Download NAME: :______ Per:______

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Transcript
NAME:___________________________________________________Date:__________ Per:___________
HES: CHAPTER 5 STUDY GUIDE: EVOLUTION AND BIODIVERSITY: Origins, Niches, and Adaptation
Part1: Vocabulary: Define each term (DO NOT USE THE GLOSSARY)
Term
Definition
1. Theory of Evolution
all species descended from earlier, ancestral species
2. Microevolution
small genetic changes that occur in a population. Genes
mutate, individuals are selected and populations evolve
3. Macroevolution
long-term, large-scale evolutionary changes through
which new species are formed from ancestral species and
other species are lost through extinction
4. Gene Pool
set of all genes in the individuals of the population of a
species
5. Mutation
changes in the structure or number of DNA molecules in a
cell
6. Heritable
trait must have a genetic basis to evolve
7. Differential Reproduction
phenotypic traits determine individual survival and success
8. Fossil
mineralized or petrified replicas of skeletons, bones, teeth,
shells, leaves, and seeds, or impressions of such items
provide physical evidence of organisms
Process in by which individuals of a population acquire
genetically based traits that increase their chances of
survival and their ability to produce offspring
9. Natural Selection
10. Adaptation
A heritable trait that enables an organism to better survive
and reproduce under a given set of environmental
conditions
11. Adaptative Trait
SAME AS ADAPTATION
12. Directional Selection
Individuals that display a more extreme form of a trait
have greater fitness than individuals with an average form
of the trait
A shift in one direction
13. Stabilizing Selection
Individuals with the average form of a trait have the
highest fitness
Represents the optimum for most traits
Results in a similar morphology between most members of
the species
14. Diversifying Selection
Individuals with either extreme variation of a trait have
greater fitness than individuals with the average form of
the trait
A shift in both direction, away from the center
15. Coevolution
Populations of two different species interacting over a long
period of time
Changes in the gene pool of one species can lead to
changes the gene pool of another species
16. Artificial Selection
Humans select one or more desirable genetic traits in the
population of a plant or animal
17. Ecological Niche
Total way of life or functional role of a species in an
ecosystem
18. Fundamental Niche
Full potential range of the physical, chemical, and
biological factors a species can use if there were no direct
competition from other species.
19. Generalist Species
Species with a broad ecological niche.
Live in many different places.
Eat a variety of food.
Tolerate a wide range of environmental conditions.
(flies, mice, deer, catfish, humans)
20. Specialist Species
Species with a narrow ecological niche.
Live only in one type of habitat
Use only a few types of food
Tolerate only a narrow range of climatic and other
environmental conditions.
(tiger salamander, red-cockaded woodpecker, spotted
owls, pandas)
21. Speciation
formation of two species from one species because of
divergent natural selection
22. Reproductive Isolation
isolated populations become so genetically different they
cannot . . . Interbreed, or produce live, fertile offspring
23. Geographic Isolation
groups of the same species become physically separated
24. Extinction
occurs when the population cannot adapt to changing
environmental conditions – CEASE TO EXIST
25. Adaptative Radiation
Process in which numerous new species evolve to fill
vacant and new ecological niches in changed
environments
Part II: Questions
Preview and 5-1: How Did Life on Earth Emerge
1. Summarize the biological history of the earth in one sentence.
Organisms convert solar E to food, chemicals cycle, and a variety of species with
different biological roles (niches) have evolved in response to changing environmental
conditions.
2. Describe the conditions that make life on the earth just right for life as we know it.
Right temp range, liquid water, right size – has enough gravitational mass to keep
things from flying into space, slow transfer of internal heat
3. Distinguish between chemical evolution and biological evolution.
Chemical evolution
- formation of the earth’s crust and atmosphere
- evolution of the biological molecules necessary for life
- evolution of the systems of chemical reactions needed to produce living cells
Biological Evolution
- change in the genetic makeup of a population of a species in successive
generations  can lead to formation of new species
- Populations, not individual evolve
4. Scientists have hypothesized that life of earth developed in 2 phases. What are they?
Chemical evolution and biological evolution
5. What are fossils and how do they help us formulate ideas about how life developed on
earth?
Mineralized or petrified replicas of skeletons, bones, teeth, shells, leaves, and seeds, or
impressions of such items provide physical evidence of organisms
6. What percentage of species fossils has been found? Why?
About 1% of the species that are believed to have lived have been found– some
forms left no fossils, some have decomposed, and some have not been found.
7. What are some other sources of evidence we have of past organisms?
Chemical and radioactive dating of fossils, nearby ancient rocks, material in cores
drilled out of buried ice, and DNA of organisms
5-2: Evolution and Adaptation
8. What is microevolution? Give an example.
Evolution used to describe small genetic changes that occur in a population
9. What is natural selection?
Process in by which individuals of a population acquire genetically based traits that
increase their chances of survival and their ability to produce offspring
10. What are the three conditions necessary for a population to evolve by natural
selection?
VARIABILITY
HERITABLE
DIFFERENTAIL REPRIDUCTIVE SUCCESS
11. What are the three types of natural selection?
DIRECTIONAL
STABILIZING
DISRUPTIVE/DIVERSIFYING
12. Draw and explain a diagram of each.
13. What is artificial selection and what does it result in?
The selective breeding of domesticated plants and animals by man – can lead to many
different domesticated breeds or hybrids of the same species all originally developed
from a particular wild species.
2 steps: humans select desirable genetic traits and use selective breeding to end up
with populations containing large numbers of individuals with these desired traits
14. What is coevolution and what is its importance?
When populations of 2 different species interact over a long period of time, changes in
the gene pool of one species can lead to changes in the gene pool of another species.
Adaptation follows adaptation in something like an ongoing arms race…
5-3: Ecological Niches and Adaptation
15. What is the ecological niche of a species? What is the difference between a
fundamental niche and a realized niche?
Ecological Niche - Total way of life or functional role of a species in an ecosystem –
occupation
Fundamental niche
– Full potential range of the physical, chemical, and biological factors a species
can use if there were no direct competition from other species.
Realized niche
- Part of a species fundamental niche that are actually used
16. List three factors that limit adaptations?
1. a change in environmental conditions can lead to adaptation only for traits already
present in the gene pool of a population
2. even if a beneficial heritable trait is present in a population, that population’s ability
to adapt can be limited by it reproductive capacity
3. even if a favorable genetic trait is present in a population, most of the population
would have to die or become sterile so individual with the trait could predominate
and pass the trait on (p99)
17. What are two common misconceptions about evolution?
1. Survival of the fittest means survival of the strongest… NOT… it means reproductive
success, not strength
2. Evolution involves some grand plan of nature in which species become progressively
more perfect – NO PLAN OR GOAL OF PERFECTION EXISTS IN THE EVOLUTIONARY
PROCESS
5-4: Speciation, Extinction, and Biodiversity
18. What is speciation?
Formation of two species from one species because of divergent natural selection
19. Differentiate between reproductive isolation and geographic isolation.
Reproductive - isolated populations become so genetically different they cannot
interbreed, or produce live, fertile offspring
Geographic - groups of the same species become physically separated – can lead to
reproductive isolation
20. Differentiate between background extinction, mass extinction, and mass depletion.
Background extinction - Normal extinction of various species as a result of changes in
local environmental conditions
Mass extinction - extinction resulting from catastrophic, wide-spread event in which
large groups of existing species are wiped out
Mass depletion – when extinction rates are higher than normal, but not high enough to
classify a mass extinction
21. What is adaptative radiation?
Process in which numerous new species evolve to fill vacant and new ecological niches
in changed environments
Darwin’s Finches