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NOMENCLATURE OUTLINE
I.
Inorganic
A.
Binary Compounds
1.
Ionic(Stock Naming System)
a.
Metal + nonmetal + ide
1.)
Charges must equal one another
2.)
Transition metals and other multivalent metals
require a Roman numeral indicating the oxidation state
of the metal. (Exceptions: zinc (Zn+2 only), cadmium
(Cd+2 only), silver (Ag+1 only)
b.
More ionic if greater electronegativity difference
c.
Classical Naming System(don’t use it much)
1.)
For multivalent metals, lower oxidation state ends
with ous.
2.)
For multivalent metals, higher oxidation state ends
with ic
2.
B.
Covalent
a.
More electropositive element + more electronegative
element + ide
b.
Use prefixes below to indicate the number of atoms of each
kind.
1.)
mono
6.)
hex
2.)
di
7.)
hept
3.)
tri
8.)
oct
4.)
tetra
9.)
non
5.)
pent
10.) dec
c.
Acids* - hydro + nonmetal + id acid (aq) (only a few of
these)
*Must have hydrogen ion available in water solution
1.) HCl hydrochloric acid
2.) HF hydrofluoric acid
3.) HBr hydrobromic acid
4.) HI hydroiodic acid
5.) H2S hydrosulfuric acid
6.) H3P hydrophosphoric acid
7.) H2Se hydroselenic acid
8.) H2Te hydrotelluric acid
d.
More covalent if small or no electronegativity difference
Ternary Compounds
1.
Ionic
a.
Metal + polyatomic ion (always place the whole
polyatomic ion in parentheses and place its charge outside)
1.)
Polyatomics
a.)
b.)
c.)
2.
ate ending if more oxygen
ite if less oxygen
oxyanion series
(1.)
per + nonmetal+ate(4 oxygens) (the
oxidation state of the halogen is different in
each ion)
(a.) (ClO4)-1 perchlorate
(b.) (BrO4)-1 perbromate
(c.) (IO4)-1 periodate
(2.)
nonmetal + ate(3 oxygens)
(a.) (ClO3)-1 chlorate
(b.) (BrO3)-1 bromate
(c.) (IO3)-1 iodate
(3.)
nonmetal + ite(2 oxygens)
(a.) (ClO2)-1 chlorite
(b.) (BrO2)-1 bromite
(c.) (IO2)-1 iodite
(4.)
hypo + nonmetal + ite(1 oxygen)
(a.) (ClO)-1 hypochlorite
(b.) (BrO)-1 hypobromite
(c.) (IO)-1 hypoiodite
2.)
Transition metals require a Roman numeral.
3.)
Common polyatomics – see your list; memorize
these!!!!!!!
Acids (must have hydrogen at the beginning and then a
polyatomic)
a.
Polyatomic ending ATE changes to IC ACID
1.) H2SO4 sulfuric acid
(SO4)-2 sulfate
2.) H3PO4 phosphoric acid (PO4)-3 phosphate
b.
Polyatomic ending ITE changes to OUS ACID
1.) H2SO3 sulfurous acid
(SO3)-2 sulfite
2.) H3PO3 phosphorous acid (PO3)-3 phosphite
II.
Organic Compounds
A.
Straight chain hydrocarbons
1.
Alkanes - ane ending with prefix indicating # of carbons
a.
single bonds only
b.
saturated
2.
Alkenes - ene ending with prefix indicating # of carbons
a.
1 double bond
b.
unsaturated
c.
may have dienes and trienes
3.
Alkyneth
f.
hex
b.
eth
g.
hept
c.
prs - yne ending with prefix indicating # of carbons
a.
1 triple bond
b.
unsaturated
4.
Prefixes
a.
meth
f.
hex
b.
eth
g.
hept
c.
prop
h.
kynes - yne ending h
oct
B.
C.
D.
d.
but
i.
non
e,
pent
j.
dec
Branched hydrocarbons
1.
Name will be based on longest chain of carbons
2.
Branches will be named by the number of carbons in them.
Substituted hydrocarbons
1.
Halogenated(Cl, Br, I, F)
2.
Nitrates(NO3)
3.
Alcohols - ol ending(OH)
a.
primary
b.
secondary
c.
tertiary
4.
Carboxylic acids - id acid ending(COOH)
5.
Ketones - one ending(RCOR’)
6.
Esters - oate ending(RCOOR’)
7.
Ethers - ether ending(ROR’)
8.
Aldehydes - al ending(RCHO)
9.
Amines - amine ending(RNH2)
10.
Amides - amide ending(RCONH2)
Cyclic compounds
1.
Cycloalkanes
2.
Cycloalkenes
3.
a.
Aliphatic(containing no benzene rings)
b.
Aromatic(containing one or more benzene rings)
Cycloalkynes