WORLD HISTORY MID-TERM EXAM STUDY GUIDE EUROPEAN RENAISSANCE AND THE REFORMATION How did the cities of Italy help create the Renaissance - city life included wealth, leisure time, exchange of ideas Describe the Medici family – they supported the arts and culture while publically executing enemies and ruling as dictators How did humanism influence Renaissance ideas – focused on people and their achievements, so art and thought became more concerned with the here and now Why did church leaders and wealthy merchants support the arts – showed their importance by having portraits painted and decorating churches and other public places What were the differences and similarities between upper-class Renaissance men and women – both were expected to know the classics, but most women lacked political power In what ways was Renaissance art revolutionary - use of perspective; revealed the subjects personality How did Leonardo da Vinci’s scientific studies help his art - allowed him to make his art more realistic Why was it important that writers began writing in the vernacular - more accessible to everyday people; possible to read literature without learning Latin Why do you think Machiavelli’s writings remain popular - people still interested in getting and keeping power Why and how did an increase in wealth affect the spread of the Renaissance - Merchants and rulers could sponsor artists and writers How did the northern Renaissance differ from the Italian Renaissance - stronger interest in realistic art; more of an emphasis on changing society What factors influenced the trend toward a more realistic style of art - artists could travel and thereby learn better techniques; oil paints made more realistic, subtle paintings possible What similarities were there in the works of Desiderius Erasmus and Thomas More - both wanted to improve society; both believed that greed caused problems How did Elizabeth I contribute to the Renaissance - she was well educated and supported writers and artists How did the Elizabethan Age reflect the values of the Italian Renaissance - focus on art and literature, positive view of humans and human nature Why was the Bible the first book printed with movable type - many Europeans were religious In what ways did Renaissance art connect to the past – copied Greek and Roman styles; created religious works In what ways did Renaissance art break with the past – increase in secular art, more realistic style, use of vernacular, emphasis on the individual How did printing and publishing affect social reforms - made social reforms more widespread because information, including Christian humanist works, was distributed more widely and freely Why was the invention of the printing press so important – it made more information available not only to scholars but also to ordinary people What reasons did humanists give for wanting to reform society - they wanted people to live a Christian life. To do so they had to give up greed, corruption, and war and provide education for women and children How did the availability of cheap books spread learning - more people could afford books and the ideas could be shared with those who could not read. More information led to more discoveries; literacy increased Why did German rulers want to challenge the political power of the Church - resented distant control; new ideas were weakening the Church What practices of the Catholic Church in the 1500s might have disturbed ordinary churchgoers – Popes pursued worldly affairs; some priests drank and gambled Why was Martin Luther unhappy with the sale of indulgences - people thought that buying an indulgence would get them into heaven What caused Luther’s ideas to spread through Germany – his words were printed; his ideas allowed people to think about and express their own dissatisfaction with the Church What in Luther’s teachings inspired the peasants to revolt - Luther taught that people were free to make their own decisions about religion. The peasants wanted more freedom Why was Charles V unable to force the Protestant princes back into the Catholic Church even after defeating them in war - Luther’s ideas were too strong; the abuses in the Catholic Church caused people to lose faith Why did Henry VIII need either a divorce or an annulment - to marry a woman who could give him a son How did Elizabeth I deal with the question of religion - she returned England to Protestantism and established a state church What political, economic, and social factors helped bring about the Reformation - Political: rise of competing states; rulers resented pope’s control. Economic: rulers jealous of Church’s wealth; merchants resented paying Church taxes. Social: people questioned Church; printing presses spread ideas critical of Church Where did the term Protestantism come from - from German princes who protested In what ways did Calvin’s leadership of the city of Geneva, Switzerland, demonstrate his religious beliefs – sinful people need guidance, so everyone obeyed strict rules What lasting influence did the Anabaptists have – Anabaptists beliefs influenced the Amish, Mennonites, Quakers, and Baptists of today How did Jesuit reforms help the Catholic Church keep its members from becoming Protestant - their schools helped educate priests to do better work; students learned more about Catholic theology; missionaries did good works and made converts Why did the Catholic Church feel the need for reforms, and what did the church leaders do Protestantism was reducing Catholic membership; Church investigated corruption; supported Jesuits; used Inquisition; called Council of Trent; created Index of Forbidden Books What were the results of the Council of Trent – disregard for Christian humanism and liberal movements within the Church; better educated Catholic bishops and clergy; clearly defined Catholic doctrine ABSOLUTE MONARCHS IN EUROPE (1500-1800) What are the benefits and drawbacks for society when a ruler monopolizes important decision-making? Benefit – Consistent leadership is good for business. Drawback – decision-making depends on the whims of a single person. What non-religious factors provoked Philip II to send the Spanish Armada against England? England was a major maritime rival. Why did an artist like El Greco distort human figures rather than paint them realistically? He distorted the figures purposefully to express an idea or emotion. What artistic limits did the artist Valazquez face? He was not permitted to paint anything critical of his patron, Philip IV. What measures might Spain have taken to restore its economy? Restrict the amount of money in circulation; impose taxes on the rich; rescind expulsion orders to bring back businesspeople; impose price controls. Could Philip II have pursued other policies in the Netherlands that would have resulted in a better outcome? YES – Rather than forcing Protestants to abandon their faith, he might have respected the practice of Protestantism in the Netherlands. NO – Philip believed Protestantism as an abomination; nothing short of its defeat would have satisfies him. Why would an absolute monarch view a republic, such as the Netherlands, as a political threat? A republic might spread the idea that legitimacy is conferred on rulers by the people, not by God. How might limitations demanded by parliaments and nobility have differed? The nobility wanted to limit monarchs’ influence over land. If controlled by merchants, a parliament might seek to limit a monarch’s authority to levy taxes on trade. How did marriage become a political tool of royal families? Royalty married royalty or nobility from other states and nations. How did the religious attitudes of Henry IV and Philip II differ? Philip II was hostile toward non-Catholics. Henry IV tolerated religious differences and converted for political reasons. How did political and religious leaders react to the work of Montaigne? Both groups felt threatened by Montaigne’s notion that humans could never know the truth for certain. Did Descartes’s response to the challenges of skeptics such as Montaigne put an end to the skeptics’ arguments? No – Philosophers still debate the nature of truth. What does Louis XIV’s use of intendants suggest about his approach to controlling the nobility? He wanted to offset the noble’s power by granting more powers to government agents. What were some drawbacks to Colbert’s mercantilism? It prohibited foreign trade, even when such trade might have been economically beneficial. Why did the nobles tolerate Louis XIV’s high expectations? Louis had power over their incomes and social status. Why might Britain be considered the big winner during the War of Spanish Succession? Britain came out of the war with new, strategic territory and trade. How did Catholic Church officials react to Richelieu’s and Mazarin’s actions during the Thirty Years’ War? They worried over French troops fighting on the side of Protestants. Which step taken by the Austrian Hapsburgs to become absolute rulers was most important? The creation of a standing army to control the nobility and hold on to territories. What precedent suggests that Frederick II’s assumption about the weakness of women leaders was misguided? Queen Elizabeth’s routing of the Spanish Armada in 1588. Why would Frederick II’s attack on Saxony result in conflicts in North America and India? Allies of the two countries used the attack as an excuse to seize enemy territory. What does Ivan IV’s campaign against the boyars suggest about the strength of Russia’s noble families? During Ivan’s rule, the boyars had difficulty resisting central authority. Why did the boyars want to have an elected czar? A central authority could help mediate conflicts among the boyars; to present a united front against their enemies. Were geographical or cultural factors more important in isolating Russia from the rest of Europe? Both. Cultural factors, such as religion and language, and geography kept Russia isolated. Why did Peter the Great want to bring the Orthodox Church under state control? The church was a potential obstacle to his reforms. Why did Peter the Great believe that education was key to progress? It helped new values take root; advances required knowledge of science and mathematics. Why might Puritans have looked favorably on King James’s translation of the Bible? They hoped a new translation would be more in line with their beliefs. Why was the Petition of Right important even if King Charles simply ignored it? It signaled a change in the way the English viewed government. Why did King Charles have more loyalty from the north of England than from London? The new ideas that had taken hold in the city had not yet spread to the north. How did the English people react to Cromwell’s social reforms? The Puritans liked the strict rules but many others disliked these rules. What factors contributed to the success of laws passed by Parliament during the Restoration? People welcomed the restoration of Parliament’s legislative powers, and Charles II, as the first monarch of the Restoration, recognized the need to respect Parliament Why did Parliament, after so many reforms, continue to support the monarchy? They viewed the monarchy as a symbolic institution that promoted unity and order. Why might William and Mary have been willing to accept the limits placed on their power? Because their position was not powerful enough to demand more. ENLIGHTENMENT AND REVOLUTION (1550-1789) In what way did Copernicus’ theory contradict religious views? Christianity taught that Earth was the center of the universe, not the sun. Why did Galileo chose to recant his position? Fear of torture; valued the Church, accepted its authority. How was the scientific method of exploring ideas different from looking to history for answers? It was based on observation and experimentation. Why did the Church dislike the ideas of Bacon and Descartes? Both questioned old ideas and urged experimentation and logic rather than faith. Why were the new scientific views so revolutionary? They didn’t simply accept answers from the Church or classical scholars but based conclusions on logic and experimentation. According to Newton, what was the universe like? A giant clock. How does the Scientific Revolution support the saying “Necessity is the mother of invention”? Scientists developed tools in order to continue their studies. What are some arguments for and against an absolute monarchy as proposed by Hobbes? FOR – creates law and order. AGAINST – abuse of power. Why might men hesitate to give women education and equality under the law? To avoid losing social power. How can you link the belief in reason to the desire to end slavery and promote social equality? If everyone has or can reason, everyone is equal. How would explaining mysteries by math change one’s view of God? One might question if God was behind the mysteries. How was Diderot’s Encyclopedia different from those used today? It included opinions. How does neoclassicism reflect the ideas of order and reason? Simple structures with limited decoration suggest order and reason. Why did novels become popular in the 18th century? The middle class had more leisure time; more people knew how to read; they wanted entertainment. Why were most of the Enlightenment reforms applied to middle and upper classes? How did the rulers view the peasants? The reformers came from the middle class. Peasants had little power and were viewed as unimportant. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON 1789 – 1815 What did the clergy do for society that might justify their low tax rate? Provided education and relief to the poor. How was the bourgeoisie unlike the other groups within the Third Estate? It was wealthier and better educated. Did France’s system of estates violate the principle of equality? Yes because the Third Estate had no power in government. Which group within the Third Estate would suffer most from the increase in the price of bread? Urban workers, since peasants could raise grain and the bourgeoisie had more money. Why did Louis XVI choose to raise taxes on the nobility? They had more wealth than the clergy and lower taxes than the Third Estate. Why did the nobles expect each estate to have one vote? That system protected their privileges. What results would show that the National Assembly was a legitimate government? If people followed its laws. After years of oppression, what finally caused the French people to revolt? The threat of starvation. What do the speeches by nobles imply about the role of violence in the French Revolution? The threat of violence won support for change. What can be inferred about the power of Louis XVI from his signing of the 1791 constitution? That he was weak. What evidence supports the view that the 1791 constitution was moderate rather than radical? The king retained power to enforce laws. What caused Prussia to invade France? Fear that the revolt in France would spread to Prussia. Why didn’t the revolutionaries give women the right to vote? The idea of the will of the people had become popular, while women’s rights had not. In what way was the National Convention that took office in September 1792 more radical than the National Assembly of September 1791? It abolished the monarchy. What does the large number of executions among the urban poor and middle class suggest about support for the revolution? Many in these groups opposed it. Compare reasons that members of the National Convention and the general public opposed the Terror? Weariness motivated most people, but fear motivated Convention members. What evidence shows that Napoleon cared about his public image? Kept critical stories out of newspapers Compare Napoleon’s actions in October 1795 and November 1799. Protected stability of France both times, first by defending government, then by overturning it. Did Napoleon make the French government stronger or weaker? Why? He strengthened it by improving the tax collection system, starting lycees and a national banking system, and restricting freedoms of speech and the press. What made the admissions policies of the lycees significant? Provided opportunity to males of all classes. What cause Napoleon to reach an agreement with the Pope? Many clergy and peasants disliked the restrictions on the church started during the Revolution. How did L’Ouverture’s revolution benefit the United States? It prompted Napoleon to sell the Louisiana Territory to the United States. How does the Battle of Trafalgar show the importance of naval power? Britain’s victory protected it from invasion. How long did Napoleon’s empire remain at its peak? Five years. How did Napoleon’s belief in equal opportunity conflict with his method of selecting leaders for puppet governments? He often chose family members as leaders.