SSMMCH09.book Page 244 Saturday, February 26, 2005 12:37 PM Se ct i on Section 2 2 Standards-Based Instruction Aztec Society Reading Preview Standards at a Glance Now that students have learned how the Aztecs built an empire centered in the valley of Mexico, they will explore Aztec society—its class system, family life, and religion. Students will continue to practice learning content vocabulary by expanding knowledge of Anglo-Saxon affixes. H-SS 7.7.2 Study the roles of people in each society, including class structures, family life, warfare, religious beliefs and practices, and slavery. E-LA Reading 7.1.2 Use knowledge of Greek, Latin, and Anglo-Saxon roots and affixes to understand content-area vocabulary. Reading Skill Use Anglo-Saxon Affixes You can use Anglo-Saxon suffixes to understand the meaning of a word. These suffixes often change the original word’s part of speech; changing a noun into a verb, for example. In this section, you will find two useful Anglo-Saxon suffixes: -dom and -ful. Vocabulary Builder High-Use Words theft (thehft), p. 245 monarch (MAHN ahrk), p. 247 Key Terms and People agrarian (uh GRAR ee uhn), p. 244 tribute (TRIHB yoot), p. 246 prime minister (pr¯ m MIHN ihs ter), p. 246 Section Focus Question What were the characteristics of Aztec civilization? Before you begin the lesson for the day, write the Section Focus Question on the board. (Possible answer: Aztec civilization featured strong emperors and loosely connected city-states, an influential religious institution, a well-organized army, and a rigid class structure.) Background Knowledge During the 1400s, the Aztecs built a great empire centered in the Valley of Mexico. At the same time, they also created a complex civilization and society. In this section, you will read about Aztec life and the role of religion and government in the Aztec Empire. Prepare to Read Build Background Knowledge Aztec Life L2 Aztec society was divided into two main social classes: nobles and commoners. Review what students learned about the Aztecs in Section 1. Have students list what they view as the distinctive features of the Aztecs. Have them predict what kind of society a group of people with these features would organize for themselves. Have them engage in a ThinkWrite-Pair-Share strategy (TE p. T39) and write their ideas on the chalkboard. Set a Purpose ■ Teaching Resources, Unit 4, Reading Readiness Guide, p. 67 ■ Use the Numbered Heads strategy (TE p. T38) to call on students to share one piece of information they already know and one piece of information they want to know. The students will return to these worksheets later. 244 Chapter 9 Class and Family The Aztecs were divided into two main classes: nobles and commoners. Nobles were a small proportion of society. They made up just 5 to 10 percent of the population. Nobles traced their ancestry to the first Aztec king. They lived comfortably in large, two-story homes. They wore fine cotton clothes decorated with colorful designs. Nobles ate the best food, including turkey and other meats. They also served as government officials. L2 Form students into pairs or groups of four. Distribute the Reading Readiness Guide. Ask students to fill in the first two columns of the chart. Like the Incas and the Mayas, the Aztecs were mainly an agrarian people. Most of their lives were related to farming. They were organized in a rigid class structure that influenced many aspects of life. They also worshiped many gods and were governed by powerful rulers. Yet despite these common elements, Aztec society also had many distinctive features. 244 Chapter 9 The Aztecs Universal Access L1 English Langauge Learners L1 Less Proficient Readers Aztec Marriage Distribute the worksheet Aztec Marriage to students. As students complete the worksheet, circulate to correct any misunderstandings and to provide help to those who need it. Have stu- dents discuss what they have learned before reviewing the worksheet. Teaching Resources, Unit 4, Aztec Marriage Worksheet, p. 70 Commoners lived more humbly. Extended families lived in adjoining houses around a central courtyard. They wore plain clothes woven from coarse fiber. Their diet consisted mainly of corn, beans, and chili peppers. At the lowest level of society were slaves who worked for noble families. Some were commoners who had sold themselves into slavery to escape poverty or to avoid punishment for theft or other crimes. Others had been taken captive during war. Slaves did have certain rights. They could marry and own property. Their children were born free. They could also purchase their freedom if they could afford it. Despite class differences, life for most Aztecs followed similar patterns. All Aztec children attended school for at least a few years. Boys received intensive military training. Girls learned the arts of homemaking. Teachers were highly respected. “He opens ears,” an Aztec wrote of a teacher. Economic Teach Aztec Life H-SS 7.7.2 Vocabulary Builder Instruction theft (thehft) n. crime of stealing ■ High-Use Words Preteach the high-use words theft and monarch, using the strategy on TE p. 237. Key Terms Following the instructions on p. 7, have students create a See It– Remember It chart for the key terms in this section. ■ Activities For most commoners, life revolved around farming or household duties. Men tended the fields, while women worked at home. Not all commoners were farmers, though. Some worked as artisans, making fine craft goods for noble families. Others were long-distance traders. They traveled the empire to find exotic goods, such as feathers and precious stones. Both artisans and traders held respected positions in Aztec society. How was Aztec society structured? The copyright holder has not granted permission to display this image in electronic format. Please see the teacher's edition of your textbook for this image. L2 Vocabulary Builder To help students understand social structure, use the Concept Lesson, Social Structure, and the Concept Organizer. Teaching Resources, Unit 4, Concept Lesson, p. 74; Concept Organizer, p. 5 ■ Have students read Aztec Life using the Structured Silent Reading strategy (TE p. T36). ■ Ask: Since nobles formed such a small percentage of the population, how do you think they kept their power? (Possible answer: They claimed to be descended from the first Aztec king.) ■ Have students consider whether the Aztec social structure reminds them of other ancient societies. (In most societies throughout history, a small group of wealthy and powerful people have enjoyed most of the material benefits.) ■ Have students complete the worksheet A Historian’s View: The Aztec Family. Ask: What was the Aztec attitude toward education? (It was considered an important preparation for life.) Daily Life These pictures depict scenes of Aztec daily life. At left, a father teaches his son how to canoe, fish, and gather firewood. At right, a mother teaches her daughter to grind grain and weave cloth. The inset shows a ceramic drinking vessel made by an Aztec artisan. Critical Thinking: Apply Information Based on these images, make a generalization about Aztec daily life. The copyright holder has not granted permission to display this image in electronic format. Please see the teacher's edition of your textbook for this image. Teaching Resources, Unit 4, A Historian’s View: The Aztec Family, p. 71 Independent Practice Section 2 Aztec Society 245 History Background Small Communities To the Aztecs, the basic unit in society was not the nuclear family but the neighborhood. This concept of society is revealed in their architecture. A group of houses would open onto a common plaza or courtyard, which served as a gathering place for adults and as a play area for their children. People related by blood or marriage tended to live together around one of these common courtyards, so that the household, or group of households, was really an extended family group. Groups were linked by marriage alliances. Have students begin to fill in the Interactive Reading and Notetaking Study Guide. Briefly model how to identify which details to record. Interactive Reading and Notetaking Study Guide, Chapter 9, Section 2 (Adapted version also available.) Answers into two classes, commoners and nobles Apply Information Aztec jobs were assigned based on sex. Chapter 9 Section 2 245 SSMMCH09.book Page 246 Saturday, February 26, 2005 12:37 PM Government and Religion Monitor Progress As students fill in the Notetaking Study Guide, circulate to make sure individuals understand what defined Aztec social structures. Tribute and human sacrifice were at the core of Aztec government and religion. Government and Religion Aztec Rule The Aztecs created a strong state led by a pow- H-SS 7.7.2 Instruction As you have read, all Aztec men were trained as warriors. In fact, the Aztecs were dedicated to the practice of war. They waged war on other states to win tribute, or goods paid as taxes by conquered peoples. They also waged war to capture prisoners for ritual sacrifice to their gods. These two motives— tribute and human sacrifice—played important roles in Aztec government and religion. L2 ■ Have students read Government and Religion. Remind students to look for support of the main idea. ■ Ask: By what process did the Aztecs identify their kings? (Kings were selected by nobles from among the royal family.) Do you think this arrangement helped or hurt the Aztec king? Explain. (Possible answer: It helped the king by ensuring he had support; it weakened the king by making him dependent on the support of the nobles.) ■ Ask: In what way was the military central to the Aztec system of government? (Military officials were key advisors. The military was the basis by which the government obtained money and held together the far-flung empire.) erful king. The king was a member of the royal family but was selected by a council of nobles. Sometimes kingship passed from father to son, and sometimes it passed to brothers or other blood relatives. As soon as he took power, the new king had to go to war to prove his military skills and win tribute. A group of five royal advisors helped the king run the government. Four of these advisors were military commanders. The fifth was an official much like a modern prime minister. A prime minister is the chief official appointed by the ruler of a The copyright holder What was has not granted country. This official managed the day-topermission to display Moctezuma’s day operations of the government. For this image in electronic palace like? nearly 70 years, a man named Tlacaelel format. Please see the teacher's edition of your held this powerful position. He served varitextbook for this image. ous kings and decided many policies. In fact, he probably had more influence than Fast Facts Moctezuma some of the rulers he served. Who: Moctezuma Beneath the royal advisors came lesser What: Aztec emperor When: 1502–1520 officials. They included the ruling council Why important: Moctezuma ruled the Aztec of Tenochtitlán, along with judges, clerks, Empire at its height. and tax collectors. At the local level, citizens were divided into small districts, Fast Find called calpulli, and led by district chiefs. How: Go online to find out how Moctezuma Although the Aztec government was lived and what his palace was like. based on a strong ruler, the empire never For: More about Moctezuma had a true central government. Instead, it Visit: PHSchool.com was a loose collection of city-states conWeb Code: mxe-4092 trolled by the Aztecs but ruled by local chiefs. The Aztecs maintained control over the empire through the threat of military force. 246 Chapter 9 The Aztecs Universal Access L1 Less Proficient Readers L1 Special Needs Aztec Government As students read Answer It was a spectacular and luxurious place. 246 Chapter 9 Aztec Rule, have them work together to construct a poster that shows the power structure of the Aztec government. Suggest to them that Aztec government had a structure like that of a pyramid, with the king at the top. Have them read to find out who was on the next level below the king, and who was on the next level below that. The poster should show how the entire society was organized. Encourage students to illustrate the poster to make it more visually interesting. Post their work in the classroom, where it can serve as a study aid for everyone. The copyright holder has not granted permission to display this image in electronic format. Please see the teacher's edition of your textbook for this image. Instruction (continued) Tribute was essential to Aztec rule. Tribute goods ranged from clothing and military supplies to jewelry, food, and building materials. A Spanish visitor in the early 1500s wrote: “ There were such vast quantities of all these things that came to the city of Mexico that not a day passed without the arrival of people from other regions who brought large amounts of everything, from foodstuffs to luxury items, for the king and the lords. ” —Friar Diego Durán, The History of the Indies of New Spain Pyramid of the Sun Before the Aztecs arrived in the Valley of Mexico, a great religious center arose at Teotihuacán. The city was destroyed in 750, but the Aztecs viewed it as a holy place. Shown here is the city’s monumental Pyramid of the Sun and a carving from that building. Critical Thinking: Compare How did Aztec religious beliefs compare with those of the Mayas? Religious Beliefs Tribute also flowed to the Aztec priests and temples. Government and religion were closely linked. Monarchs ruled with the blessing of the gods and gave government support to religious institutions. The Aztecs worshiped hundreds of gods. They believed that the gods gave them life and controlled everything on Earth. Tezcatlipoca (tehs kaht lih POH kah), or Smoking Mirror, was the supreme, all-powerful god. Tlaloc (tlah LOHK), the god of rain, was responsible for life-giving water and good harvests. Quetzalcoatl (keht sahl koh AHT uhl), the plumed serpent, represented learning, culture, and civilization. The most important Aztec god was Huitzilopochtli (weet suh loh POHCH tlee). He brought success in battle. He also kept the sun in the sky. But he needed human blood to remain strong. Without human sacrifice, the Aztecs believed, Huitzilopochtli would become weak and the sun would disappear. Vocabulary Builder monarch (MAHN ahrk) n. king or queen E-LA 7.1.2 Use AngloSaxon Affixes ■ Ask: In what ways were religion and government linked in Aztec society? (Possible answers: Government directed tribute to priests and temples; kings ruled with the support of religious institutions; human sacrifice was used for religious and political purposes.) ■ Ask: What does it say about the Aztecs that their most important god was responsible for battlefield victory? (War was central to the Aztec way of life.) ■ Discuss with students the reactions of the people who were oppressed by Aztec rule. What does this behavior suggest about the limits of terror and force as a means of control? (Using force and terror has limits. Eventually, people will resist if they are pushed too far.) Independent Practice Have students complete the Interactive Reading and Notetaking Study Guide. (Adapted version available.) Monitor Progress Check the Notetaking Study Guide entries for student understanding of how Aztec society was organized. Tell students to fill in the last column of the Reading Readiness Guide. Ask them to evaluate whether what they learned was what they had expected to learn. The suffix -ful forms an adjective from a noun. What does all-powerful mean? Section 2 Aztec Society 247 Universal Access L3 Advanced Readers L3 Gifted and Talented Read More About Friar Diego Durán Make an Aztec God Fact Sheet As the Friar Diego Durán was a Spanish priest who recorded a great deal of information about the Aztecs. Encourage students to use library and Internet sources to learn more about the career of Friar Diego Durán and to report on his role in spreading knowledge about the Aztecs. text notes, the Aztecs worshiped many gods. Have students do outside research on one of the gods mentioned in the text. Have students prepare an illustrated fact sheet about their selected god, with images of the god and details about the god’s powers and how the god was worshiped. Answers Compare Possible answers: Both the Aztecs and the Mayas worshiped many gods, made sacrifices to the gods, and used temples. Reading Skill Anyone or anything that is all-powerful has unlimited powers. Chapter 9 Section 2 247 The copyright holder has not granted permission to display this image in electronic format. Please see the teacher's edition of your textbook for this image. Assess and Reteach Assess Progress L2 Have students complete Check Your Progress. Administer the Section Quiz. Teaching Resources, Unit 4, Section Quiz, p. 78 To further assess student understanding, use the Progress Monitoring Transparency. Progress Monitoring Transparencies, Chapter 9, Section 2 Reteach L1 If students need more instruction, have them read this section in the Interactive Reading and Notetaking Study Guide and complete the accompanying question. Calendar Stone The Aztecs used calendar stones like this one to determine when to sow seeds, conduct rituals, and go to war. Critical Thinking: Evaluate Information How reliable is this artifact as a source of information about Aztec life? Interactive Reading and Notetaking Study Guide, Chapter 9, Section 2 (Adapted version also available.) Extend L3 Have students research more on Aztec government. Have them write mock lessons for Aztec children explaining how the Aztec system of government works. Students can divide up topics and give short lectures in front of the class in pairs or individually. Students should provide written copies of their lessons to be combined as a booklet entitled “Lectures on Aztec Government.” Section Ritual Sacrifice As you may recall, the Mayas also performed ritual sacrifice. But the Aztecs did it on a massive scale. They sacrificed thousands of victims every year, cutting out their hearts and offering them to the gods. Priests conducted sacrifice at festivals throughout the year. Like the Mayas, the Aztecs used a sacred calendar to plan these religious events. Human sacrifice was also a form of political control. Most victims were prisoners captured in war. In some instances, the Aztecs forced defeated rulers to witness the sacrifice of their soldiers. This was done to terrify the conquered peoples and make them easier to control. The strategy was only partly successful. Revolts were common in the Aztec Empire. Each revolt, in turn, started a new war and led to the capture of more victims. In this way, the Aztec cycle of war, sacrifice, and tribute continued year after year. What role did human sacrifice play in the Aztec Empire? Looking Back and Ahead In this section, you have read about Aztec society, government, and religion. In the next section, you will read about Aztec achievements in art and literature. 2 Check Your Progress H-SS: 7.7.2; E-LA: Reading 7.1.2 Comprehension and Critical Thinking 1. (a) Recall How did most Aztecs make a living? (b) Draw Conclusions Why do you think artisans and traders were respected in Aztec society? 2. (a) Recall Describe the Aztec government. (b) Apply Information Analyze the connection between government and religion in Aztec society. Reading Skill For: Self-test with instant help Visit: PHSchool.com Web Code: mxa-4092 Writing 5. When you write a research paper, you will need to prepare a bibliography, or list of sources that you used. Here is the proper format for a bibliographic entry for a book: Author’s last name, Author’s first name. Title of Book. City: Publisher, Date. Vocabulary Builder (Pay special attention to 4. Write two definitions for punctuation.) each word: agrarian, tribute, Put the following inforprime minister. First, write a mation in proper biblioformal definition for your graphical format: The Aztecs teacher. Second, write a defby Brian Fagan, published in inition in everyday English New York in 1984 by W. H. for a classmate. Freeman. 3. Use Anglo-Saxon Affixes Read this sentence: Luxury goods were plentiful in the marketplace. Use what you have learned about affixes to explain the meaning of plentiful. 248 Chapter 9 The Aztecs Section 2 Check Your Progress Answers It was part of their religion and it was also used as a form of political control. Evaluate Information As a primary source that is free of bias, it is a very reliable source of information about Aztec life. 248 Chapter 9 1. (a) farming (b) because they knew how to make useful and beautiful things 2. (a) The government was ruled by a king who was helped by a group of four military advisers and a prime minister who oversaw day-to-day operations. (b) Monarchs supported religion and religious leaders gave credence to the monarch. 3. There are enough luxury goods for everyone. 4. agrarian: formal, having to do with agri- culture; informal, related to farming tribute: formal, goods paid as taxes by conquered peoples; informal, payments to rulers prime minister: formal, official who managed daily operations of government; informal, key leader of government 5. Fagan, Brian. The Aztecs. New York: W.H. Freeman, 1984.