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Matter, Atomic StructurePeriodic Table
ISCI 2002
Spring 2009
• Anything that has mass and occupies space
• Matter – all substances
• Properties of matter
▫ 1. macroscopic
▫ 2. microscopic
• 1.
and
– Small; cannot be seen with visible light
• 2.
– Nucleus
• Protons and neutrons
– Energy levels / electron clouds
• Electrons
• 3. Atoms are mostly
• Atomic mass unit (amu) – hydrogen atom (1 amu)
• Electron mass = 1/2000 amu
• 1. Proton + Neutron
–Mass of the atom
• 2. Electrons
–1/2000 of one amu
–Not included in the mass
• Atomic Number – Periodic Table
▫ Number of protons in an atom
▫ Protons = electrons
• Using your periodic table determine the number of
protons and electrons in the following atoms
▫
▫
▫
▫
Sodium
Chlorine
Nitrogen
Lithium
• Number of neutrons and protons
• Combined mass – Mass Number
• Atomic Weight
▫ Average of all the isotopes in an element.
▫ Carbon = 12.011 amu
▫ Combination of three carbon isotopes
1. Elements are composed of several different types of the
same atom
• Same type of atoms with differing number of neutrons
2. Carbon
– 3 isotopes
– Carbon 12, 13, and 14
Calculating neutrons
Using the mass number and atomic number to
determine the subatomic particles
• 1.
• 2.
– Number of protons
• 3.
– Mass of neutrons and protons
• 4.
– Vertical
• 5.
– Horizontal
Periodic Table
Periodic Table
Groups and Periods
Alkali
Noble
Alkaline
Earth
metals
Halogens
Transition Metals
Energy Level
(Electron
Shell)
Orbitals
Max Number of electrons
Valence Electrons
1
S
2
2
2
S and P
8
8
3
S, P, D
18
8
4
S, P,D
32
8
S, P,D,F
50
8
5
Orbital
Maximum Electrons
S
2
P
6
D
10
F
14
• 1. Look at the atomic number
• 2. Determine the total number of electrons
• 3. Draw each energy level with correct number
electrons
• Next – Dot Diagrams
 Draw only the ‘valence’ electrons
S and P - orbitals only
of
•
▫ Appearance – hard or soft; dull or shiny; color
▫ Density; melting point and boiling point
•
describes changes of
composition the substance undergo’s during a
chemical change
▫ What is required to bring about the change
▫ Temperature, heat, number of electrons, etc.
Chemical and Physical Properties
•
▫ Depends on the ‘
’ of matter in a sample
▫ Cannot be used to characterize a type of matter
,
•
▫ Property
(m/v);
or
▫ The
by all examples of a specific type of matter
;
;
;
is 1.0 g/cm3