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The Constitution Tested:
Nationalism and
Sectionalism
Chapter 5
Section 1
Urban and Industrial Patterns of
Life in the North


Many rivers in the North
provided waterpower for
driving machinery and served
as natural highways for
transporting goods.
North had excellent ocean
ports that made trade with
Europe easy and profitable.


The Erie Canal enabled the
merchants and farmers to ship
goods in one continuous
voyage between New York City
and ports on Lake Erie.
Another factor in the growth
of industry was technological
progress.
 The
invention and development
of the steamboat by Robert
Fulton and others in early
1800s increased the speed of
water transport.
 The building of railroads in the
1830s and 1840s greatly
improved the speed and
efficiency of transporting
goods by land.
National Bank and Tariffs

The Tariff Act of 1816 taxed
foreign imports and made it
easier for new American
textile mills to compete
against British mills.


Alexander Hamilton set up the
national bank which benefited
northern merchants.
In 1816, to replace Hamilton’s
first national bank, Congress
chartered a Second Bank of
the United States, which
provided loans to businesses
and helped industry grow.


Abundant natural and human
resources are two things a
nation needs for developing a
factory system.
The growth of factories was
aided by the new system of
using interchangeable parts.
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Immigrants arriving in the
ports of Boston and New York
City provided a steady supply
of cheap labor.
Women and children under
the age of 12 worked in the
New England textile mills.
Women migrated from farms
to factories to take advantage
of the newly created textile
jobs.
Urban Problems


Unsanitary water created disease,
little bathing, houses packed in so
tight sun light could not hit them,
overcrowded streets, racial
tensions as well as economic
tensions.
The male’s role in the middle
class family was to provide a
salary for the family to live off.
New York
City
1856
 The
role of the female in the
middle class family was that
she would take care of the
household and raise the family.
 The role of the female and the
children in a working class
family was that they were
forced to work jobs that had
little or no security.
Education



Education was primarily for
privileged boys whose parents paid
for them to attend school.
Horace Mann and Henry Bernard
advocated that the systems of
public education be paid for by the
states.
Massachusetts and New York led
the way by establishing state
systems of elementary schools.
Slaves and free Blacks


Free blacks did not have the
rights of full citizenship.
Most towns other than New
England denied blacks the right
to vote, many African Americans
were segregated, black children
could not attend schools with
white children, and blacks were
not allowed to serve on juries or
testify in criminal cases.
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
Immigrants in the Pre-Civil War
Period
British, Germans, and the Irish were
the three groups of people the
immigrant ships brought to U.S.
ports after the 1800s.
Economic reasons relating to the
Industrial Revolution were why
thousands of British people decide
to leave their homeland.
German people decided to leave
their homeland because of a failed
revolution in 1848.
 The
Germans also left for
political reasons and economic
reasons (opportunities for
farming and employment).
 Irish people decided to leave
their homeland because their
was a potato famine that many
Irish relied on for food.



A nativist is someone who
believes that foreign born people
pose a threat to the majority
culture and should be stopped
from entering the country.
Irish, Catholics, east European
Jews, Italians, Chinese, and
Japanese were ethnic groups that
the nativists tried to exclude from
this country.
The “Know Nothings” was a
Protestant nativist group.
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Cotton became the main cash crop
in the south during the early 1800s.
Eli Whitney’s invention of the cotton
gin removed the seeds from the
cotton plants which was slow by
hand allowed cotton quantities to
boom.
As cotton increased the value of the
land where did poor southern
farmers move to territories such as
Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana,
Arkansas, and Texas.
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The cotton plant made the issue of
slavery more entrenched in the
South with each passing year, and
in turn made the nation more
divided.
Southern laws protected the
plantation owner and allowed him
free reign over his slaves.
The sale of slaves and the
separation of families were legal.
Jobs performed by female slaves
were cooks, seamstresses, and
caretakers of the white owners’
children.
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A slave child expected to be part of
the labor force by the ages of six to
eight.
Slave labor increased after Congress
banned the importation of slaves in
1808, as required in the constitution.
The south ignored it because of the
economic demands for cotton.
Baptists and Methodists are the two
main religions most African
Americans during the time.
Spirituals are African American
songs.
Slave resistance


Nat Turner led a rebellion in Virginia
in which 59 whites were killed.
Slaves purposely worked at a slower
pace when picking cotton in the
fields and refused demands placed
upon them.
The Underground Railroad were
places where escaping slaves could
hide on there journey north to
freedom.