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Religions of
the World
Religions
• Hinduism
• Buddhism/
Buddha
• Confucianism/
Confucius
• Taoism/Lao`-tse
• Islam/Mohammad
• Judaism/ Moses &
Abraham
• Christianity/
•
Jesus of
Nazareth
• Catholicism
• Protestantism/
•
Martin Luther
What is Religion?
Def: How people practice their faithan expression of human belief in a
power greater than humanity.
• Most religions have rules to guide
the believers.
• Traditions
• Sheds light on our purpose on earth
as well as our ultimate destination.
Agnostic
An uncertainty about whether God exists.
Atheist
• One who
believes
that there is
NO God.
Hinduism
Hinduism
• India – 600BCE – 300 CE [ before common era]
• polytheists
• Priests – Brahman
– Guru- a person that has reached the top of his
spiritual ladder
Beliefs
• GOALS:
• Duty to God, society, family, and self.
• Earn and spend money for the good of the
family and community
• Enjoy the good things in life
• Release yourself from the cycle of Reincarnation
– the cycle of birth-death-rebirth- by doing
good
Diwali –
Feast of Lights
• Homes are lit with
numerous lamps
• five-day festival to
remember the return
of light to the world
after the rainy
season
• the deity [god]
Rama’s defeat over
the demon Ravana.
Confucianism
• 1st traditional Chinese religion – 500 BCE
• Based on Confucius's ideas
• Detailed rules
–
–
–
–
–
–
Shared respect
Duty to society
Ancestors are worshipped
Generosity
Honor
Strong family bonds
Confucianism –
cont’d
• Confucianism was more
like a system of rules rather
than a religion
• Confucianism united the
Chinese people
Buddhism
• 3rd most recent religion in
shaping Chinese culture
• Originated in India
• Based on the teaching’s of
Buddha – “The Enlightened One”
• Pagodas – temples holding
Buddhist ideals
Buddhism-cont’d
• Buddhism teaches:
– The value of compassion
– Love and kindness as a way to overcome
the striving and desire that causes human
suffering
– ***NO MATERIAL THINGS!***
Mi – Lo- Fo
• “The Laughing Buddha”
• Beloved-loved by all
• He embodies several Chinese ideals:
– fat belly = wealth
– smile and relaxed manner = life is
harmonious
– ****tiny figures = deep love for children
[this is a basic Chinese ideal]
•
•
•
•
•
Taoism
Dates back to 300 BCE
Belief in immortality
Loved nature
Believed in leading simple lives
Competed with Confucianism for
popularity, but Confucianism still
remained the most widely practiced
religion in China
Islam
DATES
• Have you ever been treated unfairly?
• Movie: A Walk in Your Shoes- Feb. 2002 features
Nancy, a 15 year-old Protestant teen from the suburbs
of Boston, and Miriam, a 13 year-old Muslim teen from
northern New Jersey. Nancy spends two days with
Miriam and “walks in her shoes” to get a better
understanding of the life of a Muslim-American teen,
after 911.
Islam
•
•
•
•
“Islam” means = surrender to Allah [God]
Muslims are what the followers are called
Originated in the Middle East
Mohammad, an Arab [polytheists]
– God spoke to him- became Allah’s messenger
– Born in Mecca
– When young, was traded as part of a caravan,
traveled
– Met Jews and Christians [monotheists] along his
travels
– Mohammad believed in one god, so he prayed alone
Islam cont’d
• Youngest of the religions-fast growing –
1/5 of the world population- 6,602,224,175
• 1, 320, 444, 835 practice Islam
• Similar to Judaism, Christianity
– Belief in one god- monotheist
The Koran
• Holy book
• Similar to the
Bible because it
provides a code
by which to live
life on earth to
assure a place in
heaven.
Hijab• Veiling of women- [once married, it’s required.]
• Can’t compare our cultural beliefs to theirs, so
wearing a hijab may offend our American beliefs in
equality towards women, but it’s not their cultural
belief.
Law of Prayer
• 5x/day
• pre-dawn, noon,
afternoon,
sunset, evening
• Pray so not to be
forgetful
– Whether they
are at play or
traveling
Ramadan
• Ramadan - ninth month of the Muslim
calendar.
• Muslims observe the Fast of Ramadan.
• Lasting for the entire month, Muslims fast
during the daylight hours and in the evening
eat meals and visit with friends and family.
• It is a time of worship and contemplation
[think].
• May seem extreme, but it teaches compassion.
The Five Pillars of Islam
• 1 Belief that there is NO other god
except Allah.
• 2 Pray 5 times a day
• 3 give a portion [2.5%]of your savings
to charity
• 4 Make a pilgrimage [journey to a
sacred place] to Mecca [holy city] at least
once in your life
• 5 fast during Ramadan
Judaism
Welcome to Jerusalem
Israel: Islam,
Christianity, and
Judaism
Jewish Olympic Swimmer
Judaism
• Founded by the ancient Hebrews
– Abraham [Great Hebrew leader} and
Moses {led the captive Hebrew slaves
out of Egypt.}
• Monotheist
• The Ten Commandments [laws of how to
conduct their lives] were handed to
Moses from God.
• Holy Book = Torah
• What holidays do they celebrate?
• Which is their holiest holiday?
• Rosh Hashanah, Yom Kippur, Passover,
Chanukah ….Yom Kippur is the MOST holiest
holiday.
The Woodpecker
HAS to go!!!
Christianity
Christianity
Christianity
• The religion based on the life of Christ.
• It’s in the New Testament of the Bible.
• Tells how Jesus grew up in the
Palestinian town called Nazareth.
• Jesus was raised under the laws of
Judaism.
Draw this
umbrella in
your book
Lutheran
Methodist
Presbyterian
Roman
Catholics
Jehovah Witness
Greek
Orthodox
Mormons
Southern
Baptists
The Umbrella of
Some Christian Religions
Protestant
Protestantism
• Founded by Martin Luther
• He was a monk that was excommunicated
[removed] from the Roman Catholic church
for disobeying Pope Leo X.
• Believed people shouldn't have to pay to have
their sins forgiven.
• Started to spread his idea throughout the
land…by mouth, then writing.
• Gutenberg’s printing press helped spread the
ideas quickly.
What was the role of religion in
unifying or dividing societies of
the Eastern Hemisphere?
• Choose three religions from your
documents.
• Using your knowledge of SS and the
documents, discuss HOW religion united
or divided the people.