Mr. Burton 7.3: We have talked about three Judaism Bibles: what are they? Main Ideas • Revolt, defeat, and migration led to great changes in Jewish culture. • Because Jews settled in different parts of the world, two cultural traditions formed. • Jewish traditions and holy days celebrate their history and religion. Defeat of the Jews • The Zealots, a group of people who thought that Jews shouldn’t answer to anyone but God, refused to answer to the Romans and revolted. • During the battles, the Second Temple was destroyed. The Romans finally won in AD 73. • The Romans killed much of the Jewish population as punishment. Second Revolt • Jews in Jerusalem revolted against the Romans in the 130s. • After winning the second revolt, the Romans declared that any Jew caught in or near the city would be killed. This increased Jewish migration to the Mediterranean region. • Because the Jews no longer had a single temple in which to worship, local synagogues and rabbis became important in guiding their religious lives. Two cultures formed • Jewish communities in various parts of the world developed different customs, including language and rituals. • One of the two traditions, Ashkenazim, is made up of Jews who moved to France, Germany, and eastern Europe. • They developed their own language called Yiddish. • Another group of descendants, called the Sephardim, lived in what is now Spain and Portugal. • They mixed with non-Jews, borrowing elements from their culture and producing a golden age of Jewish culture. Religious Holidays • Hanukkah • This holiday honors the rededication of the Second Temple. • It is celebrated by lighting candles in a menorah. • The eight days represent the amount of time the oil burned during the rededication. Holidays • Passover • This is a time for Jews to remember the Exodus. • They eat only flat bread and have a ritual meal called the seder. Holidays • High Holy Days • The first two days, Rosh Hashanah, celebrate the beginning of the Jewish new year. • On Yom Kippur, the most holy day, they fast all day and ask God for forgiveness of their sins.