viewpoints BUT reassert your argument that the Persian response was excessive in view of the level of Greek involvement. • The Xerxes decision to resume the invasion plans; preparations. Herodotus account of his reasons. Remarks by modern historians – note level of preparation including details here, Xerxes decision to lead the expedition personally. The 480BC expedition. – Ionian rebellion / Greek responsibility for causing the wars with Persia. • The Ionian revolt and the level of Greek involvement • The actions of the Greeks at Sardis • Herodotus – the response of Xerxes • Economic motives associated with the Aegean and Black sea trade : Ehrenberg – an alternative reason for Greek involvement in the Ionian revolt. New Introduction Although Persian Imperialism both in 490BC and 480BC was the most significant cause for the Persian invasions of Greece, the Greeks also bear some responsibility as a result of their involvement in the Ionian revolt and interference in the Persian sphere. The Persian Achaemenid expansionary tradition made expansion inevitable and contributed to the 492 and 490 invasion plans of Darius. Xerxes decision to resume the invasion plans was also motivated mainly by Imperialism. However, Greek involvement in the Ionian revolt and Athenian economic concerns in the Aegean and Black sea trade contributed in some degree to the wars between Greece and Persia. Body paragraphs • Logical and cohesive; – the first sentence in each paragraph is a topic sentence introducing the point. – the second sentence expands on this point in general. – The remaining sentences incorporate source references and specific factual details to support your topic sentence statement. To some extent the Greeks were responsible for the Persian wars because of their involvement in the Ionian revolt. In 499BC when the Ionian states rebelled against Persian imperial control, the revolt was essentially a domestic incident with no mainland Greek involvement. In response to Aristagoras’ persuasion, both Athens and Eritrea provided military support and this, according to Herodotus, was as source 1 indicates, “the beginning of trouble for Greece and the barbarians.” Athens sent 20 ships and Eretria 5. ....... Good body paragraphing RESULT: YOU ARE WRITING A WELL STRUCTURED AND SUSTAINED ANSWER as well as being logical and YOU ARE USING SOURCES. • Don’t forget historical terms where appropriate e.g. hoplite, trireme, polis, medize. • add to the (cohesion and logic) flow with linking words in your topic sentence like “also” “furthermore”, The most significant, Another significant…… conclusion • Cohesive means your essay functions as a whole rather than a disjointed random grouping of points. To achieve this, follow essay structure. Well-structured means you follow essay conventions and have a logical introduction, a sequence of paragraphs in a logical flow and a logical conclusion. Many students lose this cohesion at the conclusion when they fail to round off the argument properly. • The conclusion sums up the argument – (it is the other end to the introduction). One great tactic is to write a sentence for each of your body paragraphs. Then write a final sentence which refers to your thesis and the question again. • The Athenian and Eretrian decision to send support to the Ionian rebels was a contributing factor to the Persian wars. However, the level of their support was low and consequently they cannot be held entirely responsible for the invasions of 490 and 480BC nor is the revenge motive a reasonable cause for such costly invasions. Rather, Persian expansionary tradition, the need for the Persian kings to maintain an image of strength and the need for Xerxes to establish a military reputation beyond that of Darius, were more significant as causes of the Persian wars than Greek causes.