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PowerPoint® Lecture Slides
prepared by
Janice Meeking,
Mount Royal College
CHAPTER
10
The Muscular
System:
Part B
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Muscles of the Thorax
• Muscles of respiration
• External intercostals—more superficial muscles that
elevate ribs for inspiration
• Internal intercostals—deeper muscles that aid forced
expiration
• Diaphragm
• Partition between thoracic and abdominal cavities
• Most important muscle in inspiration
• Innervated by phrenic nerves
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
External
intercostal
(a)
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Internal
intercostal
Figure 10.10a
Xiphoid process of sternum
Foramen for inferior
vena cava
Central
tendon of
diaphragm
Foramen
for aorta
12th rib
(b)
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Foramen for
esophagus
Costal cartilage
Diaphragm
Lumbar
vertebra
Quadratus
lumborum
Psoas major
Figure 10.10b
Muscles of the Abdominal Wall
• Four paired muscles; their fasciae and
aponeuroses form the lateral and anterior
abdominal wall
• Internal obliques
• External obliques
• Transversus abdominis
• Rectus abdominis
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Pectoralis major
Serratus anterior
Linea alba
Transversus abdominis
Internal oblique
External oblique
Aponeurosis of the
external oblique
(a)
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Tendinous
intersection
Rectus
abdominis
Inguinal ligament
(formed by free
inferior border of
the external oblique
aponeurosis)
Figure 10.11a
Muscles of the Abdominal Wall
• Fascicles of these muscles run at angles to
one another, providing added strength
• All are innervated by intercostal nerves
• Actions of these muscles
• Lateral flexion and rotation of the trunk
• Help promote urination, defecation, childbirth,
vomiting, coughing, and screaming
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Rectus
abdominis
Internal
oblique
External
oblique
IIiac crest
Pubic
tubercle
Transversus
abdominis
Inguinal
ligament
Lumbar
fascia
Lumbar
fascia
(b)
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 10.11b
Muscles of the Pelvic Floor
• Pelvic floor (pelvic diaphragm) is composed of
two paired muscles
• Levator ani
• Coccygeus
• Both are innervated by sacral nerves
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Muscles of the Pelvic Floor
• Functions of the pelvic diaphragm
• Seals the inferior outlet of the pelvis
• Supports pelvic organs
• Lifts pelvic floor to help release feces
• Resists increased intra-abdominal pressure
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Muscles of the Perineum
• Urogenital diaphragm
• Anterior half of perineum, inferior to pelvic
floor
• Deep transverse perineal muscle
• External urethral sphincter (voluntary control of
urination)
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Anterior
Levator
ani
Symphysis pubis
Urogenital diaphragm
Urethra
Vagina
Anal canal
Pubococcygeus
IIiococcygeus
Obturator
internus
Coccyx
Levator ani
Coccygeus
Piriformis
(a)
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Posterior
Pelvic
diaphragm
Figure 10.12a
Urethral
opening
External urethral
sphincter
Inferior pubic ramus
Deep
transverse
perineal
muscle
Central tendon
Vaginal
opening
Anus
External anal
sphincter
(b)
Male
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Female
Figure 10.12b
Muscles of the Perineum
• Muscles of superficial perineal space
• Ischiocavernosus
• Bulbospongiosus
• Superficial transverse perineal muscles
• External anal sphincter (in posterior half of
perineum)
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Urethral
opening
Vaginal
opening
Clitoris
Anus
Penis
Midline raphe
Ischiocavernosus
Bulbospongiosus
Superficial
transverse
perineal muscle
Levator ani
Gluteus maximus
(c)
Male
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Female
Figure 10.12c
Superficial Muscles of the Thorax
• Most are extrinsic shoulder muscles
• Act in combination to fix the shoulder girdle
(mostly the scapula) and move it to increase
range of arm movements
• Actions include elevation, depression, rotation,
lateral and medial movements, protraction,
and retraction
• Two groups of muscles: anterior and posterior
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Superficial Muscles of the Thorax
• Anterior extrinsic shoulder muscles
• Pectoralis minor
• Serratus anterior
• Subclavius
• (Pectoralis major considered later with
muscles that act on the humerus)
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Sternocleidomastoid
Deltoid
Pectoralis
major
Sternum
Biceps brachii
Subclavius
Clavicle
Subscapularis
Pectoralis minor
Coracobrachialis
Serratus anterior
Humerus
(a)
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 10.13a
Superficial Muscles of the Posterior Thorax
• Posterior extrinsic shoulder muscles
• Trapezius
• Levator scapulae
• Rhomboids (major and minor)
• (Latissimus dorsi considered later with
muscles that act on the humerus)
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Levator
scapulae
Trapezius
Supraspinatus
Clavicle
Deltoid
Rhomboid
minor
Rhomboid
major
Spine of
scapula
Infraspinatus
Teres minor
Teres major
Humerus
Latissimus
dorsi
(c)
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 10.13c
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