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HIGH RENAISSANCE - CHAPTER 22
Vocabulary: cartoon, chiaroscuro, facade, oil on canvas, painterly, piazza, palazzo, sfumato, sinopia
-Art of Italy, c.1490-1520 – art center shifts from Florence --> Rome
-This period represented a culmination
-The tentative artistic explorations of the Early Renaissance, burst into full bloom during the HR.
-Artists no longer pondered the art of antiquity.
-Role of artist/architect fully matured into one completely freed from medieval past
-Artists brought to maturation the concepts initiated in the Italian Renaissance
-ideal proportions, scientific perspective, balance
-Vasari= The High Renaissance artist subjugated nature to art
-Rome became center of art for Europe took the lead from Florence
-Strong, powerful popes built up Rome with great works of art and architecture
-Fully realizes the notion of artist as genius
-artist as craftsperson notion died out
-Venetian artists make dramatic innovations in painting
-Feelings now an important factor, in contrast to artists of Early Italian Renaissance
-Early Renaissance artists bound by formulas, scientific perspective, rules, etc.
-H. R. artists created more expressively than predecessors
-Pope Julius II= a major patron of the arts
-monumental projects, tomb, St. Peter's, Sistine Chapel (Michelangelo)
-16th cent= major upheaval/change in European society
-Protestant Reformation, Martin Luther
-Protestant & Catholic views on religious images differ
-affected art and patronage
-Catholics believed art was a valuable tool for cultivating piety
-Protestants believed visual imagery could produce idolatry
-Counter Reformation, Council of Trent convened in 1545
-stresses "mystery" of church
-prestige of artist grows
-Role of women in arts limited but changing
-Sofonisba Anguissola= accomplished painter
-Isabella d'Este = major patron in the Mantua (Gonzaga family) court
Characteristics of High Renaissance Artwork in Italy
No singular style characterizes the period
Scientific observation from life, perspective techniques
Use of modeling, chiaroscuro
Sfumato, (dVinci)
Perfect proportion
Clarity
Emphasis on Horizontals and verticals
Balance and symmetry in forms and composition
Allover light
Calm, stability and order
Architecture
-Emphasis shifted from Florence to Rome and Venice
-Central plans popular, circle-in-a-square organization popular for churches
-Most notable= Bramante SEE TEMPIETTO, built in Rome on site of St. Peter's crucifixion
-Expressed ideals of order, simplicity, symmetry, harmonious proportions
-SEE: St. Peter's, Rome
Sculpture
-Michelangelo dominated with numerous commissions
-Sculpture= heroic, monumental, muscled, filled w/ expressive emotion (e.g. David, Moses )
LEONARDO DA VINCI
-artist, engineer, scientist, inventor, designer, consummate Renaissance Man
-left 10,000 pages of notebooks, drawings, writings, notes, etc.
-sensitive, mystic quality to work
-deep, psychological warmth to figures bathed in sfumato ( smoky, haze)
-chiaroscuro= strong contrasts of dark and light
MICHELANGELO
-felt that sculpture was art closest to God?liberated figure from marble that imprisons it
-primarily a sculptor, e.g. David & Pieta--painted Sistine Chapel Ceiling & altar wall
-heavy muscled figures, heroic, monumental forms and themes –e.g. Sistine ceiling
-Later years devoted to architecture, e.g. St. Peter's Cathedral, Capitoline Hall (civic center)
RAPHAEL
-Much admired, very popular, rich, handsome, adored, well-to-do
-Vasari= Raphael was so gentle and so charitable that even animals loved him . . .
-Paintings= epitome of balance and harmony
-Combines sculptural quality of Michelangelo and gracefulness of D Vinci
-Combined elements of dV, e.g. pyramidal composition and use of chiaroscuro, and
Michelangelo, e.g. full-bodied, dynamic figures and contrapposto
-Michelangelo= All he knows, he learned from me . . .
TITIAN
-Artistic genius of Venice -- Considered Father of modern painting?
-Believed that color and mood were more important than line and scientific perspective
-Painted with numerous glazes to achieve dazzling color and light effects
-His brushstrokes are often visible not smoothed out.
EARLY 16th-CENTURY VENETIAN ART
-Venice= Northern Italy gateway to Orient
-Color (& light) = major concern of artists here, e.g. Bellini, Titian, Giorgione
-began using oil paint and canvas
MANNERISM
-Italian style that emerged in later half of 16th century
-Maneira= style or manner = stylish, affected, cultured, elegant, "mannered"
-Art that is not natural, consciously revealed a constructed nature of art
-artifice is celebrated
-imbalanced compositions, unusual color combinations, ambiguous space
-Somewhat "anti-classical"
LATER 16th-CENTURY VENETIAN ART
-Tintoretto is considered the outstanding representative
-Adopted many Mannerist devices + Titian's color + Michelangelo's drawing = dramatic
-Also see Veronese, eg House of Levi
-Architect= Andrea Palladio
-inspired by ancients, built many villas, e.g. Villa Rotonda
-Church of San Giorgio Maggiore= dramatic juxtaposition of motifs in Venice