Download What is Android NDK

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Transcript
What is Android NDK
●
A toolset that lets you embed in you app native source code
●
C, C++(recently supported December 2010) and assembly(?)
●
It is supported on android cupcake(1.5)+
●
It is aimed to
–
Bring native libraries in android (code reusability)
–
Make some parts of the application really fast using code
generated for arm-like cpus
●
Most of the time android SDK is prerequisite for NDK
●
Under heavy development
When should be used?
●
Not just because we like c++ more than java!
●
Only when its benefits outrages its drawbacks
●
Why?
●
–
Always increases application complexity
–
Very difficult debugging
But
–
OpenGL graphics to work on android in favor of NDK
–
Increases speed
–
Enable us to port most of the libraries
How... ?
●
Android provides 2 ways:
–
Writing the application using the standard SDK framework
and then using JNI to access the API provided by NDK.
–
Write a native activity using NativeActivity class and native
code to implement activity lifecycle callbacks.
–
Available only on Android 2.3+
–
Services, Content providers must be implemented using
NDK.
So what exactly is JNI?
●
Tip: Java Native Interface
–
●
Available years before android appeared
Used when something java couldn't do
–
e.g. platform specific features
–
Many library java classes use JNI
●
Can be used to inteface with C, C++ and assembly
●
But also through that C and C++ can call native JAVA functions!
●
NativeConnection class
JNI example
public class NativeConnection{
public native String stringFromJNI();
// This method loads as soon as the instance of the class is created
static {
System.loadLibrary("helloFromJNI");
}
}
●
HelloFromJNI.cpp
JNIEXPORT jstring JNICALL
Java_ceid_1ds2_cbox_helloandroid_NativeConnection_stringFromJNI(
JNIEnv* env, //environment pointer
jobject thiz ) //object pointer
{
return env->NewStringUTF("Hello from native C++ code using NJI :-D");
Native Method Names
●
A native method name is concatenated from the following
components:
–
the prefix Java_
–
a mangled fully-qualified class name
–
an underscore (“_”) separator
–
a mangled method name
–
for overloaded native methods, two underscores (“__”)
followed by the mangled argument signature
Native Method Names
●
Other characters:
–
_0XXXX: a Unicode character XXXX.
–
_1: the character “_”
–
_2: the character “;” in signatures
–
_3: the character “[“ in signatures
●
Pretty difficult to remember!
●
But there is a tool that can help us!
●
javah !
javah
●
●
●
Header and Stub File Generator
javah [ options ] fully-qualified-classname
e.g. javah -nji com.helloandroid.NativeConnection -o
helloFromJNI.h
●
Generates all the function prototypes in an automated way!
●
Suports C-like C++
JNI strategy
●
Create the native methods in java class
●
Load the library in java class
●
Create the function prototypes using javah in a .h file
●
Create the final native source file!
●
Use your native methods inside Android activity
●
NativeConnection class
JNI example!
public class NativeConnection{
public native String stringFromJNI();
// This method loads as soon as the instance of the class is created
static {
System.loadLibrary("helloFromJNI");
}
}
●
HelloFromJNI.cpp
JNIEXPORT jstring JNICALL
Java_ceid_1ds2_cbox_helloandroid_NativeConnection_stringFromJNI(
JNIEnv* env, //environment pointer
jobject thiz ) //object pointer
{
return env->NewStringUTF("Hello from native C++ code using NJI :-D");
JNI in android
●
●
The Android NDK is nothing more than a complement to the
Android SDK that helps you to:
–
Generate JNI-compatible shared libraries that can run on the
Android platform running on ARM CPUs.
–
Copy the generated libraries to a proper location of your
application to be included in .apks
–
- A set of cross-toolchains (compilers, linkers, etc..) that can
generate native ARM binaries on Linux, OS X and Windows
(with Cygwin)
All the rest is just JNI!
Android NDK strategy
●
Implement the usual application lifecycle callbacks
●
Implement the native methods in a java class
●
Load the library in a java class
●
Create the function prototypes using javah in a .h file(optional)
●
Create the final native source file
●
Use your native methods somewhere inside Android activity
●
Execute the commands from your working directory:
●
–
<pathToSDK>/tools/android update project -p . -s
–
<pathToNDK>/ndk-build
Build the project using eclipse
JNI revisited
A native cannot return anything to java
●
It has to be one of the JNI defined types: jboolean, jint, jfloat,
jdouble, jstring . . . . j<javaType>
●
To interfere with this types there also many many JNI functions
●
To get the native string from javaString:
●
const char *nativeString = env->GetStringUTFChars(javaString, 0);
●
Some time are the same e.g. int data type is 8 bit signed same as
jint.
●
JNI revisited
●
●
●
For example Java arrays are not guaranteed to have a
continuous memory layout like C arrays.
void Get<PrimitiveType>ArrayRegion(JNIEnv *env, ArrayType
array, jsize start, jsize len, NativeType *buf); returns a native
type array in a continues region
JNIEXPORT jint JNICALL Java_IntArray_sumArray(JNIEnv *env, jobject obj,
jintArray arr) {
jint buf[10];
jint i, sum = 0;
env->GetIntArrayRegion(arr, 0, 10, buf);
for (i = 0; i < 10; i++) {
sum += buf[i];
}
return sum;
}