The Constitution Tested: Nationalism and Sectionalism Chapter 5 Section 1 Urban and Industrial Patterns of Life in the North Many rivers in the North provided waterpower for driving machinery and served as natural highways for transporting goods. North had excellent ocean ports that made trade with Europe easy and profitable. The Erie Canal enabled the merchants and farmers to ship goods in one continuous voyage between New York City and ports on Lake Erie. Another factor in the growth of industry was technological progress. The invention and development of the steamboat by Robert Fulton and others in early 1800s increased the speed of water transport. The building of railroads in the 1830s and 1840s greatly improved the speed and efficiency of transporting goods by land. National Bank and Tariffs The Tariff Act of 1816 taxed foreign imports and made it easier for new American textile mills to compete against British mills. Alexander Hamilton set up the national bank which benefited northern merchants. In 1816, to replace Hamilton’s first national bank, Congress chartered a Second Bank of the United States, which provided loans to businesses and helped industry grow. Abundant natural and human resources are two things a nation needs for developing a factory system. The growth of factories was aided by the new system of using interchangeable parts. Immigrants arriving in the ports of Boston and New York City provided a steady supply of cheap labor. Women and children under the age of 12 worked in the New England textile mills. Women migrated from farms to factories to take advantage of the newly created textile jobs. Urban Problems Unsanitary water created disease, little bathing, houses packed in so tight sun light could not hit them, overcrowded streets, racial tensions as well as economic tensions. The male’s role in the middle class family was to provide a salary for the family to live off. New York City 1856 The role of the female in the middle class family was that she would take care of the household and raise the family. The role of the female and the children in a working class family was that they were forced to work jobs that had little or no security. Education Education was primarily for privileged boys whose parents paid for them to attend school. Horace Mann and Henry Bernard advocated that the systems of public education be paid for by the states. Massachusetts and New York led the way by establishing state systems of elementary schools. Slaves and free Blacks Free blacks did not have the rights of full citizenship. Most towns other than New England denied blacks the right to vote, many African Americans were segregated, black children could not attend schools with white children, and blacks were not allowed to serve on juries or testify in criminal cases. Immigrants in the Pre-Civil War Period British, Germans, and the Irish were the three groups of people the immigrant ships brought to U.S. ports after the 1800s. Economic reasons relating to the Industrial Revolution were why thousands of British people decide to leave their homeland. German people decided to leave their homeland because of a failed revolution in 1848. The Germans also left for political reasons and economic reasons (opportunities for farming and employment). Irish people decided to leave their homeland because their was a potato famine that many Irish relied on for food. A nativist is someone who believes that foreign born people pose a threat to the majority culture and should be stopped from entering the country. Irish, Catholics, east European Jews, Italians, Chinese, and Japanese were ethnic groups that the nativists tried to exclude from this country. The “Know Nothings” was a Protestant nativist group. Cotton became the main cash crop in the south during the early 1800s. Eli Whitney’s invention of the cotton gin removed the seeds from the cotton plants which was slow by hand allowed cotton quantities to boom. As cotton increased the value of the land where did poor southern farmers move to territories such as Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Arkansas, and Texas. The cotton plant made the issue of slavery more entrenched in the South with each passing year, and in turn made the nation more divided. Southern laws protected the plantation owner and allowed him free reign over his slaves. The sale of slaves and the separation of families were legal. Jobs performed by female slaves were cooks, seamstresses, and caretakers of the white owners’ children. A slave child expected to be part of the labor force by the ages of six to eight. Slave labor increased after Congress banned the importation of slaves in 1808, as required in the constitution. The south ignored it because of the economic demands for cotton. Baptists and Methodists are the two main religions most African Americans during the time. Spirituals are African American songs. Slave resistance Nat Turner led a rebellion in Virginia in which 59 whites were killed. Slaves purposely worked at a slower pace when picking cotton in the fields and refused demands placed upon them. The Underground Railroad were places where escaping slaves could hide on there journey north to freedom.