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Mr. Burton
7.3: We have talked about
three Judaism Bibles: what
are they?
Main Ideas
• Revolt, defeat, and migration led to
great changes in Jewish culture.
• Because Jews settled in different
parts of the world, two cultural
traditions formed.
• Jewish traditions and holy days
celebrate their history and religion.
Defeat of the Jews
• The Zealots, a group of people who
thought that Jews shouldn’t answer
to anyone but God, refused to
answer to the Romans and revolted.
• During the battles, the Second
Temple was destroyed. The Romans
finally won in AD 73.
• The Romans killed much of the
Jewish population as punishment.
Second Revolt
• Jews in Jerusalem revolted against the
Romans in the 130s.
• After winning the second revolt, the
Romans declared that any Jew caught in or
near the city would be killed. This
increased Jewish migration to the
Mediterranean region.
• Because the Jews no longer had a single
temple in which to worship, local
synagogues and rabbis became important
in guiding their religious lives.
Two cultures formed
• Jewish communities in various parts of the world
developed different customs, including language
and rituals.
• One of the two traditions, Ashkenazim, is made up
of Jews who moved to France, Germany, and
eastern Europe.
• They developed their own language called Yiddish.
• Another group of descendants, called the
Sephardim, lived in what is now Spain and Portugal.
• They mixed with non-Jews, borrowing elements
from their culture and producing a golden age of
Jewish culture.
Religious Holidays
• Hanukkah
• This holiday honors the rededication
of the Second Temple.
• It is celebrated by lighting candles in
a menorah.
• The eight days represent the amount
of time the oil burned during the
• Passover
• This is a time for Jews to
remember the Exodus.
• They eat only flat bread and
have a ritual meal called the
• High Holy Days
• The first two days, Rosh Hashanah,
celebrate the beginning of the
Jewish new year.
• On Yom Kippur, the most holy day,
they fast all day and ask God for
forgiveness of their sins.