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The Skeletal
System
Warm-up:
• Write a paragraph listing the protective
equipment needed for in-line skating, bicycling,
and skateboarding, and the discuss the benefits of
using this equipment.
How the Skeletal System Works
• The skeletal system consists of 206 bones and connective
tissue.
• The connective tissues:
• Cushion the bones
• Attach bone to bone
• Attach bone to muscle
• Functions of your skeletal system:
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Provide support for the body.
Protect internal tissues and organs from damage
Act as a framework for attached muscles.
Allow movement of limbs and digits.
Produce new red and white blood cells.
Store fat and minerals, such as calcium and phosphorous.
Bones
• Made up of living tissue formed into different layers.
• Compact bone layer– hard and densely packed outer layer.
• Spongy bone layer – less dense bone with a network of
cavities filled with red bone marrow, where blood cells are
produced.
• Yellow bone marrow – stores fat.
• Bones are categorized by their shape:
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Long bone
Short bone
Flat bone, and irregular bones
Can you name a cone that fits each of these categories?
Connective Tissue
• There are three types of connective tissue:
• Cartilage –
• strong flexible tissue that acts as a cushion between two bones
to reduce friction.
• Can also act as a flexible structure for soft parts of the body,
such as?
• All bones begin in the embryo as cartilage.
• Ligament
• Band of fibrous, slightly elastic tissue that attaches one bone to
another bone.
• Attach to create joints. What are some joints can you think of?
• Tendon
• Fibrous cord that attaches muscle to the bone.
• What are some tendons that you can name?
Joints
• Joints are points at which bones meet.
• Some joints, such as the ones between the bones of the skull
do not move.
• Flexible joints are ones that move and include:
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Ball-and-socket joints
Hinge joints
Pivot joints
Saddle joints
Gliding joints
Can you name a joint in the body for each of these types of
joints?
• http://www.jeffsims.net/flash/skeleton.html
Caring for the Skeletal System
• A healthy diet, exercise, protective gear, and regular
checkups are ways to care for your skeletal system.
• Foods high in calcium, vitamin D, and phosphorous help
prevent skeletal disorders.
• During regular checkups, your doctor can screen for skeletal
disorders like scoliosis.
• Weight-bearing activities such as walking or weight training
helps bones stay strong.
• Wearing protective gear during sports reduces the risk of
bone fractures.
Understanding Skeletal Problems
• Poor nutrition, infections, sports injuries, and poor
posture can lead to problems with the skeletal system.
• Fractures – any type of break in the bone
• Hairline fracture – parts of the bone do not separate.
• Transverse fracture – fracture is completely across the
bone.
• Comminuted fracture – when the bone shatters into more
than two pieces.
• Compound fracture – When broken end of bone breaks
through the skin.
http://video.about.com/orthopedics/Fractures-1.htm
• Injuries to joints
• Can occur from overuse, strain, or disease.
• Dislocation – when a bone slips out of place, tearing the
ligaments that attach the bone at the joint.
• Torn cartilage – can result from a sharp blow to a joint or a
severe twisting of a joint.
• Bursitis – results from the painful inflammation of bursa, a
fluid-filled sac that helps reduce friction in joints.
• Bunions – painful swelling of the bursae in the first joints of
the big toes. Wearing ill-fitting shoes can make bunions
worse.
• Arthritis – the inflammation of the joint, resulting from injury,
natural wear and tear, or autoimmune disease.
• Osteoporosis
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Condition in which there is a progressive loss of bone tissue.
Bones weaken and become brittle.
Common in older adults.
Bone tissue loss is a natural part of aging, but healthful behaviors
during your teen years can reduce your risk of developing
osteoporosis later in life.
Eating foods containing calcium, vitamin D, and phosphorous
will help bones remain strong and healthy.
Regular weight bearing activity, such as walking and weight
training, stimulates bone cells to increase bone mass.
Do you think cases of osteoporosis will increase in the next 10,
20, 30 years? Why or why not?
http://youtu.be/F7p23Zro7LU
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