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Quiescent Operating Point, DC Load Line, AC without Load, and AC with Load Analysis
Source: Electronic Devices: A Design Approach Ali Aminian and Marian Kazimierczuk, 2004
Reference Figure 6-1
Determine Quiescent Point ICQ and VCEQ
VB = VCC
R2
5100
= 12
= 2.7 Volts
R1 + R 2
17600 + 5100
VE = VB − VBE = 2.7 − 0.7 = 2 Volts
IE =
VE
2
=
= 2 mA
R E 1000
VCE = VCC - IE(RC + RE) = 12 - 2 x 10-3 (2000 + 1000) = 6 Volts
ICEQ = IC = IE = 2 mA
VCEQ = VCE = 6 Volts
DC Load Line
VCE Cut-off = VCC = 12 Volts
IC Sat =
VCC
12
=
= 4 mA
R C + R E 2000 + 1000
AC Load Line (without Load)
Io( NL) = ICQ +
VCEQ
R'
Vo( NL) = VCEQ + ICQ R '
6
= 5 mA
2000
where R' = RC
Io( NL) = 2 x10−3 +
where R' = RC
Vo( NL) = 6 + 2 x10−3 (2000) = 10 Volts
AC Load Line (with Load)
Io(WL) = ICQ +
VCEQ
R'
Vo(WL) = VCEQ + ICQ R '
6
= 8 mA
1000
where R' = RC || RL
Io(WL) = 2 x10−3 +
where R' = RC || RL
Vo(WL) = 6 + 2 x10−3 (1000) = 8 Volts
Discussion
Reference Figure 6.2
The DC Operating Point sets the limits of the output signal swing.
All three load lines (DC, AC without Load, and AC with Load) pass through the operating point.
Note that the operating point is located at IB = 20 uA. The maximum excursion of iB is limited to
20 uA below the operating point and 20 uA above the operating point for a total of 40 uA peakpeak, which results in a swing of iC of 4 mA peak-peak and a corresponding swing of vCE of 8 V
peak-peak.
For fine grain values, refer to Figure 6.2. For the AC Load Line without Load, the relative values
are iC 1.9 mA to 2.1 mA (4 mA peak-peak) and vCE 4.2 V below VCEQ (6.0 - 4.2 = 1.8) to 3.8
Volts above VCEQ ( 6.0 + 3.8) = 9.8 Volts (8 Volts peak-peak).
For the AC Load Line with Load (see Figure 6.8), the same limits apply to iB, but now due to a
change in slope of the AC Load with Load this corresponds to 1.9 and 2.3 mA (4.2 mA peakpeak) change in iC and a 2.3 and 1.9 V (4.2 peak-peak) in vCE.
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