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Egypt: The Middle Kingdom
During this generally peaceful time trade picked up dramatically. Many resources which before had
been unused were now being exploited such as the cultivation of crops, mines which produced
gold and quarries that were dug for building projects. During the entire Middle Kingdom many
building projects were conducted. Mentuhotep I built his mortuary temple at Deir el-Bahari. The
12th Dynasty re-established the pyramid building and every Pharaoh of that dynasty was buried in
their own pyramid.
Many other structures were also built during this
time. This included the building of fortresses.
Amenemhet I built the series of fortresses that came
to be known as the Wall of the Princes. Senusret I,
built a series of 13 fortresses from the Second
Cataract up along the west coast of the Nile to
protect against invaders.
The Middle Kingdom was a generally peaceful time.
However, expeditions were sent during some phases
of the Middle Kingdom to push the borders of
Egypt outward. Only during Senusret III do we see numerous campaigns of this type. Senusret III
also regained the power that was enjoyed by Mentuhotep I by instituting several internal reforms.
The Middle Kingdom eventually came to a close, however. There appears to have been a smooth
transition between the 12th and 13th Dynasties.
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