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Monocotyledons:
monocots, Monocotyledoneae, or
Liliopsida
Chapter 7
Simpson, 2nd Edition
C. Order Asparagales
Hemerocallidaceae – day-lily family
Hemerocallis fulva day-lily
C. Order Asparagales
Alliaceae – onion family
13/600
C. Order Asparagales
Amaryllidaceae – Amaryllis family
59/850
C. Order Asparagales
Asphodelaceae – Aloe family
15/780
C. Order Asparagales
Iridaceae - iris family
70/1750 cosmopolitan/tropical diversity
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
equitant leaves
sepals and petals
petaloid but
dimorphic
showy flowers radial
to strongly
zygomorphic
stigma petaloid (Iris)
anther under stigma
branch
P3+3 or (3+3) A3 or (3) G(3)
inferior mostly
C. Order Asparagales
Iridaceae - iris family
Gladiolus
Crocus
Freesia
Sisyrinchium
C. Order Asparagales
Iridaceae - iris family
C. Order Asparagales
P(3+3) A1-3 G(3) inferior with
gynostemium
Orchidaceae - orchid family
800/20,000 cosmopolitan/tropical diversity
1) strongly mycotropic habit in terrestrial
species
2) diverse in tropics and subtropics; many
epiphytic
3) numerous tiny seeds with minute mostly
undifferentiated embryo and no endosperm
4) bilateral corolla with labellum = lower lip
(simple, sac or spur) [labellum is actually
the upper petal but because of
resupination, a 180° twist, it appears as
the lower one]
6) pollinia - waxy or mealy masses under anther
cap
7) gynostemium - stigma + styles + androecium
= column
8) pollination involves many elaborate
mechanisms
9) five subfamilies
pollinia
anther cap
stigma
column
stigma
C. Order Asparagales
Orchidaceae - orchid family
C. Order Asparagales
Orchidaceae - orchid family
C. Order Asparagales
Orchidaceae - orchid family
C. Order Asparagales
Orchidaceae - orchid family
C. Order Asparagales
Orchidaceae - orchid family
C. Order Asparagales
Orchidaceae - orchid family
C. Order Asparagales
Orchidaceae - orchid family
Spiranthes cernua
C. Order Asparagales
Orchidaceae - orchid family
Vanilla planifolia - vanilla
extracted from the
fermented capsules
Platanthera
praeclara - Prairie
fringed orchid
Cattleya - common cultivated
form
Habenaria –
green
fringed
orchid
Cypripedium - Lady’s
slipper
Commelinids
•
•
monophyletic
chemical apomorphy: cell
walls fluoresce under UV
light due to a class of organic
acids (coumaric, diferulic,
ferulic)
D. Order Arecales
Arecaceae (= Palmae) - palm family
200/3000 pantropical
1) arborescent habit – no secondary
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
growth (from vascular cambium)
unbranched trunks
broad leaf blade
large fan-shaped or pinnately
compound leaves = frond
well developed vascular system
that has vessels in all vegetative
organs
mycorrhizal roots (lack root hairs)
immense economic importance, 2nd
only to Poaceae edible fruits, oils,
waxes, building materials,
numerous ornamentals
P3+3 A3+3 or (3+3) G3or(3) superior
D. Order Arecales
Arecaceae (= Palmae) - palm family
Phoenix - date palm
Cocos - coconut palm
Washingtonia- fan palm
K3or(3) C3or(3) A3or3+3 G(3) superior
E. Commelinales
Commelinaceae - spiderwort family
39/640cosmopolitan
1) herbs with swollen
nodes
2) somewhat succulent
3) leaves with closed
sheaths; spiral along
stem
4) flowers subtended by
boat-shaped spathes
Tradescantia - spiderwort
Commelina - dayflower
E. Commelinales
Commelinaceae - spiderwort family
Prairie Spiderwort
Tradescantia occidentalis
F. Zingiberales
Musaceae – banana family
3/40 cosmopolitan
1) perennial herbs
2) monecious
3) stems subterranean
4) leaves large, basal, spiral,
sheathing forming
pseudostem of
overlapping leaf bases
5) Old world origins
6) Food: Musa acuminata and
M. X paradisiaca
7) Fiber: M. textilis & M.
basjoo
P(3+3) A5-6 G(3) inferior
F. Poales
•
•
basal groups
with showy
flowers
many species
have small,
reduced, windpollinated
flowers
F. Poales
Typhaceae - cattail family
1/13 cosmopolitan
1) emergent aquatics
2) rhizomatous perennials
3) leaves simple, entire
4) monecious
5) inflorescence double
spadix
•
•
male above
female below
6) sepals of bristles or
scales
7) wind pollination
8) female inflorescence
disperses winddispersed fruits
P0-3 A3
P0-3 G1 superior
F. Poales
Typhaceae - cattail family
Average Cattail Pollen
14
12
grains/m3
10
8
6
4
2
0
2/28
3/31
4/30
5/31
6/30
7/31
8/31
9/30
E. Poales
Bromeliaceae - pineapple family
P3+3 or (3+3) A3+3 G(3) superior or inferior
59/2400 New World – tropical diversity
1) perennial herbs or
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
shrubs
terrestrial or
epiphytic
absorptive peltate
trichomes – water &
mineral
water can collect in
“well” by the
overlapping leaf
bases (tank)
leaves often form
dense basal rosettes
leaves leathery or
fleshy
twisted stigmas
E. Poales
Bromeliaceae - pineapple family
P3+3 or (3+3) A3+3 G(3) superior or inferior
E. Poales
Bromeliaceae - pineapple family
Tillandsia – spanish moss
Ananas comosus - pineapple
E. Poales
Juncaceae - rush family
7/350 worldwide
1) perennial herbs
2) “grass-like”
3) variable stems
• cylindrical, leaflless
stems
• flattened stems & 2ranked equitant leaves
4) distinct flowers (unlike
sedges and grasses)
never in spikelets
5) scarious (thin, dry)
perianth
6) common in wet areas
7) fruit loculicidal capsule
P3+3 A3+3 G(3) superior
E. Poales
Cyperaceae - sedge family
104/5000cosmopolitan; wetlands of
temperate and colder regions
1) “grass-like” herbs
2) semi-aquatic
3) stems 3-sided, solid
4)
5)
6)
7)
pith
leaves three-ranked
blades flat
inflorescence of 1many spikelets
fruit = achene
P6or0 A3 G(2-3) superior
E. Poales
Cyperaceae sedge family
E. Poales
Cyperaceae - sedge family
E. Poales
Cyperaceae - sedge family
Cyperus - sedge
Scirpus - bullrush
Eleocharis – spike-rush
Carex - sedge
E. Poales
P2-3 lodicules A2-3 G(2-3)
superior
Poaceae (=Graminae) - grass family
668/9500 cosmopolitan
1) herbs
2) stems terete, swollen nodes,
hollow
3) leaves two-ranked with
ligules
4) roots adventitious and
fibrous
5) rhizomes/stolons
6) culms erect
7) intercalary meristems
8) inflorescence a spikelet
with 2 basal bracts (glumes)
9) floret with 2 bracts (lemma
& palea)
10) fruit caryopsis (grain)
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
POACEAE
stem terete
nodes swollen, conspicuous
leaves 2-ranked
split or open sheath
ligule present
bracts/flower (lemma & palea)
fruit a caryopsis
species; 9,500
Bromus - brome
Triticum - wheat
Andropogon - blue stem
Panicum - panic grass
Sorghastrum - Indian grass
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
CYPERACEAE
stem triangular
nodes inconspicuous, basal
leaves 3-ranked
closed sheath
ligule absent
bract/flower
fruit an achene
species:5000
Carex - sedge
Cyperus - sedge
Eleocharis - spike rush
Scirpus – bull rush
E. Poales
Poaceae (=Graminae) - grass family
E. Poales
Poaceae (=Graminae) - grass family
E. Poales
Poaceae (=Graminae) - grass family
E. Poales
Poaceae (=Graminae) - grass family
E. Poales
Poaceae (=Graminae) grass family
E. Poales
Poaceae (=Graminae) - grass family
Big Bluestem – Andropogon gerardii
Little Bluestem – Schizachyrium
scoparium (Andropogon scoparius)
Indian Grass – Sorghastrum nutans
Switch Grass – Panicum virgatum
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