Download Arabic Verb Inflectional Morphology1 Tense/aspect morphology

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Transcript
Middlebury College Arabic Linguistics Spring 2012 Arabic Verb Inflectional Morphology1 Arabic verbs inflect for the following grammatical categories: 1. Subject agreement in person (1st, 2nd, and 3rd), number (singular ‫ُفرد‬
َ ‫الم‬, dual ‫المُث ّنى‬, and plural ‫)الجمع‬, and gender (masculine ‫ر‬
‫المُذ َّك‬ and feminine ‫)المُؤ َّنث‬, َ
2. Tense/aspect (perfect ‫الماضي‬ vs. imperfect ‫)المضارع‬, 3. Mood (indicative ‫المرفوع‬, subjunctive ‫المنصوب‬, and the jussive ‫)المجزوم‬, and 4. Voice (active ‫ال َمعلوم‬ vs. passive ‫)ال َمجھول‬. We discuss the morphology and uses of each in turn. Tense/aspect morphology Verb morphology in the perfect ‫الماضي‬ 
The perfect is mainly used in past tense contexts. .‫ﺳﺎﻓرت ﺑﻧت أﺧﻲ إﻟﻰ اﻻﻛوادور ﻓﻲ اﻟﺳﻧﺔ اﻟﻣﺎﺿﻳﺔ‬
.‫ﺣﺿرت ﺣﻔﻠﺔ ﻣوﺳﻳﻘﻳﺔ أﻣس‬
.‫ﺑدأت دراﺳﺔ اﻟﻌرﺑﻳﺔ ﻣﻧذ ﺳﻧﺗﻳن‬

The perfect is also used in what is called hypothetical past, as in conditional clauses introduced by ‫لو‬/‫إذا‬ (= ‘if’). .‫ﻟو ﻛﻧت ﻣﻠﻳوﻧﻳ اًر ﻻﺷﺗرﻳت طﺎﺋرة ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬
.‫إذا ﻛﺎن اﻟﺟو ﻣﺷﻣﺳﺎً ﻏداً ﺳﺄذﻫب إﻟﻰ ﺑﻳرﻟﻧﺟﺗون‬
1
This handout is based on Chapters 21, 34, and 35, of Karin Ryding’s A Reference Grammar for Modern Standard Arabic, which is on reserve at the Davis Library. 1 Middlebury College Arabic Linguistics Spring 2012 Verb morphology in the imperfect ‫المضارع‬ 
The imperfect is used with habitual events and actions in‐progress. .‫ﻫم ﻳﻠﻌﺑون ﻛرة اﻟﻘدم اﻵن‬
.‫ﻧﺣن ﻧدرس ﻋﻠم اﻟﻠﺳﺎﻧﻳﺎت اﻟﻌرﺑﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻫذا اﻟﻔﺻﻝ اﻟدراﺳﻲ‬
.‫واﻟدﻫﺎ ﻳﻌﻣﻝ ﻓﻲ ﻗﺳم اﻟﺗرﺟﻣﺔ ﺑﺎﻷﻣم اﻟﻣﺗﺣدة ﻣﻧذ ﻋﺷر ﺳﻧوات‬
Expressing the future ‫المستقبل‬ in MSA The future is expressed via the prefix ‫سـ‬ or the morpheme ‫وف‬
َ
َ ‫س‬ before the imperfect form of َ
the verb. .‫ﺳﺄﻋود إﻟﻰ ﻏرﻓﺗﻲ ﺑﻌد اﻟﺻف‬
.‫ﺳوف ﻧﺳﺎﻓر إﻟﻰ وﻻﻳﺔ ﻧﻳوﻳورك ﻓﻲ ﻋطﻠﺔ اﻟرﺑﻳﻊ‬
2 Middlebury College Arabic Linguistics Spring 2012 Mood morphology Verb morphology in the indicative mood ‫المضارع المرفوع‬ 
The indicative mood is the default form of the verb in Arabic. If no subjunctive or jussive particle occurs before the verb, the verb will appear in the indicative form. .‫أذﻫب إﻟﻰ ﺻف اﻟﻌرﺑﻳﺔ ﻛﻝ ﺻﺑﺎح ﻓﻲ اﻟﺳﺎﻋﺔ اﻟﺛﺎﻣﻧﺔ‬
ُ
‫ﺗﻔﺗﺢ اﻟﻣﻛﺗﺑﺔ؟‬
ُ ‫ﻫﻝ ﺗﻌرﻓﻳن ﻓﻲ أي ﺳﺎﻋﺔ‬
3 ‫‪ Spring 2012 ‬‬
‫‪Middlebury College ‬‬
‫‪Arabic Linguistics ‬‬
‫‪ ‬المضارع المنصوب‪Verb morphology in the subjunctive mood ‬‬
‫‪ ‬‬
‫‪The subjunctive mood indicates the speaker’s attitude towards the event, and is marked by ‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪ ‬لن‪ – ‬ح ّتى‪ – ‬ل َكي‪َ – ‬كي‪ ‐ ‬لِـ‪ – ‬أنْ ‪a set of particles: ‬‬
‫َ‬
‫أن ﻳﺗرك أﺳرﺗﻪ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺻر‪.‬‬
‫ﻋﻧدﻩ ﻓرﺻﺔ ﻋﻣﻝ ﻣﻣﺗﺎزة ﻓﻲ اﻹﻣﺎرات ﻟﻛﻧﻪ ﻻ ﻳرﻳد ْ‬
‫ﺗﺗﻛﻠم ﻣﻌﻲ‪ .‬ﻻ أﻋرف ﻟﻣﺎذا‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﻲ ﺗرﻓض أن‬
‫َ‬
‫ﻧدرس اﻟﻠﻐﺔ اﻟﻌرﺑﻳﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻧدرس‪/‬ﺣﺗّﻰ‬
‫ﻧدرس‪/‬ﻟﻛﻲ‬
‫ﻟﻧدرس‪/‬ﻛﻲ‬
‫ﺳﺎﻓرﻧﺎ إﻟﻰ اﻷردن ﻓﻲ اﻟﺧرﻳف اﻟﻣﺎﺿﻲ‬
‫َ‬
‫َ‬
‫َ‬
‫َ‬
‫أذﻫب إﻟﻰ ﺻف اﻟﻌرﺑﻳﺔ ﻏدا ﻷﻧﻲ ﻣرﻳض‪.‬‬
‫ﻟن‬
‫َ‬
‫‪ ‬‬
‫‪ ‬‬
‫‪4 ‬‬
‫‪ ‬‬
Middlebury College Arabic Linguistics Spring 2012 Verb morphology in the jussive mood ‫المضارع المجزوم‬

The jussive mood is typically marked by the negative particle ‫لَم‬ and the conditional particle ْ‫إن‬. .‫ﻳذﻫب إﻟﻰ اﻟﺻف أﻣس ﻷﻧﻪ ﻣرﻳض‬
‫ﻟم‬
ْ
.‫ﺗﻧﺟﺢ‬
‫ﺗذاﻛر‬
‫إن‬
ْ
ْ

The verb also appears in the jussive in the imperative. The imperative in MSA is identical to the imperfect verb form minus the prefix ta‐. !‫ذاﻛروا‬

ِ ‫ِا‬
!‫ﺟﻠﺳﻲ‬
!‫س‬
ْ ‫در‬
ُ ُ‫ا‬
When the negative is in the imperative, however, the verb appears in the imperfect form with the ta‐ prefix, and still in the jussive mood. !‫ﻻ ﺗذاﻛروا‬
5 ِ ‫ﻻ‬
!‫ﺗﺟﻠﺳﻲ‬
!‫س‬
ْ ‫ﺗدر‬
ُ ‫ﻻ‬
Middlebury College Arabic Linguistics Spring 2012 Verb morphology in the jussive mood ‫المضارع المجزوم‬ for hollow and defective verbs
6 Middlebury College Arabic Linguistics Spring 2012 7 Middlebury College Arabic Linguistics Spring 2012 Voice morphology Verb morphology in the passive voice for ‫الفعل الماضي‬ 
The passive verb form of the perfect is formed by putting a ‫ضمّة‬ on the first consonant of the word and a ‫كسرة‬ on the one before the last. ‫ أُ ِﻛﻝ‬ ‫أﻛﻝ‬
‫ ُد ﱢرس‬ ‫درس‬
ّ
‫ ُﻛﺗِب‬ ‫ﻛﺗب‬
‫ قيل‬ ‫قال‬
‫ شوھِد‬ ‫ﺷﺎﻫد‬
8 Middlebury College Arabic Linguistics Spring 2012 Verb morphology in the passive voice for ‫الفعل المضارع‬ 
The passive verb form of the imperfect is formed by putting a ‫ضمّة‬ on the first consonant of the word and a ‫فتحة‬ on the one before the last. ‫ ُﻳؤ َﻛﻝ‬ ‫ﻳﺄﻛﻝ‬

‫درس‬
‫ ُﻳ ﱠ‬ ‫درس‬
ّ‫ﻳ‬
‫ ُﻳﻛﺗَب‬ ‫ﻳﻛﺗب‬
‫ يُقال‬ ‫يقول‬
‫ يُشا َھد‬ ‫ﻳﺷﺎﻫد‬
The passive is typically used when the focus is on the event itself rather than on the subject, either because the subject is unknown or well‐known. .‫ُﺳ ِرﻗت ﺳﻳﺎرﺗﻲ أﻣس‬
.‫اﻟﻠص‬
ّ ‫ﻗُﺑِض ﻋﻠﻰ‬
.‫درس "اﻟﻛﺗﺎب" ﻓﻲ ﻗﺳم اﻟﻠﻐﺔ اﻟﻌرﺑﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﻣﻳدﻟﺑري‬
‫ُﻳ ﱠ‬
.‫ﺳﻳﻌﻘَد اﻻﺟﺗﻣﺎع ﻓﻲ اﻟﺳﺎﻋﺔ اﻟﺳﺎدﺳﺔ ﻣﺳﺎء‬
ُ
9 
Document related concepts
no text concepts found
Similar