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Name: __________________ Period: ____________ Date: ________________
Preparing for Social Studies Chapter 3 Test
Attach this page in your spiral and take notes!
Our test will be on ___________________________________
The test will cover Section #1, 2, 3 and 4 from your textbook, as found on Pp. 62-86.
You may use your definitions, workbook pages, hanodouts, and notes in your spiral.
Your spiral should have: Definitions from Pp. 66, 71, 76 & 81. Workbook Pp.29, 32, 35
& 38.
You should take additional notes for this study list in your spiral and use them on the
test. (Time saving tip: Learn to cross-reference information. If a question asks
something that is already elsewhere in your spiral, just indicate where in your spiral it
can be found.)
Section 1: “The Fertile Crescent”
Terms to Know: terms to know: method, challenge, irrigation, population, city-state, barter.
Extra terms not in book: Mesopotamia, fertile, plow, furrow.
Concepts to Know:
1. How did the Fertile Crescent earn its name and what circumstances made it a challenging
place to farm?
2. Explain the benefits of each of the Sumerian advances in agricultural techniques: a.
irrigation; b. plow; c. furrows
3. Explain how improved farming led to growth of cities and the development of
civilization. (Hint: It all depends on having a f_ _ d s _ rp _ _ s !!)
Section 2: “The Civilization of Sumer”
Terms to Know: achievement, predict, polytheism, scribe, kingship, law code, technology.
Extra term not in the book: ziggurat.
Concepts to Know:
1. What were the levels of social classes in Sumerian society and who was in each?
2. Describe the religion of the Sumerians. What were the gods like? How did the people
try to please them? What parts did priests play in this?
3. Why did the priests need military leaders? How did these military leaders stay powerful
even during times of peace? What did priests finally do to help the kings keep their
authority? What did the kings agree to in return?
4. In addition to the plow, the wheel and the sail, what are three other advances in
technology that the Sumerians developed? (One is a tool, two others are new materials.)
Explain how each of these six innovations is important or useful.
5. Describe Sumerian advances in learning and how they were useful.
Section 3: “The Development of Writing”
Terms to Know: sketch, creation, cuneiform, cultural borrowing, pictograph, alphabet
Concepts to Know:
1. Where do most historians agree that writing was first invented? What other place might have
developed writing earlier, but historians want more proof?
Revised November, 2009
Name: __________________ Period: ____________ Date: ________________
2. What culture do we know developed writing on their own without ANY contact with the
middle east? What Asian culture could have invented writing, or may have gotten it through
cultural borrowing?
3. Which culture first developed an alphabet? What culture was last to change that original
alphabet and is the culture from which we borrowed our own writing system?
4. Describe the development of writing from pictographs to symbols for syllables to letters for
sounds. How does each development step make the system of writing and reading simpler?
Section 4: “The Rise of Kings”
Terms to Know: occupy, series, conquest, empire, chariot, barbarian
Concepts to Know:
1. What culture did Sargon the Great come from? What culture did Hammurabi come
2. What problems arose for a victorious king who defeated a neighboring city? What hard
decision would he have to make?
3. How did the following strategies help Hammurabi unite his empire:
a. Spreading his forces around his empire instead of keeping them around him.
b. Keeping careful written records.
c. Law codes.
4. How does having a set of law codes help the people of a country believe that their nation
is peaceful and fair?
Revised November, 2009