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Genocide: Research Essay
Name: ___________________________
Ms. Cepeda/Mr. Ochoa/Mrs. Moran
Period: ______
Common Core State Standards:
W7: Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including self-generated questions) or solve a problem; narrow
or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under
investigation.
W8: Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advances searches effectively; assess the usefulness of
each source in answering the research question; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and
following a standard format for citation.
W1C: Use words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claims and
counterclaims.
SL.9-10.2: Integrate multiple sources of information presented in diverse media or formats evaluating the credibility and accuracy of
each source.
R.9-10.7: Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question; narrow or broaden the inquiry when
appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject investigation.
R.9-10.8: Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources; integrate information into the text
selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.
You should be able to answer these essential questions at the end of the unit.
 How do I use advanced searches effectively?
 How do I determine whether a source is credible?
 How do I avoid plagiarism?
 How do I cite in standard MLA format?
 How do I synthesize information?
 How do I write in a formal (third person) objective tone?
Requirements: Informational Research Essay
 You will find 3 articles of research to support your topic and help answer your research questions.
 You will read and annotate each article for answers to your research questions and important quotes.
 You will complete an Annotated Bibliography for all 3 articles in order to assess their usefulness and credibility.
 You will integrate information from all 3 sources to provide the reader with a full understanding of your topic
and answers to the research questions.
 You will paraphrase and use integrated quotations to present the information and cite the information to avoid
plagiarism, using MLA format.
 You will effectively complete an MLA Works Cited page to accompany your essay in order to avoid plagiarism.
Topics: Rwandan Genocide,Cambodian Genocide: Pol Pot, The War in Darfur, Holodomor: Soviet Famine/Stalin
starvation), Bosnian (Kosovo) Genocide, Nanking Masacre, Tibetan Genocide, Armenian Genocide,Red Terror (Ethiopia)
Step 1: What is Genocide?
Common questions:
Why do we have to research genocide?
Genocide is still taking place today. Despite having numerous chances to learn from our past and having technology that
can transmit information in milliseconds, many of us are ignorant to the world around us. It is important for us to learn
from previous atrocities and not let the past be repeated.
What is genocide?
Following WWII in 1948, the Genocide Convention was passed by the United Nations. This international convention
declared that:
"In the present Convention, genocide means any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or
in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such:
(a) Killing members of the group;
(b) Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group;
(c) Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole
or in part;
(d) Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group;
(e) Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group."
Genocide can occur when any or all of the following steps are taken:
Classification is when items are placed into defined categories based on particular qualities. In a genocidal situation,
classification is most dangerous when mixed groups are non-existent and a clear line of separation between groups exists.
Example: The Nazis labeled the Jews as their sworn enemies.
Symbolization is when symbols or names are given to the classes defined by Stage 1: Classification.
Example: Jewish prisoners were forced to wear yellow stars to identify themselves as Jews. Also, they were
forced to carry papers that identified them.
Dehumanization is defined as when one group begins to deny the humanity of another group, thus, setting the stage for
vilifying the victims and eliminating any objections to murder. Hate propaganda begins.
Example: Propaganda posters and movies, hateful speeches. The Nazis blamed the Jews for all of the deficiencies
and shortcomings of Germany following WWI.
Organization is a key part of genocide. Militias, special army units, or informal groups are often specially trained for the
eventual extermination.
Example: Hitler created the SS, Gestapo, and Hitler Youth. These groups were brainwashed and trained to hate
the Jews and show no mercy. Plans began to exterminate the Jews at a rapid and efficient rate.
Polarization is an extreme separation of groups into opposing factions. Propaganda is increased. Laws may be put into
place to not allow marriages between groups identified in the classification stage.
Example: The Nazis smashed and burned Jewish stores and temples.
Preparation is the stage when victims are identified and separated physically from the rest of the population. Property is
also taken. Stanton claims that "at this stage, a Genocide Emergency must be declared."
Example: Jewish people were led into ghettos, cattle cars and eventually concentration camp. The “selection
process” separated families into workers and those bound for the crematorium.
By this stage, mass killings are rampant and refugees are seeking safety. Extermination is the mass killing of genocide. It
is called "extermination" because the perpetrators do not feel they are killing humans but are eliminating creatures.
Example: Death marches, gas chambers, and the crematorium were all used to kill millions of Jews during WWII.
A number of death camps were created to exterminate and amass supplies and weapons for the Nazi War effort.
Denial is the final stage when perpetrators attempt to hide that anything has been done to "cleanse" their country. Stanton
reports that "the perpetrators of genocide dig up the mass graves, burn the bodies, try to cover up the evidence and
intimidate the witnesses. They deny that they committed any crimes, and often blame what happened on the victims. They
block investigations of the crimes, and continue to govern until driven from power by force, when they flee into exile."
Example: Nazis tried to destroy the camps and crematoriums. A number of Nazis fled to Argentina and other
nations to escape the Nuremburg Trials. There are a number of people who deny that the Holocaust ever
happened. This is based on misinformation, propaganda, and negative agendas.
Step 2: Choose your Topic
Topics:
Rwandan Genocide
Cambodian Genocide: Pol Pot
The War in Darfur
Holodomor: Soviet Famine/Stalin (starvation)
Bosnian (Kosovo) Genocide
Nanking Masacre
Tibetan Genocide
Armenian Genocide
Red Terror (Ethiopia)
Step 3: Find 3 Articles
Make sure that your sources are credible
Examples of sources that are often the most credible:
●
●
●
●
Official government websites
Institutional sites that represent universities, regulatory agencies, governing bodies, and respected organizations
with specific expertise (e.g., the Mayo Clinic)
Peer-reviewed journals
Reputable news sources
Examples of sources that are often considered less credible:
●
●
●
●
Blogs
Web forums
Individual or business websites
Materials published by an entity that may have an ulterior motive
Factors to
consider
Least
reliable
Possibly
reliable
Most reliable
Type of
source
Unfamiliar
website
Published
material
Official websites, institutional sites, academic journals
http://www.sd308.org/domain/1727
(Links to EbscoHost and other databases at the very bottom of the
page)
 Username: s5661556
 Password: password
-Wikipedia
-About.com
-Pbs.org/news
-.gov, .org, .edu, .net sites
Author’s
Uncredited
background
Educated
on topic
Expert in the field
Date
published
None
Outdated
Recently revised
Depth of
review
Controversial Good
reviews
public
response;
general
approval
Peer-reviewed by reliable sources
Sources
cited
None
Credible
sources
Citations referencing other well-cited works
Objectivity
Clearly
biased
Sponsored Balanced, neutral
source
If you are using the Ebsco databases, you might find these steps helpful:
Step 1: You must use school-approved databases when you research. Click this link.
http://search.ebscohost.com/Community.aspx?custid=s5661556&group=main&authtype=ip&id=298863247&ugt=723731563C6635673716355632553E6224E361D36013669363E328E337133503&return=y&IsMobile=N&sWidth=Unknown&sHei
ght=Unknown&sPlatformVendor=Microsoft
Step 2: Select the appropriate databases. Caution: Clicking the wrong databases will cause you to get lost in.
I would suggest the following:
ERIC
Funk & Wagnalls New World Encyclopedia
Middle Search Plus
TOPICsearch
MAS Ultra-School Edition
Click continue
Step 3: Search for your topic.
Step 4: Once articles appear, click Full Text on the left side. Then, click update.
Caution: Click full-text articles.
Step 5: Read articles and find ones that are appropriate for answering your research questions.
Step 6: Next, print and email the article to yourself. Be sure to click MLA citation. You can do this when you email yourself or by clicking CITE
(located on the right hand side of the article). This will ensure that citations are done for you.
Step 4: Annotate your articles
Annotations: Since you are not familiar with this topic, a great way to annotate is to find the answers to
 Who- is being killed, -is killing?
 What- is happening, - help is being provided, - is being done to stop this, or –was done to stop this, -steps to
genocide are being committed?
 Where- this occurring?
 When-did this occur?
 Why-is it happening?
 How- is it happening?
 MOST IMPORTANT: Notes on the 7 genocide steps-See pages 10-11
o Classification, symbolization, dehumanization, organization, polarization, preparation/extermination,
denial (Please see page 2 for more specifics).
These research questions should help you gather your information. If you think of more, please add them and
ANNOTATE for them.
SAMPLE ANNOTATED ARTICLES
http://www.unitedhumanrights.org/genocide/genocide-in-sudan.htm
Genocide in Darfur
Darfur is in the western part of Sudan, bordering on Libya, Chad, and the Central African Republic.
Darfur is a region in Sudan the size of France. It is home to about 6 million people from nearly 100 tribes. Some
nomads. Some farmers. All Muslims. In 1989, General Omar Bashir took control of Sudan by military coup,
which then allowed The National Islamic Front government to inflame regional tensions. In a struggle for
political control of the area, weapons poured into Darfur. Conflicts increased between African farmers and
many nomadic Arab tribes.
In 2003, two Darfuri rebel movements- the Sudan Liberation Army (SLA) and the Justice and Equality
Movement (JEM)- took up arms against the Sudanese government, complaining about the marginalization of
the area and the failure to protect sedentary people from attacks by nomads. The government of Sudan
responded by unleashing Arab militias known as Janjaweed, or “devils on horseback”. Sudanese forces and
Janjaweed militia attacked hundreds of villages throughout Darfur. Over 400 villages were completely
destroyed and millions of civilians were forced to flee their homes.
In the ongoing genocide, African farmers and others in Darfur are being systematically displaced and murdered
at the hands of the Janjaweed. The genocide in Darfur has claimed 400,000 lives and displaced over 2,500,000
people. More than one hundred people continue to die each day; five thousand die every month. The Sudanese
government disputes these estimates and denies any connection with the Janjaweed.
The Sudanese government appears unwilling to address the human rights crisis in the region and has not taken
the necessary steps to restrict the activities of the Janjaweed. In June 2005, the International Criminal Court
(ICC) took the first step in ending impunity in Darfur by launching investigations into human rights violations
in Darfur. However, the government of Sudan refused to cooperate with the investigations.
Annotated Articles Rubric
Article #
1
2
3
Highlighted quotations
/10
/10
/10
Labeled
/5
/5
/5
Explanations
/5
/5
/5
You should have an annotated article that looks like the one listed above. You should clearly label your information
and follow that up with complete sentences.
Step 5: Create an Annotated Bibliography
What is an annotated bibliography?
It is a list of citations to books, articles and documents.
Each citation is followed by a brief descriptive and evaluative paragraph (the annotation).
Purpose: to inform the reader of the essay of the relevance, accuracy and quality of the sources cited.
THE PROCESS
Step One: Locate and record citations to books, periodicals and documents that may contain useful information
and ideas on your topic.


Choose the sources you wish to include in your essay.
Cite the book, article, or document using MLA style (just like a Works Cited).
Step Two: Write an annotation that summarizes, evaluates, and assess’ the source. Please choose two questions
from (a), two questions from (b), and two questions from (c). Then, answer them to create your annotated
paragraph that comes after your citation.
(a)
Summarize the source

Some annotations merely summarize the source. What are the main arguments of the
article? What is the point of this book or article? What topics are covered in the article? If
someone asked what this article is about, what would you say? The length of your
annotations will determine how detailed your summary is.
(b) Evaluate the authority or background of the author
 After summarizing a source, it may be helpful to evaluate it. Is it a useful source? How
does it compare with other sources in your bibliography? Is the information reliable? Is
this source biased or objective? What is the goal of this source?
(c) Explain how and why the source is important to your essay.
 Once you've summarized and assessed a source, you need to ask how it fits into your
research. Was this source helpful to you? How does it help you shape your argument? How
can you use this source in your research project? Has it changed how you think about your
topic?
*Reminders*Annotated Bibliography is double spaced, size 12, Times New Roman font.



Citations are in alphabetical order.
All your text, including the annotation beneath the citation, must be indented so that the author's last
name or article title is the only text that is flush left.
Visit http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/614/02/ if you have any questions.
SAMPLE ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY
Student Name
Mrs. Moran/Mr. Ochoa
English 3
24 January 2015
Annotated Bibliography
Holland, Suzanne. The Human Embryonic Stem Cell Debate: Science, Ethics, and Public Policy.
Boston: MIT Press, 2014. This book discusses how stem cell research is beneficial for
medical advances. Because stem cells have helped to create blood pressure medicines and
antidepressant medications and so many others, this book supports stem cell research, but it
offers insights into why so many people oppose it. Holland discusses the public policy
changes on this depending on the stances of elected politicians, but ultimately is in favor of
more government funded stem cell research. This is a credible source because it comes from
MIT Press, which is a top rated university publication. Also, Holland has an extensive
bibliography at the end of her book citing all of the medical journals and sources she
referenced throughout her book. This book will help me to support government funded stem
cell research, and it will also help me refute it. I will most likely only use the chapters on the
benefits of stem cell research and a couple chapters on the ethics involved.
Start Source #2 here
Assessment Rubric for Annotated Bibliography
CATEGORY
A
B
C
D
F
Document
cites 3-4 of
sources
outlined in the
assignment.
Document is
either one
source over or
under the
required
number of
sources.
Document is
two to three
sources over or
under the
required
number of
sources.
Document is
four to five
sources over
or under the
required
number of
sources.
Document is
more than five
sources over or
under the
number of
required
sources.
All sources
cited can be
considered
reliable
and/or
trustworthy.
Most sources
cited can be
considered
reliable and/or
trustworthy.
Some sources
can be
considered
reliable and/or
trustworthy.
Few sources
cited can be
considered
reliable and/or
trustworthy.
Little or no
reliable and/or
trustworthy
sources cited.
Excellent
variety of
sources; cites
three to four
types of
sources.
Good variety of
sources; cites
three to four
types of
sources.
Adequate
variety of
sources; cites
three types of
sources.
Poor variety of
sources; cites
two types of
sources.
No variety of
sources; cites
only one type of
source.
All
annotations
are thoughtful,
complete, and
well written.
Most
annotations are
thoughtful,
complete, and
well written.
Some
annotations are
well written but
some are lacking
in completeness,
thought, and /or
writing quality.
Most
annotations
are lacking in
completeness,
thought,
and/or writing
quality.
All annotations
are lacking in
completeness,
thought, and/or
writing quality.
Citations are
formatted
correctly in
the document.
There are a few
formatting
errors in the
document’s
citations.
There are some
formatting
errors in the
document’s
citations.
There are
many and/or
frequent
formatting
errors in the
document’s
citations.
There is little or
no adherence to
MLA format in
the document.
(2 pts. Each)
Quantity of
sources
10 pts.
Quality
/Reliability of
Sources
10 pts.
Variety of
Sources
10 pts.
Writing
fluency of
annotations
10 pts.
MLA and
Documentation
10 pts.
Step 6: Understand the difference between direct quotations and paraphrasing
Direct Quotation-Quoted exactly as it appears in the article
According to Martin Rogers, Yahoo Baseball Writer, “Babe Ruth began his pro career in 1914 as a pitcher for the
Baltimore Orioles of the International League” (Rogers 2).
Paraphrase-Put a few phrases in your own words
Columbia Encyclopedia states, Ruth was taken in by a priest who turned him into a dominant player (Columbia 34).
Block Quotation-Anything 3 or more lines long should be indented
In "American Origins of the Writing-across-the-Curriculum Movement," David Russell argues:
“Writing has been an issue in American secondary and higher education since papers and examinations came
into wide use in the 1870s, eventually driving out formal recitation and oral examination” (Russell 56).
Note the following: Every quotation is cited with the author and article title, as well as credentials. Page
numbers are present and there are quotes when they are needed.
Step 7: Begin your research paper
Your paper should be a mixture of paraphrases, direct quotations, and possibly a few block quotations.
You should have proper MLA heading. Your essay should touch on all 7 of the United Nation’s Genocide
requirements. You should label your paragraphs in order to ensure organization and depth
Student Name
English 2
Mr. Ochoa
23 March 2015
Title
Introduction
-Who were the parties involved?
-Why might this have started?
-Where did this take place?
-What is the timeline?
Classification
-Elaborate on the two parties involved? For instance, why was there animosity?
-Did one group clearly have the upper hand?
-Explain how groups were classified/separated
Symbolization
-What types of symbols and names were given to classify groups?
-Was there any resistance to this happening?
-Why were the groups classified?
Dehumanization
-How were the victims oppressed or put down? Why?
-How did a message of hate/intolerance spread?
-What were some examples of hate speech?
Organization
-Who were the key parties involved in the extermination (military, government, citizens, etc.)?
-Were these individuals following orders or were they true believers in what they were doing?
Polarization
-What were some extreme laws that were put in place to keep everyone separated?
-Were there any laws forbidding moving, offspring, marriages, etc.?
Preparation/Extermination
-How/When did the mass killings take place?
-What was the public/word reaction to these murders?
-Discuss the death tolls and atrocities that were committed.
Denial
-Did the governments try to cover up the murders?
-Were laws put in to place to keep reports or individuals from discovering the truth?
-Was anyone held responsible for the genocide?
Conclusion
-Answer the question “so what?” In other words, why is this prevalent and a necessary topic? What can we
learn and take away from these monstrous events?
-How will the victims cope with their loss and struggles?
-Is there anything we can do to help in this situation?
Step 8: Works Cited Page
Your Works Cited page should be the very last page of your research paper. Your last name and page number should be
in the upper right hand corner.
In order to do this, you will need to do the following:
-Click Insert
-Click Page #
-Click Top of Page
-Page #3 (3rd choice-farthest to the right)
Unit Calendar
Date
Daily Activity
Introduce Genoide: 5 minute clip and Genocide
Conventions
Homework
Pick one genocide
to research
3/25-3/26
Spring Break
3/27-4/8
4/9-4/13
4/14-4/20
4/20
Research Articles
Annotate Articles
3/26
4/8
4/21-4/22
Final Draft/Works Cited
Research Articles
Annotate your
articles over break
Create A.B.
Construct a R.D.
None. Done in
class.
Be ready to make
corrections
4/24
Paper Due!
Turnitin.comSubmit your essay
4/24
3/25
Annotated Bibliography
Rough Draft
Peer Edit
Due
3/25
4/15
4/20
4/20
4/22