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International Conference on Chemical, Ecology and Environmental Sciences (ICCEES'2011) Pattaya Dec. 2011
A Novel Control Strategy for Grid Connected Wind Turbines
M.Salimi and A.Zakipour
Panels and also the high cost of using these power generators, using
photovoltaic systems for electricity production is economically
reasonable only for low power consumers which are far from the
global network [2]. On the other hand, using wind farms has
increased considerably in recent years. For instance Germany was
This ability can be gained by applying suitable control patterns [7].
Nowadays wind power generation is based on IG (Induction
Generators) and DC generators [4,8]. Two main groups of recent
researchers have suggested use of wind farms for compensation of
nonlinear loads (reactive and harmonic compensating). These
applications are able to improve the power quality of electric network
at the Point of Common Coupling (PCC).In the first group, use of
induction generator with two inputs (DFIM: Doubly-Fed Induction
Motor) for compensating of load is proposed. In this case by
nonlinear load current is provided from windings of stator. In
addition to high cost of installing this type of generators, presence of
harmonic components in electric motor windings reduce dramatically
the efficiency and lifetime of this generator. In the second method,
harmonic and reactive load compensation is done based on power
electronic convertors which interconnects the wind turbine into grid.
In fact since a DC-AC converter (inverter) is used in this system for
injecting active power of the wind turbine into grid, it is possible to
use free capacity of inverter for load compensation. This method
solves the problems associated with the use of DFIM generators.
Usually, considering the nominal voltage of the global network and
the output power of wind systems, application of IGBT switches is
completely common for connecting these systems into grid.
Considering low switching frequency of IGBTs (which is usually less
than 5 KHz), it is not possible to compensate high frequency
components of harmonic current. Improper response of this method
in complete filtering of harmonic components of the load is
considered as the main problem in real wind power plants. In this
paper, a new topology for complete compensation of harmonic
components and reactive power of local loads is presented. This
method is based on using two parallel inverters in the structure of the
wind farms. The high power inverter which is based on the IGBT
switches has the role of injecting active power generated by wind
turbine to the global network, reactive compensation and filtering
low-order harmonic components. The second inverter, which is based
on power M|OSFETs and can switch in high switching frequency,
has the role of compensating the high-order harmonic components. It
is worth mentioning that considering the low power of harmonic
components, this inverter has low capacity and connecting it to the
network in the farms would not affect the overall cost of system so
much.
The organization of this paper is as follow: in next section, structure
of the proposed system will be presented. This part includes
performance of grid connected wind system and hysteresis current
controller. In section III proposed control strategy has been reviewed
completely. Finally in order verify accuracy of the proposed
controller, grid connected wind turbine is simulated based
MATLAB/Simulink.
Abstract: In this paper a new method for connecting the wind
power plants into global power network is presented. This controller
injects active power generation of wind turbine into global network
and moreover does a complete reactive and harmonic compensation
for local loads. In this situation separate equipment for compensating
non-linear loads won’t be needed. Complete compensating is done by
using two parallel inverters based on MOSFET and IGBT switches.
Such capability can make this plant economically reasonable. Also in
some period of time, when wind energy will be less than minimum
required for running wind turbine; the presented control method is
capable of compensating nonlinear local load. Finally in order to
verify accuracy of proposed control strategy, grid connected wind
turbine is simulated based on MATLAB/Simulink.
Keywords—reactive and harmonic compensating, grid connected wind
system, hysteresis current controller.
I. INTRODUCTION
HElimitation of fossil energy sources and moreover the pollution
caused by using these sources increased the usage of new and
renewable energies. Nowadays various technologies have been
improved for using these new and clean energy resources which is
comparable to fossil based energies from view point of cost and
reliability. Also the overall cost for using these energy resources is
decreasing everyday which will be even lower when production rate
is rising. In fact the challenges in reducing the cost of using
renewable energy resources is one of the active research fields, and
various papers are published in conferences and magazines each year
in this field. It worth mentioning that several resources of renewable
energies such as biomass, solar, wind, hydro power and the energy of
water tide, are being used now but wind and photovoltaic power,
which are based on modern power electronic technologies, have
wider usage capabilities[1]. Considering the low efficiency of
existing solar producing 7% (25777MW) of its overall consumed
electricity by wind power plants in 2010 [3]. WECSS(Wind energy
conversion system) has been seriously considered as a reliable
technology for producing electricity in recent years [4] and it has
been shown that such systems can eliminate for separate reactive
compensators and the active power filters[5,6].
T
Fig.1 Implemented wind turbine
Mahdi Salimi (Corresponding Author) is with Department of electrical and computer
engineering,
Ardebil
Branch,
Islamic
Azad
UniversityArdebil-Iran
(m.salimi@ymail.com)
Adel Zakipour is with Department of electrical and computer engineering, -Sarab
Branch, Islamic Azad University-Ardebil-Iran (zakipour@gmail.com)
384
International Conference on Chemical, Ecology and Environmental Sciences (ICCEES'2011) Pattaya Dec. 2011
Fig.2 Block diagram of proposed controller
The structure of proposed system:
transferring electric power from the wind system to the grid. This
includes the active power generation of wind turbines, the reactive
power of local load and low-frequency harmonic components of local
load’s current. The second inverter operates in high switching
frequency and is based on fast power-MOSFET switches. The
nominal power of the recent inverter is very limited and it is only
used for compensation of high frequency harmonic components. The
proposed strategy for controlling these two parallel inverters is
relatively straightforward: first apparent and active power of
nonlinear local load is measured at the PCC. Since voltage of PCC is
constant, apparent and active current of nonlinear load can be
calculated. The difference between recent currents (which is called
non-active) which includes reactive and harmonic current should be
supplied via wind turbine. Finally in order to calculate reference
current of the system, active power which is generated by wind
turbine should be added to the previous current. The amplitude of the
active power is selected in a way that the input voltage of the inverter
is fixed and it is determined by a simple PI controller.
The purpose of adding this active component is injection of wind
power to the global network. In a brief, the reference current of the
inverters include two different parts: A) non-active item for load
compensation and B) Active item for injecting the generated energy
in the wind turbine into the network.
In the simplest situation, we have two basic options for selection of
electric generators: A) Use of DC generators and B) Use of induction
generators.
The maintenance cost of induction generator is very low and taking
into account the recent developments in power electronic, application
of induction generators increasing dramatically. However it is not
possible to generate reactive power based on them. DC generators
have lower price and it is easier to control. Main problem of these
generators is their high maintenance cost. However according to the
recent developments, this problem has been solved and due to this
DC generators will be used in this paper.
Hysteresis current controller
Current controlled inverters in grid connected systems are better
because:
• Since utility is voltage source, it is only enough to control the
current flow in order to control power flow between grid connected
systems and the utility.
• If the voltage control method is used, small phase error in the output
voltage of inverter may cause very large power current error [15].
Different methods have been proposed for current control of
inverters; for example: ramp comparison, predictive current control
A. Performance of the grid connected wind power plant
The importance of using renewable resources for electricity
generation is completely known. Input energy of these systems are
free for consumers and also these clean and green energy resources
don’t pollute the environment. Also, there is concern about decrease
of fossil resources and possibility of running out of it in the next
decades. For this reason growing use of these green energy sources is
unavoidable. Use of wind energy has more importance due to
technical-economical reasons. The purpose of this paper is designing
and implementing a 5KVA grid connected wind turbine. In this
academicals project, the idea of complete harmonic compensation of
nonlinear and reactive loads to the wind turbines controller has been
added. Use of the proposed controller has considerable advantage,
which:
A) Reactive and harmonic compensating of local loads removes
installation separate equipment for filtering. This case results in more
economical wind systems.
B) Due to load compensation by wind system, the capacity of
transmission lines will free up and for this reason energy loss in
transmission and distribution lines will be decreased.
C) Complete compensating of nonlinear loads will be possible which
is based on applying two separate and parallel inventers. This idea is
proposed in this paper for the first time and its principal of operation
have been reviewed in the next section of this article. This strategy
will result in power quality improvement in the network. Better
power quality will effect on the operation of electric loads and will
improve the efficiency of them directly. The main goal of this study
is designing, simulating and implementation of electric and electronic
parts of a 5KVA wind system. In spite of injecting active power
generation of wind turbine into grid, this system is capable of load
compensation. The block diagram of the proposed system is shown in
figure.
The wind turbine converts wind energy to mechanical torque and the
gearbox increases the speed of turbine up to the nominal speed DC
machine. Also, this generator converts the mechanical energy of wind
turbine into electricity. Considering the voltage range of DC
generators, which is usually 100 V, a DC-DC switch based converter
is used to match DC generator output and voltage of the global
network. This block increases only the output voltage of DC
generator based on the fixed gain. This converter became open when
wind speed is not fast enough. The 3-phase inverter which is used in
close loop mode is involves two separate DC to AC converters. One
of these inverters uses IGBT switches, which is responsible for
385
International Conference on Chemical, Ecology and Environmental Sciences (ICCEES'2011) Pattaya Dec. 2011
method and hysteresisband technique [16]. Hysteresis current
controller has been used widely due to fast dynamic response and its
simplicity of implementation. Operation principal of hysteresis
current control method is relatively simple. According to the situation
of power switches in a single-phase inverter (Fig.3), two different
areas can be considered:
A) If we turn Q 1 : on and Q 2 : off, inductive load current (i a ) will
increase
given in Fig (6). It is clear that due to nature of the system, state
A=B:1 is not taking place and it is don’t care state. This sequential
circuit is specified in Table.1. This table is written for determination
of desired switching command (S(t+1)) and according to the amount
of A, B and the previous state of switch (S(t)). For example, when
A=B:0, the current is in the desired range, and the switch should keep
its previous state, thus: S(t+1)=S(t). Finally it is clear that Table.1
could be implemented with Set/Reset Flip-Flop simply.
B) If we turn Q 2 : on and Q 1 : off, load current will decreases.
It is clear that by applying appropriate switching, we can control the
variation of output current and it will always remain inside of specific
range,where H is called hysteresis band. Obviously reduction of
hysteresis band decreases error, but on the other hand, the switching
frequency and power losses will increase. During implementation of
this method, actual output current of inverter is compared to i ref (Up)
and i ref (Down) (Fig.5). Values of A and B in different regions is
II. PROPOSED CONTROLLER
Fig.8 shows grid connected systems in more detail. In this system, the
wind turbine is connected into utility based on two voltage source
inverter. One inverter is based on IGBT and operates at 2.5 KHz.
Second inverter is based on high frequency MOSFET and operates at
25 KHz. From the viewpoint of the utility and according to control
strategy, grid connected system may be considered as a AC power
source, resistive load, inductance or capacitance, all with the same
apparent power. In normal conditions, this system can inject
produced power by the wind turbine into the network and also
compensates harmonic and reactive components of local loads
current. In this case, current drawn or injected to the network
perfectly will be sinusoidal and corresponding power factor will be
unit. Also in general, control strategy of these systems must have the
following abilities:
1. Production of reference current waveform in order to inject active
power of wind turbine to grid and load compensation
2. Voltage stabilization of input capacitors (DC side of inverter) in
this section, instantaneous reactive power theory which is proposed
by H.Akagi [10] in Active Power Filters will be used in order to
calculate the reference currents. In this case if reference currents are
generated by inverters then wind turbine power will be injected into
grid and local loads compensation will be done completely. This
theory is based on transformation of voltage and current variables to
the αβ coordinates:




� � = [] � � , � � = [] � �(5)




In this equations [A] is the transfer matrix:
Fig.3: single phase half bridge inverter
Fig.4: hysteresis current controller (iref (Up) and iref (Down), respectively,
indicating high and low range of reference current and H is the hysteresis
bandwidth.)
−1�
−1�
2 1
2
2
[] = � �
�
(6)
−√3�
3 0 √3�
2
2
These equations are valid if V a +V b +V c = 0. Instantaneous active and
reactive power on the αβ coordinates could be calculated by the
following equation:
() =  () () +  () ()(7)
() = − () () +  () ()
(8)
Currents i α and i β in terms of instantaneous power values can be
written as follows:
  p()
iα
1
�i � = v 2 +v 2 �
− � �q()�(9)

α
β
β
P and Q could be considered as the sum DC and AC components:
 = ̅ + �(10)
 = � + � (11)
In these equations:
�is DC component of instantaneous active power and it is related to
the main component of active current.
�is AC component of instantaneous power P which is related to those
harmonic currents that are produced by the active component of
instantaneous power.
R
Fig.5: initial implementation of hysteresis current control circuit
R
Fig.6: the comparators output values (A and B in Fig.5) in different parts of
the current page
Fig.7: practical implementation of hysteresis current controller
386
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
International Conference on Chemical, Ecology and Environmental Sciences (ICCEES'2011) Pattaya Dec. 2011
Fig. 8 Details of proposed controller
�is DC component of instantaneous power Q and it is related to the
� is AC component of
main component of reactive current. 
instantaneous power Q which is related to those harmonic currents
that are produced by the reactive components of instantaneous
power.
In order to compensate nonlinear loads completely, reference current
of grid connected system should involve�,
� and�. In this case, these
harmful components don’t enter into the utility. An important
advantage of this theory is that in this case main components of
active and reactive power are in the DC form and could be easily
removed if it is necessary.
Beside reactive and harmonic compensation, the control strategy of
grid connected systems must inject active power generated by the
wind turbines into the grid. According to the maximum power point
of turbine, total active power which should be injected into grid could
be determined as follow [19]:
 =   (12)
In the above equation V m and I m are voltage and current of DC
generator in maximum power point and these both could be
measured/calculated easily[19]. According to equation (9), reference
currents of system in αβ coordinates which will compensate for
nonlinear load and also injects wind turbine active power into grid
could be expressed as follow:
  � + 
 ∗
1
� ∗ � =  2 + 2 �
 � � � + � �(13)




In the above equation, v α and v β are grid voltage and (i α )* and (i β )*
are reference currents of system at αβ. Reference current could be
written in abc coordinates as follow:
Fig.9: Three-phase output current waveforms of B6 inverter (sine current
reference is used)
R
1
 ∗
⎡
2 −1�
∗
⎢
� � = �
2
3⎢
 ∗
−1�
⎣
2
R
R
R
0
⎤ ∗
√3�

2 ⎥ � ∗�

−√3� ⎥
2⎦
R
R
R
R
(14)
In order to divide reference current between inverters, low-pass filter
is used to separate high and low frequency components. Low
frequency component is compensated based on first (IGBT) inverter
and MOSFET based inverter is used for high frequency reference
current. Finally note that, for balancing and controlling of DC
capacitors voltage, converter may absorb small amount of active
power from the utility which is not subject of this paper.
Fig.10: performance of low-cost grid connected wind system during reactive
compensation (a):load voltage and current(reactive) (b):grid voltage and
current during operation of wind turbine( system active power is injected into
grid and reactive compensation of the load is done simultaneously.(c): grid
voltage and current during turbine is off (only compensation of the load is
possible)
III. SEMULATION RESULTS
2B
In this section, in order to investigate accuracy of proposed control
strategy, grid connected system is simulated according to equations
387
International Conference on Chemical, Ecology and Environmental Sciences (ICCEES'2011) Pattaya Dec. 2011
[4] ACKERMANN T.: ‘Wind power in power systems’ (John Wiley and
Sons, 2005, 1st edition.)
[5] CHEN Z., BLAABJERG F.: ‘Wind energy: the world’s fastest growing
energy source’, IEEE Power Elec. Soc. Newslet,2006, 18, (3), pp. 15–19
[6] SMITH J.C., THRESHER R., ZAVADIL R., ET AL.: ‘A mighty wind’,
IEEE Power Energy Mag., 2009, 7, (2), pp. 41–51
[7] HANSEN L.H., MADSEN P.H., BLAABJERG F., CHRISTERSEN
H.C.,LINDHARD U., ESKILDSEN K.: ‘Generators and power electronics
technology for wind turbines’. Proc. 27th Ann. Conf., IECON, Denver, USA,
29 November–1 December 2001,pp. 2000–2005
[8] BLAABJERG F., CHEN Z., TEODORESCU R., IOV F.: ‘Power
electronics in wind turbines systems’. Proc. CES/IEEE-PELS Int. Power
Electronics and Motion Control Conf., (IPEMC), Shanghai , China, 13–16
August 2006, pp. 1–11
[9] AKAGI H., WATANABE E.H., AREDES M.: ‘Instantaneous power
theory and applications to power conditioning’ (IEEE Press, 2007, 1st edn.)
[14] SINGH B., AL-HADDAD K., CHANDRA A.: ‘A review of active filters
for power quality improvement’, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., 1999, 46, (5), pp.
60–71
[11] FUCHS E.F., MASOUM M.A.S.: ‘Power quality in power systems and
electrical machines’ (Academic Press, 2008, 1st edn.)
[12] ABOLHASSANI M.T., TOLIYAT H.A., ENJETI P.: ‘An
electromechanical active harmonic filter’. Proc. Electric Machines and Drives
Conf., IEMDC 2001, Cambridge, MA, 17–20 June 2001, pp. 349–355
[13] ABOLHASSANI M.T., NIAZI P., and TOLIYAT H.A., ENJETI P.:
‘Integrated doubly fed electric alternator/active filter (IDEA), a viable power
quality solution, for wind energy conversion systems’, IEEE Trans. Energy
Conversion., 2008, 23, (2), pp. 642–650
[14] TREMBLAY E., CHANDRA A., and LAGACE P.J.: ‘Grid-side
converter control of DFIG wind turbines to enhance power quality of
distribution network’. Proc. Power Engineering Society General Meeting,
Montreal, Canada, 18–22 June 2006, pp. 1542–1547
[15] MOHAN N., UNDELAND T.M., ROBBINS W.P.: ‘Power electronics:
converters, applications and design’ (John Wiley & Sons, 2003, 3rd edn.)
[16] M.H.Rashid, Editor in Chief, “Power Electronic Handbook", Academic
Press, 2001
[17] Georg Hille, Werner Roth, and Heribert Schmidt, ‘‘Photovoltaic
systems,’’ Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, Freiburg, Germany,
1995.
Fig.11: performance of low-cost grid connected system during reactive and
harmonic compensation of load current (a):load voltage and
current(nonlinear) (b):grid voltage and current during wind turbine operation
( system active power is injected into grid and compensation of the load is
done simultaneously. (c): grid voltage and current during turbine is off (only
compensation of the load is possible)
Table.1: Binary table used to design the controller(in this table
S(t+1) is next switching state, A and B are comparators output and
S(t) is the previous situation of the switch.)
of section III with MATLAB / Simulink. In this simulation the DC
link capacitors totally assumed to be 10 mF and coupling inductor is
500 Micro-Henry. The hysteresis width is adjusted so that the
switching frequency of first inverter is near 2.5 kHz.
Performance of B6 inverters in sinusoidal reference current situation
is shown in Fig.9.Performance of grid connected wind system during
reactive power compensation is illustrated in Fig. It could be seen
that in spite of phase difference between voltage and current of load,
system compensates all reactive power demand of load and finally
grid voltage and current are in the phases (Fig. 10). It should be
mentioned that during operation of wind turbine, it is possible to
generate active power and it will be injected into the network, there
will be 180 degree phase difference. Finally, response of the
proposed control strategy beside nonlinear loads is shown in figure
(11). It is observed that in despite of severe harmonic components in
load current (three-phase diode rectifier with highly inductive load is
used as a non-linear load in this case) grid current is perfectly
sinusoidal without harmonics.
S(t)
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
REFERENCES
[1] M.H.Rashid, Editor in Chief, "Power Electronic Handbook",Academic
Press, 2001
[2] Georg Hille, Werner Roth and Heribert Schmidt ‘‘Photovoltaic systems’’
Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, Freiburg, Germany, 1995
[3] "World Wind Energy Report 2009" (PDF). ReportWorld Wind Energy
Association.
February
2010.
http://www.wwindea.org/home
/images/stories/worldwindenergyreport2009_s.pdfRetrieved 13-March-2010.
388
A
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
B
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
S(t+1)
0
0
1
*
1
0
1
*
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