Lyme Disease Transmission Studies 1. "Isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi from arthropods collected in Texas," by G.J. Teltow, P.V. Fournier, and Julie A. Rawlings; Microbiological Services Division, Bureau of Laboratories, Texas Dept. of Health, Austin. Am. J Trop Med Hyg, May 1991. This study found Lyme disease Bb bacteria in lone star ticks (Amblyomma americanum), Gulf Coast ticks (Amblyomma maculatum), deer ticks (Ixodes scapularis), and cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) in Texas. 2. "Identification of endemic foci of Lyme disease: isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi from feral rodents and ticks (Dermacentor variabilis)." By Anderson JF, Johnson RC, Magnarelli LA, Hyde FW. J Clin Microbiol. 1985 Jul;22(1):36–38. This study found Lyme disease Bb bacteria in deer ticks and American dog ticks (Dermacentor variabilis) in Connecticut. 3. "Incidence of the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi in arthropods (Arthropoda) and antibodies in vertebrates (Vertebrata)." By P.Pokorny. [Article in Czech.] Cesk Epidemiol Mikrobiol Imunol, Jan. 1989; 38(10:52-60). This study found Bb bacteria in 30 species of arthropods (arachnids and insects), including 13 species of mites, 15 species of flies, and two species of fleas. 4. "Lyme Disease Transmitted by a Biting Fly." N Engl J Med, 1990, June 14; 322 (24): p. 1752. Steven W. Lugar, MD, Old Lyme, CT. "Letter to the Editor." A man from Old Lyme, CT was bitten several times by a large fly he believed was either a horsefly or a deerfly. A large 16 cm by 11 cm erythema migrans rash developed around the bite area. He became ill with Lyme disease symptoms at that time. He tested positive for Lyme disease antibodies on the IgM and IgG Western blots. 5. "Ticks and mosquitoes as vectors of Borrelia burgdorferi s. l. in the forested areas of Szczecin." By Kosik-Bogacka DI, Kuzna-Grygiel W, Jaborowska M. Department of Biology and Medical Parasitology, Pomeranian Medical U., Szczecin, Poland. Folia Biol (Krakow). 2007;55(3-4):143-6. This study found Lyme disease Bb bacteria in mosquitoes in Poland. 6. "Isolation of Borrelia afzelii from overwintering Culex pipiens biotype molestus mosquitoes." Ann Agric Environ Med. 2006;13(2):345-8. Zakovska A, Capkova L, Sery O, Halouzka J, Dendis M.; Dept. of Comparative Animal Physiology and General Zoology, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Czech Republic. This study found B. afzelli (a strain of Lyme disease) in mosquitoes in the Czech Republic. 7. "The etiologic agent of Lyme disease in deer flies, horse flies, and mosquitoes." By Magnarelli LA, Anderson JF, Barbour AG. J Infect Dis 1986; 154:355-8. This study found Bb bacteria in deer flies, horse flies, and mosquitoes in Connecticut. 8. Ticks and biting insects infected with the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi. Louis A. Magnarelli, John F. Anderson; Department of Entomology, Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven. J Clinical Microbiology, Aug. 1988; vol. 26, no.8: p.1482-1486. This study found Lyme disease bacteria in horse flies, deer flies, and mosquitoes. After infected mosquitoes fed on uninfected hamsters, one hamster developed antibodies to Bb, proving that mosquitoes in the U.S. can transmit Lyme disease.