Making the Right Choices to Reduce Cancer Risk The University of Georgia Cooperative Extension Service Cancer risk can be reduced 6070% by Sensible food choices A healthy weight Physical activity Not smoking Specifically Cancer May Be Reduced By 20% by eating 5 or more vegetables and fruits per day 30% if you don’t smoke 30-40% if you eat a plant based diet, maintain a healthy weight and exercise regularly What are the major causes of cancer? Tobacco Inadequate intake of fruit and vegetables Excess alcohol intake Obesity Too much sun Less Common Causes of Cancer Genetics Pollution Radiation Occupational hazards Nutrition and Activity Guidelines from AICR and ACS Plant based diet with plenty of fruits and vegetables Low fat, low sodium foods Less red meat More whole grains Healthy weight Regular physical activity Moderate alcohol if at all Save storage and preparation of food What good nutrition and exercise can do Lung cancer reduced nearly 30% with more fruits and vegetables Stomach cancer reduced 66-75% if fewer foods preserved with salt were eaten Breast cancer reduced 33-50% if consume a plant based diet with no alcohol Reducing the risk Colon and rectal cancer reduced 66-75% with high vegetable diet with little meat and alcohol and regular physical activity Mouth and throat cancer reduced 33-50% with high vegetable and fruit intake and little alcohol Liver cancer reduced 33-66% with less alcohol and aflatoxin not in food Four P’s of Prevention Plant Based Portion Controlled Physically active Practical thinking Why a Plant Based Diet Helps Fewer calories and less fat More vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals and antioxidants Less alcohol Plant Based Goals 5 - 9 servings of fruit vegetables 3 - 7 whole grains Phytochemicals Diallyl sulfides Onions, garlic, leeks Carotenoids Carrots, cooked tomatoes, leafy greens, sweet potatoes Betacarotene Lycopene Lutein Zeaxanthin Phytochemicals Indoles and isothiocyanates (cruciferous vegetables) Broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, kale, brussel sprouts Isoflavoids Soy Phytochemicals Phenolic acids Berries, citrus, apples, whole grains and nuts Saponins Beans, other legumes Terpenes Cherries, rosemary, citrus peel Over 100 phytochemicals in just one fruit or vegetable – may work together so supplements are not the same Ultimate Goal – Meat as a Condiment – Not the Main Event The 2nd P - Portion Control Prevents overweight and obesity associated with cancer of – Colon Breast Pancreas Kidney Prostate Endometrium (lining of uterus) Reducing Risk Prevent childhood weight problems Have BMI between 18.5 and 25 Don’t gain more than 11 pounds during adulthood Apple shape more at risk Just a 10% weight loss is beneficial Know your portion sizes ½ cup ¼ cup 1 cup 3 oz. ½ baseball, rounded adult handful Golf ball, scant adult handful Baseball, adult fist Deck of cards, bar of soap Other portions of interest 1 oz. meat – small matchbox 8 oz. meat – thin paperback book 1 oz. cheese – 4 dice Med. potato – computer mouse 2 tablespoons peanut butter – ping pong ball High fat foods Increase risk for cancer of the Lung Colon Rectum Breast Endometrium Prostate What are some ways you can cut fat and calories? Snack on fruit and vegetables Order smaller portions Read labels Look for lower fat version of foods Steam, bake, microwave or stir fry Use fresh over processed food Add spices and herbs instead of fat The 3rd P – Physical Activity Associated with reduced risk for Colon cancer Breast cancer Lung cancer To Lower Cancer Risk More May be Better Moderate to vigorous intensity 30-45 minutes or more per session 5 or more days a week For kids – 1 hour per day Moderate or Brisk Activity versus Vigorous Activity Moderate Walk – 4 mph Canoeing – 3 mph Gardening Volleyball Biking Dancing Vigorous Walking hills Hiking Tennis Swimming laps Jogging Stair climbing 4th P – Practical Thinking Gradual changes Slow weight loss Planning activity into weekly schedule Planning menus, shopping lists and time for food preparation In summary What are the 4 P’s of cancer prevention? What does the “New American Plate” look like? What are you going to do this week to lower your risk for cancer?