Download A Review on Load Balancing on Distribution System

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Transcript
A Review on Load Balancing on Distribution
System
Metkari V.T., Thorat A.R
Electrical Engineering Department
Rajarambapu Institute of Technology
Islampur, India
vishal.metkari@gmail.com
arun.thorat@ritindia.edu
Abstract— If unbalancing load occurs in distribution
system due to excessive overloading system and fault in the
system take places, that depending on the types of customer
connecting to system
and seasons of environment. If this
unbalancing load on distribution system occurs, it may cause
excessive power loss to the distribution system and instability
of the interconnected system. Hence balancing load on
distribution system as early as possible after the occurrence of a
overloading. Balancing load on distribution system is most
important part of power system involve finding load balancing
index and proper switching throughout the system during
overloading condition. In this paper, recent work and future
scope in balancing load on distribution system for loss
minimizing is described. Here, different new methods for
balancing load on distribution system are mentioned. Effect of
renewable energy sources on balancing load on distribution
system is also considered in this paper.
Keywords- Load ; Network Reconfiguration; Switching
time operation environment. The developed methodologies
combine optimization techniques with heuristic rules and
fuzzy logic for efficiency and robust performance [3] .chaoshun chen [6] [7] have studied load balancing of distribution
feeder is do by loop power controller, which maintain active
and reactive power.
II. LOADS ON DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
Generally three types of load on distribution
system classified according to customer types is residential
commercial and industrial. These loads are varied according
to seasons, the residential customer demand increase at
evening and morning where commercial load demand
increase at 6pm to 12am and industrial load demand is
varied according to shift as shown in figures given below.
The proper load forecasting required because population
growth and energy requirement do not grow linearly but
follows non linear power law the usual function that fits is
I. INTRODUCTION
The balancing load on distribution system is the switching
operation that eliminates overloading on distribution
system. Load balancing can he obtained by reconfiguring
the distribution feeders and reallocating load currents
among the feeders and transformers. By properly
performing the switching operation, the power demand of
the service zones can be transferred from the heavily loaded
transformers/feeders to the lightly loaded ones so that the
distribution system will become more balanced and the risk of
overloading can be reduced. The balancing load on distribution
system required for
• It reduces demand during critical load period.
• It must have an acceptable cost ratio.
• It must operate an acceptable reliability level.
• It must provide benefit to the consumer by
reducing cost.
The balancing load on distribution feeder is explained with
the help of branching exchanging method [1]. In fuzzy
reasoning approach membership function for feeder,
transformer, lateral and switches is given for balancing load
on feeder and transformer together [2]. Qin zhon have
studied two feeder reconfiguration algorithms for the
purpose of service restoration and load balancing in a real-
y = k*a^x
(1)
Where,
y= New value after growth period, x, k is initial value
a= the rate at which y increases logarithmically
Then increase in load demand is
Pn = po (1+g) ^n
(2)
Where,
pn = initial power demand,
g =growth rate and n=period,
Thus to balancing load on distribution system require proper
load forecasting.
Fig.1Load pattern for residential customer
492
C. Star Connected Constant current
In this model constant current is calculated as by using
equation 1, then angle of voltage is changes then angle of
current is change so that power factor of the loads remains
constant.
ILk= (ILk/ - )
(4)
Where,
= The line to neutral voltage angle
= power factor angle
D. Star connected Constant impedance load model:
In this model first calculate impedance from complex power
and phase –neutral voltage magnitude, and then find out line
current.
Fig.2 Load pattern for commercial customer
III. METHODS
Fig.3 Load pattern for Industrial customer
A. Load Models:
The loads on distribution feeder can be modeled as star or
delta connected. The loads can be single phase or three
phases these modeled .The load model for star and delta is
same only difference between them is in star connected load
phase –neutral voltage is find out and for delta phase- phase
voltage magnitude. Different load models are
• Constant real power and reactive power
• Constant current
• Constant impedance
OF BALANCING LOAD
A. Network reconfigurations for load balancing:
The network reconfiguration involving loss reduction and
load balancing in same manner but there is slightly
difference their objective. In the network reconfiguration
status of sectional switches is changed for loss minimization
and balancing load on distribution system [6]. The
optimization technology is used to finding out objective
(minimum non-linear) function and constraint such as
voltage level, feeder capacity and reliability.
1) Network Reconfigurations By Branch Exchange:
Fig.5 Loop formed with open branch b
The branch exchange method used to find out relevant
rotating tree from base rotating tree ,fig 1 show that when
close open branch b and open old branch m than new loop is
form[1]. The branch exchange method improves objective
function without violation constrain. The loss on a braches is
calculated by using two power flow solution method.
Fig.4 star connected load
B. Star Connected Constant Real power and Reactive
Power Model:
The line current is finding out by using star connected load,
when know the complex power and voltage magnitude.
ILk= (Sk*/Vkn)
(3)
Where,
K= particular phase
ILk= (ILk/ - )
(4)
• Simplified Dist Flow Method
Dist flow branch exchange method [2] calculates active
power, reactive power and voltage then finding out power
loss according to that calculates load balancing index and
balancing load on distribution system. The formula for
calculation of loss by transfer power and balancing load on
PQ plan is
Lpbm (Pm Qm) =2drp.pm+2drq.Qm-tr (Pm^2+Qm^2) (5)
If branch is changed that is close switch b and open switch
m shown in fig.5 then loss estimated using P-Q plan
defined by Lp>0 then loss is reduced as shown in fig.6,
and Lp<0 then loss is increased.
493
The flowchart of optimal switching required for
balancing load on distribution feeder by transferring
load from heavily loaded feeder to lightly loaded
feeder. The switching operation done for each one hour
[5].
Assigning the scope of
study of feeders
Fig.6 loss reduction by transfaring load
To obtain optimal network reconfiguration by switching
operation each one hour required to find out cost function of
distribution feeder. The cost function required to find out cost
of switching during the operation. Generally optimal switching
operation required to balancing load on feeder and
transformer, but
when feeder and transformer
phases
unbalance then ground relay trip that happen due to
unbalancing load. The cost function consists of load cost and
unbalance cost function [2].
2) Network Configuration by Switching Operation: To
obtain optimal network reconfiguration by switching
operation each one hour required to find out cost function of
distribution feeder. The cost function required to find out cost
of switching during the operation. Generally optimal switching
operation required to balancing load on feeder and
transformer, but when feeder and transformer
phases
unbalance then ground relay trip that happen due to
unbalancing load. The cost function consists of load cost and
unbalance cost function [2].
Add Bus Data
Branch data
Determine loading at each bus by
load pattern and load compilations
N=N+1
Three Phase Load Flow
T=T+1
Solve hourly three phase current
flows through all switches in system
N
T>24
Y
N
• Load cost is expressed as,
N> NF
CL= (Imax/0.95*RL))**10
(6)
Where,
RL =Rated capacity of phase feeder
Imax = Maximum phase current
Here exponential function with order of **10 will
imply a dramatically increase of cost function when the
current loading of the feeder is larger than 95% of the rated
value [2].
Thus when proper switching used than load is
balancing on distribution feeder and avoids increasing cost
function.
• Unbalance cost CU
The unbalance phase causes ground relay should be trip,
this is due to that load on distribution feeder is unbalance so
that unbalance cost function is defined.
CU= (Umax/0.95*RB)) **10
Where,
RB = ground relay setting value
Umax =the current difference between any two phase.
N=1
T=1
(7)
Y
Stop
Fig.7 flowchart of optimal switching operation[5]
B. Fuzzy Reasoning approach
The fuzzy reasoning approach taking decision regarding
switching operation for balancing load on distribution feeder
and transformer. In this approach fuzzy membership
function is formulated for feeder transformer lateral
and switches for maintain degree of satisfaction for switching
operation [3].
1) Measure of satisfaction for transformer: If the load
transfer by switching operation is equal to target load transfer
on transformer than membership function is unity. The larger
the deviation from the target, the lesser is the degree of
satisfaction. For all load transfers larger than twice the TLTT,
the membership function is zero, which is completely
undesirable. This can be represented as [3].
• Flowchart of optimal switching operation
494
µ DOS (T) = l/TLTT
= 2-l/TLTT
For l <TLTT
For TLTT<l<2*TLTT
(8)
Where.,
TLTT= Target Load Transfer for Transformers
l= Amount of load transferred by a switching Operation
2) Measure of Satisfaction for Feeder: Here same case of
transfomer ,a load transfer by switching operation is equal to
target load transfer on transformer than membership function
is unity. The larger the deviation from the target, the lesser is
the degree of satisfaction. For l>2*TLTT the value is zero [3].
µ DOS (T) = l/TLTF
= 2-l/TLTF
For l<TLTF
For TLTF<l<TLTF
IV. CONCLUSION
In this paper focuses on loss reduction on distribution
system due to overloading .This losses are reduced by
balancing load on distribution system. Load on distribution
system balanced by proper switching operation for that
different algorithm and methods required. Loop power flow
controller also one type method used to balancing load on
distribution feeder and also it helpful for renewable energy
sources connected in distribution system.
V. REFERENCES
(9)
[1]
3) Measure of Satisfaction of Number of Switching
Operation: In this approach membership function decreases
as switching increases, it unity up-to two switching operation.
C. Loop power Flow controller
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
Fig.8 Configuration of a loop power flow controller
The loop power flow controller consists of series
connected inductor and series connected voltage sources
inverter [6]. It balancing load between two distribution
feeders by transferring load. This system also helpful to
connect renewable energy sources to distribution feeder at
the time of peak load on system. The advantages of loop
power flow controller is 1) Aims for free access to a
distributed power supply. 2) System responds flexibly to
unbalanced load between feeders, and makes effective use
of equipment.3) To enable this, the system is constructed in
the shape of a loop
from
a radial.4) A loop
distribution system is provided without altering existing
systems such as the protection system, except for loop points.
[7]
[8]
[9]
[10]
[11]
M e w E. Baran and Felix F. Wu, “ Network reconfiguration in
distribution systems for
reduction and load balancing,” IEEE
Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 4, No. 2, April 1989
Qin Zhou and Dariush Shirmohammadi, “ Distribution feeder
reconfiguration For Service
Restoration and loading balancing,”
IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol. 12, No. 2, May 1997.
B. Naga Raj and K.S.Prakasa Rao, “A new Fuzzy Reasoning
Approach For Load Balancing In Distribution System,” IEEE TItions on Power Systems, Vol. 10. No. 3, August 1995
Yu-Lung Ke, “Distribution Feeder Reconfiguration For Load
Balancing And Service Restoration By Using G -Nets Inference
Mechanism,” IEEE Transactions On Power Delivery, Vol. 19, No. 3,
July 2004
C.S. Chen and M.Y. Cho, “Determination of Critical Switching In
Distribution system,”IEEE Transstions On Power Delivery, Vol. 7,
No. 3, Jdy 1992
Chao-Shun Chen, Cheng-Ta Tsai, “balancing load of distribution
feeder with LPC considering PV generation”, IEEE trans. in power
system vol.26 2011.
M.Saradarzadeh,S.Farhangi, and J.L.Schanen “The benefits of
looping a radial distribution system with a power flow
controller”,IEEE international conf.2010.
N. Okada, “A method to determine the distributed control setting of
looping devices for active distribution systems.’’ IEEE 2009
C. S. Chen, C. H. Lin, and H. Y. Tsai, “A rule-based expert system
with colored petri net models for distribution system service
restoration,” IEEE Trans. Power syst.vol.17,no.4, pp. 10731080,nov.2002
N. Rugthaicharoencheep and S. Sirisumrannukul, “Feeder
reconfiguration with dispatchable distributed generators in
distribution system by tabu search,”in proc.2009 44th int. university
power eng. Conf.
Yuncog jiang,I batraseh, “Improved Solar PV Cell Matlab Simulation
Model and Comparison,” IEEE trans. in power system vol.26 2010.
495
Document related concepts

Electrification wikipedia, lookup

Mains electricity wikipedia, lookup

History of electric power transmission wikipedia, lookup

Power engineering wikipedia, lookup

Buck converter wikipedia, lookup

Switched-mode power supply wikipedia, lookup

Alternating current wikipedia, lookup

Metadyne wikipedia, lookup

Voltage optimisation wikipedia, lookup

Power electronics wikipedia, lookup

Current source wikipedia, lookup

Pulse-width modulation wikipedia, lookup

Variable-frequency drive wikipedia, lookup

Islanding wikipedia, lookup

Power inverter wikipedia, lookup

Electrical substation wikipedia, lookup

Three-phase electric power wikipedia, lookup

Immunity-aware programming wikipedia, lookup

Power over Ethernet wikipedia, lookup

Electric power system wikipedia, lookup

Audio power wikipedia, lookup

Utility frequency wikipedia, lookup

Transformer wikipedia, lookup

Amtrak's 25 Hz traction power system wikipedia, lookup

Power factor wikipedia, lookup

Single-wire earth return wikipedia, lookup

Memory disambiguation wikipedia, lookup