LECTURE 4 Theme: Noun. Cases оf Nouns PLAN ►1. ►2. Cases Of Nouns. Declension of Nouns. NOUN ► Noun is a part of speech which means a living creature, a thing, or an abstract idea. Declension ► In Ukrainian nouns decline. ► Declension is a change in the ending of a noun to denote its function in the sentence. ► The endings a noun can acquire depending on its function in the sentence are called cases. ► There are 7 cases in Ukrainian. Declension ► The Nominative case of a noun is its base form, so the gender of a noun is determined in this case. The Nominative case endings have been given above when dealing with the gender of nouns. The Nominative case of a noun is its base form, so the gender of a noun is determined in this case. The Nominative case endings have been given when dealing with the gender of nouns. The use of the Nominative case ►A noun in the Nominative case is used in the sentence as the subject: Марія (Nom.) моя подруга. (Maria is my friend.) ►A noun in the Nominative case is used in the sentence as a complement after the linking verb "є" (is), which is most often omitted in Ukrainian: Марія - моя подруга (Nom.). (Maria is my friend.) Case Examples in Ukrainian Nominative сестра Translation sister Comments This is the case of the subject in a sentence and the form in which nouns are listed in the dictionary. Case ► Examples in Ukrainian Genitive У мене нема сестри. have no sister. Я приїхав без сестри. without (my) sister Translation I I came ► ► Comments ► You should learn the "У мене нема" (I don't have...) combination as a whole since it has a different structure (not a word by word translation by far). The genitive case is often used with negative verbs. Case ► Dative Examples in Ukrainian Translation Я телефоную сестрі. calling (my) sister. I'm Case ► Accusative Examples in Ukrainian Я зустріну сестру на вокзалі. Я шукаю сестру. Я дивлюся на сестру. Translation I'll meet (my) sister at the train station. I'm looking for (my) sister. I'm looking at (my) sister. Comments This case is used with (3rd example here) and without (1st & 2nd examples) prepositions. Case ► Instrumental Examples in Ukrainian Я захоплююся сестрою. Я приїду із сестрою. Translation I admire (my) sister. I will come with (my) sister. Comments This case often indicates the means of doing something, e.g., Я їду поїздом - I'm going by train - the masculine noun "train" is in the instrumental case. It is also used with some prepositions (example 2). Case ► Prepositional Examples in Ukrainian На сестрі красива сукня. Translation My sister is wearing a beautiful dress. (literally: There's a beautiful dress on (my) sister.) Comments Used only with prepositions. Also called "locative," this case often describes a place in its broadest sence: location, destination, etc. Case Examples in Ukrainian ► Vocative Сестро! Translation Sister! Comments Used to address people. The Vocative case (Voc.) The use of the Vocative case The Vocative case is used to address: ► living beings: Маріє, де ти? (Maria, where are you?) ► personified things: Україно (Voc), моя земле (Voc)! (Ukraine, my land!) Declensions ►In Ukrainian, there are 4 declension types. The first declension is used for most feminine nouns. The second declension is used for most masculine and neuter nouns. The third declension is used for feminine nouns ending in ь or a post-alveolar sibilant. The fourth declension is used for neuter nouns ending in я/а (Common Slavic *ę). ► Most of the types consist of 3 different subgroups: hard, mixed, and soft. The soft subgroup consists of nouns whose roots end in a soft letter (followed by iotified vowel or soft vowel). The mixed subgroup consists of the nouns whose roots end in a post-alveolar sibilant or occasionally r. The hard group consists of all other nouns. ► If the hard group endings are taken as the basis, then the following rules can be used to derived the corresponding mixed and soft endings ► Mixed subgroup All o following a post-alveolar sibilant change to e. All y following a post-alveolar sibilant change to i. ► Soft subgroup: Whenever a soft sign or the semi-vowel encounters the vowel of the ending, the following changes occur (These are mainly orthographic changes): First declension ►This declension consists of nouns which end in а or я. It consists primarily of feminine nouns, but a few nouns with these ending referring to professions can be either masculine or feminine. Second declension ► The second declension consists of masculine and neuter nouns. ► Masculine Nouns: This group consists primarily of nouns, which end in a consonant, a soft sign, ь, or й. It should be noted that in the masculine declension, nouns, which end in р can belong to any of the three declension subgroups: hard, mixed, and soft ►Neuter Nouns In this category belong neuter nouns ending in о, е, and those substantives ending in я, preceded by either a double consonant, apostrophe, or two consonants, which primarily are derived from verbs. Third declension ►This declension consists solely of feminine nouns that end in a consonant. This declension has only 2 subgroups: a mixed and soft group. Fourth declension ►This declension consists of solely neuter nouns that are derived from Common Slavic *ę. There are two subgroups: those with an н insert, and those with a т insert. Дякую за увагу!