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LECTURE 4
Theme: Noun. Cases оf
Nouns
PLAN
►1.
►2.
Cases Of Nouns.
Declension of Nouns.
NOUN
►
Noun is a part of speech
which means a living
creature, a thing, or an
abstract idea.
Declension
► In
Ukrainian nouns decline.
► Declension is a change in the ending of a
noun to denote its function in the sentence.
► The endings a noun can acquire depending
on its function in the sentence are called
cases.
► There are 7 cases in Ukrainian.
Declension
► The
Nominative case of a noun is its
base form, so the gender of a noun is
determined in this case. The
Nominative case endings have been
given above when dealing with the
gender of nouns.
The Nominative case of a noun is its base
form, so the gender of a noun is
determined in this case. The Nominative
case endings have been given when
dealing with the gender of nouns.
The use of the Nominative case
►A
noun in the Nominative case is used in
the sentence as the subject: Марія (Nom.) моя подруга. (Maria is my friend.)
►A
noun in the Nominative case is used in
the sentence as a complement after the
linking verb "є" (is), which is most often
omitted in Ukrainian: Марія - моя подруга
(Nom.). (Maria is my friend.)
Case
Examples
in Ukrainian
Nominative сестра
Translation
sister
Comments
This is the case of the subject in a
sentence and the form in which nouns
are listed in the dictionary.
Case
►
Examples
in Ukrainian
Genitive У мене нема сестри.
have no sister.
Я приїхав без сестри.
without (my) sister
Translation
I
I came
►
► Comments
►
You should learn the "У мене нема" (I don't have...)
combination as a whole since it has a different structure
(not a word by word translation by far). The genitive case
is often used with negative verbs.
Case
► Dative
Examples
in Ukrainian
Translation
Я телефоную сестрі.
calling (my) sister.
I'm
Case
► Accusative
Examples
in Ukrainian
Я зустріну сестру на вокзалі.
Я шукаю сестру.
Я дивлюся на сестру.
Translation
I'll meet (my) sister at the train station.
I'm looking for (my) sister.
I'm looking at (my) sister.
Comments
This case is used with (3rd example here) and
without (1st & 2nd examples) prepositions.
Case
► Instrumental
Examples
in Ukrainian
Я захоплююся сестрою.
Я приїду із сестрою.
Translation
I admire (my) sister.
I will come with (my) sister.
Comments
This case often indicates the means of doing
something, e.g., Я їду поїздом - I'm going by
train - the masculine noun "train" is in the
instrumental case. It is also used with some
prepositions (example 2).
Case
► Prepositional
Examples
in Ukrainian
На сестрі красива
сукня.
Translation
My sister is wearing a beautiful dress. (literally:
There's a beautiful dress on (my) sister.)
Comments
Used only with prepositions. Also called
"locative," this case often describes a place
in its broadest sence: location, destination,
etc.
Case
Examples
in Ukrainian
► Vocative
Сестро!
Translation
Sister!
Comments
Used to address people.
The Vocative case (Voc.)
The use of the Vocative case
The Vocative case is used to address:
► living beings: Маріє, де ти? (Maria, where
are you?)
► personified things: Україно (Voc), моя
земле (Voc)! (Ukraine, my land!)
Declensions
►In
Ukrainian, there are 4 declension
types. The first declension is used for
most feminine nouns. The second
declension is used for most masculine
and neuter nouns. The third
declension is used for feminine nouns
ending in ь or a post-alveolar sibilant.
The fourth declension is used for
neuter nouns ending in я/а
(Common Slavic *ę).
► Most
of the types consist of 3 different
subgroups: hard, mixed, and soft. The soft
subgroup consists of nouns whose roots end in a
soft letter (followed by iotified vowel or soft
vowel). The mixed subgroup consists of the
nouns whose roots end in a post-alveolar sibilant
or occasionally r. The hard group consists of all
other nouns.
► If
the hard group endings are taken as the basis,
then the following rules can be used to derived
the corresponding mixed and soft endings
► Mixed
subgroup
 All o following a post-alveolar sibilant change
to e.
 All y following a post-alveolar sibilant change
to i.
► Soft
subgroup: Whenever a soft sign or
the semi-vowel encounters the vowel of
the ending, the following changes occur
(These are mainly orthographic changes):
First declension
►This
declension consists of nouns
which end in а or я. It consists
primarily of feminine nouns, but a
few nouns with these ending
referring to professions can be
either masculine or feminine.
Second declension
► The
second declension consists of masculine and
neuter nouns.
► Masculine Nouns: This group consists primarily
of nouns, which end in a consonant, a soft sign, ь,
or й. It should be noted that in the masculine
declension, nouns, which end in р can belong to
any of the three declension subgroups: hard,
mixed, and soft
►Neuter
Nouns In this category
belong neuter nouns ending in о, е,
and those substantives ending in я,
preceded by either a double
consonant, apostrophe, or two
consonants, which primarily are
derived from verbs.
Third declension
►This
declension consists
solely of feminine nouns that
end in a consonant. This
declension has only 2
subgroups: a mixed and soft
group.
Fourth declension
►This
declension consists of solely
neuter nouns that are derived from
Common Slavic *ę. There are two
subgroups: those with an н insert, and
those with a т insert.
Дякую за увагу!
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