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POSTER ABSTRACTS
Photo by Tom Iraci
Balancing Ecosystem Values Proceedings, Poster Abstracts
The H.J. Andrews Uneven-Aged Management Project:
Alternative Silvicultural Approaches to Stand Conversion
Paul Anderson1 and Jim Mayo2
The H.J. Andrews Uneven-Even Aged Management Project was undertaken to explore ecological and economical
compatibility among silvicultural options for converting 40- to 50-year-old Douglas-fir plantations (Pseudotsuga menziesii
(Mirb.) Franco) in western Oregon to mixed-species and uneven-aged condition. Three silvicultural prescriptions for conversion are being evaluated: (1) individual tree selection (light thin), (2) group selection (groups cuts, light thin of matrix
and mixed species planting of gaps), and (3) heavy thin with mixed-species underplanting. In all three treatments, timing of
subsequent entries will be based on stands achieving specified thresholds of relative density. The three treatments, as well as
an untreated-control, were applied to stands 10-ha or larger and replicated in four blocks. Initial harvest entries occurred in
1999 with vegetation conditions being measured in 1997-98 (pretreatment) and in 2001 and 2003. This poster presentation
summarizes herbaceous and shrub vegetation responses through 3 years following initial harvest entries. Analyses will
describe dynamics of species richness, community composition and relative abundance in relationship to residual overstory
cover. Observed vegetation responses will be discussed in the context of habitat quality and additional opportunities for
small-mammal, arthropod, insect, and amphibian research.
1 USFS
2
Pacific Northwest Research Station, 3200 SW Jefferson Way, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
USFS Cascade Center for Ecosystem Management, 57600 McKenzie Highway, McKenzie Bridge, OR 97413, USA
341
Balancing Ecosystem Values Proceedings, Poster Abstracts
Variable-Retention Implementation Monitoring
William J. Beese,1 Ken Zielke,2 and Bryce Bancroft3
Weyerhaeuser’s British Columbia Coastal Timberlands has adopted the variable retention approach to harvesting and
silviculture for all of the company’s public and private forest land. The phase-in of variable retention was accomplished
over a 5-year period from 1999 through 2003. As part of our adaptive management program, we monitored operational
implementation to see if our goals and standards were being met. Symmetree Consulting Group completed evaluations on
248 variable retention cutblocks over this period representing over 6 000 ha to monitor performance and identify areas for
improvement. This represented a random sample of over 15 percent of all variable-retention harvesting. Evaluations included
both the prescription and the results on the ground. This paper presents a summary of the methods and findings of this monitoring program. Statistics were compiled on the amount and type of retention, size of groups, type of stand attributes and
ecological features retained, protection of small streams and riparian areas and the visual aesthetics of the block design.
An overall rating of each block was also given based on the degree to which it met the goals for variable retention.
1
Weyerhaeuser, BC Coastal Timberlands, 65 Front St., Nanaimo, BC V9R 5H9, Canada
Symmetree Consulting Group, 4654 Keith Rd., West Vancouver, BC V7W 2M6, Canada
3 Symmetree Consulting Group, 6301 Rodolph Rd., Victoria, BC V8Z 5V9, Canada
2
342
Balancing Ecosystem Values Proceedings, Poster Abstracts
Characterizing Vegetation Response to Variable Density
Thinnings in Young Douglas-fir Forest of Western Oregon
Shanti Berryman,1 Bob Fahey,1 and Klaus Puettmann1
The Density Management Study was designed to investigate whether thinning to various densities within a stand can
accelerate development of late-successional characteristics in young, managed Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.)
Franco) forests (40 to 70 years) while producing wood for the regional economy. Seven initial thinning study sites are
located in the Coast Range and Cascade Foothills of western Oregon. The four treatments implemented at each site include
an uncut control and units containing one of three levels of residual tree density (high, moderate, and variable density) with
circular leave islands and patch cuts of three sizes (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 acre). The patch cuts and leave islands represent a relatively small proportion of the overall treatment at each site (about 10 percent of the area is patch cuts and 10 percent is leave
islands). The thinning treatments were designed to increase overall stand heterogeneity by thinning from below and by
retaining hardwood tree species and conifers that were under-represented in the overstory canopy. We are investigating the
response of overstory and understory vegetation to the harvest treatments. Preliminary results summarize differences in
overstory and understory vegetation composition and structure in relation to the thinning treatments 1 and 5 years following
harvest. In addition, we evaluate the relative influence of the patch cuts and leave islands on the understory vegetation
response within the treatments.
1
Department of Forest Science, Oregon State University, 321 Richardson Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
343
Balancing Ecosystem Values Proceedings, Poster Abstracts
Black Spruce Regeneration in the Presence of
Kalmia Angustifolia L.: Interactions with Irradiance and Nutrients
Felix Boulanger,1 Bill Shipley,1 and Robert Bradley1
Conifer regeneration failure in the presence of Kalmia angustifolia L. has been attributed to allelopathy, nutrient cycling,
and root competition. This phenomenon challenges the sustainability of present harvesting practices in many boreal forests
because reforestation of ericaceous-dominated sites in eastern Canada has been problematic. So far, few studies have focused
on available light and soil fertility as possible factors controlling the competitive ability of Kalmia. We, therefore, monitored
the growth of 120 spruce seedlings assigned to a split-plot field experiment in the southern boreal forest of Québec. Experimental treatments consisted of a factorial array three main-plot light levels (100-percent, 40-percent, 16-percent incident
light), two subplot nutrient levels (unfertilized, fertilized), and two subplot competition levels (presence, absence of Kalmia).
Following two growing seasons, the growth of black spruce seedlings was significantly higher at 100 percent light with
fertilizer, than in the other treatment plots. The presence of Kalmia had no effect either alone or in interaction. Either both
poor regeneration and abundance of Kalmia are effects of infertile soil, or the previous presence of carbon on the site had
modified the soil properties and these modifications persisted after Kalmia was removed. Results are discussed in terms of
forest management, as precommercial and commercial thinning are commonly applied silvicultural systems in the boreal
forest of Québec. We suggest how a better comprehension of the effects of canopy openness and fertility on the black spruceKalmia dynamics could help develop innovative management practices and preharvest decisionmaking in boreal forests.
1
Departement de biologie, Universite de Sherbrooke, 2500, boul. De l‘Universite, Sherbrooke, QC J1K 2R1, Canada
344
Balancing Ecosystem Values Proceedings, Poster Abstracts
Twenty-Five-Year Results of a Restoration
Thinning, Redwood National Park
Andrew Chittick1 and Christopher Keyes1
INTRODUCTION
METHODS
The current biological landscape of Redwood National
Park has been affected by past logging. These second-growth
forests are characterized by an extremely high density of
trees, stagnated growth and development, high fuel loads,
absence of understory vegetation, and a homogeneous vertical structure. Studies conducted throughout the Pacific
Northwest on the effects of thinning in young forests have
concluded that reducing stand densities can greatly increase
structural characteristics associated with late-seral forests
in a shortened period of time (Bailey and Tappeiner 1998,
Newton and Cole 1987).
Data taken in 1979, 1984, and 1995 showed an increase
in basal area growth and reduced mortality related to lower
stand densities. However, longer term quantitative analysis
and research into stand structure and development are lacking in this study. During the summer of 2003, remeasurements of the original data were conducted on 28, 1/10-acre
permanent plots. By using linear regression analysis, stand
densities and species compositions are compared to changes
in species composition, mortality, tree regeneration, understory vegetation, and height and crown differentiation.
Measurements of understory vegetation include estimated
cover by species and were analyzed for species richness
and Shannon-Weiner diversity index. Stand structure was
analyzed by using a modified Shannon-Weiner index in
which basal area for a plot was proportioned into three
separate indices: species, diameter class, and height class
(Staudhammer and LeMay 2001). These indices were then
averaged for a total structural index. Individual plots were
also grouped post-facto according to post-treatment densities and species composition. These groups include control
(~2000 tpa), low-density (~250 tpa), mid-density (~500
tpa), and redwood (~450 tpa).
The Holter Ridge Thinning Study, located about 6 miles
inland from the coast in the headwaters of Lost Man Creek,
was initiated in 1978 on a 25-year old redwood Sequoia
sempervirens (D. Don.) Endl.)/Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga
menziesii (Mirb.) Franco)/tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus
(Hook and Arn.) Redh.) forest. Intended as an operational
case study, the goals of this research are to observe effects
of a low thinning with varying stand densities on mortality,
growth, species composition, and structural characteristics.
Densities ranged from 150 to 550 trees per acre (tpa) in the
thinned units and from 1200 to 3200 tpa in the control at
25 years of age. Species composition varies from redwood/
Douglas-fir, to redwood/Douglas-fir/tanoak, and to exclusively redwood. Results of this research are intended to
increase the knowledge of stand development in young, mixed
redwood/Douglas-fir/tanoak forests and inform future second-growth management within Redwood National and
State Parks.
1
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Mortality among redwood and Douglas-fir were highly
correlated with residual stand densities, but tanoak was not
significantly related. Changes in species composition in the
control plots revealed a significant decrease in the numbers
of redwood and Douglas-fir relative to tanoak. This trend
will decrease as redwood and Douglas-fir occupy the overstory canopy with tanoak in the lower canopy. Changes in
Humboldt State University, Harpst St. Arcata, CA 95521, USA
345
species composition for all thinning treatments were minimal suggesting that thinning in dense stands can restore
and over time maintain desired species compositions.
Understory vegetation showed the greatest response due
to thinning with post-treatment stand density accounting for
87 percent of the variation seen in the cover of understory
species. Change in understory cover was dramatic with densities around 150 trees/acre showing an 80-percent increase
from 1984 to 2003 and stands over 1000 trees/acre decreasing by 60 percent. Shannon-Weiner diversity index was
calculated on the basis of percent cover in which stand
density negatively correlated to diversity accounting for 65
percent of the variation. Species richness was not correlated
to stand density and may be related more to overstory
species composition.
Sprouting response of redwood and tanoak to thinning
was compared to the number of redwood/tanoak thinned/
acre. Redwood sprouting was positively correlated to the
number of redwoods thinned but exhibited a patchy nature
due to competing shrubs and closed canopies. The number
of sprouts ranged from 0 to 3160 stems/acre while the number of redwoods cut ranged from 0 to 970 stems/acre.
thinned stands, albeit in the beginning stages. Understory
vegetation especially in the shrub and fern layer has become
reestablished whereas in the unthinned stand it is now minimal to absent. The cutting of redwood and tanoak has created a patchy mosaic of advanced regeneration. Because of
their high shade-tolerance, they may be released into future
gaps created in the overstory. The development of multiple
strata has taken place with lower densities showing a stronger
separation into separate layers. Stand measures of structural
diversity, in this case, do not represent the significant structural changes that have taken place due to thinning and cannot be relied on as a measure of desirable characteristics.
Long-term results such as those obtained here show that
in some developmental characteristics, such as understory
shrubs, the acquisition of those characteristics can take place
in a relatively short time. Other characteristics, such as gaps
or the release of advance regeneration into the mid-canopies,
will take a significant amount of time before they are attained.
Nevertheless, the development in stands with reduced densities will outpace those that remain at high-densities and
more closely approach the desired future conditions of old
forests.
REFERENCES
Stand structure was analyzed according to post-facto
groupings. Diameter and height distributions revealed no
stratification taking place in the controls while mid-density
showed initial development into an upper canopy consisting of Douglas-fir and redwood and a lower canopy of redwood and tanoak. The low-density group showed a similar
but more pronounced stratification by species. The redwood
group developed a continuous canopy layer that was weighted
towards the upper-canopy. The construction of a structural
diversity index incorporating overstory horizontal, vertical,
and species diversity yielded a positive correlation between
stand density and structural diversity. Because the ShannonWeiner index calculates a higher diversity for more classes
and evenness, the control plots were given a higher value
due to their high uniformity. The development of multiple
strata in the lower density thinned plots led to lower values. The redwood plots showed a high diameter and height
class diversity but scored low on species diversity due to
its redwood dominance.
CONCLUSIONS
Overall, the reduction of stand densities from thinning
in dense, young stands has the ability to accelerate stand
development, mainly through bypassing the competitionexclusion stage of stand development. Characteristics associated with late-seral forests are consistently present in
346
Bailey, J.D.; Tappeiner, J.C. 1998. Effects of thinning on
structural development in 40- to 100-year-old Douglasfir stands in western Oregon. Forest Ecology and
Management. 108: 99-113.
Newton, M.; Cole, E.C. 1987. A sustained–yield scheme
for old-growth Douglas-fir. Western Journal of Applied
Forestry. 2: 22-25.
Staudhammer, C.L.; LeMay, V.M. 2001. Introduction and
evaluation of possible indices of stand structural diversity. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 31: 1105-1115.
Veirs, S.D. 1986. Redwood second growth forest stand
rehabilitation study, Redwood National Park: evaluation
of 1978-79 thinning experiments. Draft copy. Orick:
CA: Redwood National Park. 34 p.
Balancing Ecosystem Values Proceedings, Poster Abstracts
Density Management Study:
Developing Late-Successional Habitat
John Cissel,1 Deanna Olson,2 Sam Chan,2 Klaus Puettmann,3
Andrew Moldenke,4 John Tappeiner,5 and Charley Thompson6
The Bureau of Land Management (BLM), working in partnership with the U.S. Geological Survey, Oregon State
University, and the Pacific Northwest Research Station, initiated the Density Management Study (DMS) in 1994 to demonstrate and evaluate different approaches to managing 40- to 70-year-old, low-elevation forest stands for late-successional
forest characteristics. Study treatments were installed from 1997 to 2001 on 12 BLM sites in western Oregon. There are
seven initial thinning study sites where four stand treatments of 30 to 60 acres each were established. These treatments
combine different residual tree densities, leave islands of three sizes, patch cuts of three sizes, and an untreated control.
Alternative riparian buffer treatments were nested within the moderate density retention treatment. Buffer widths include
(1) streamside retention, (2) variable width of approximately 50 feet, (3) one full tree height, and (4) two full tree heights.
Rethinning studies were installed in five 60- to 70-year-old stands that had been previously thinned. Each study stand was
split into two parts: one part as an untreated control, and the other part designated for rethinning. Rethinning treatments
were installed to create horizontal variability in overstory tree density, but there were no specific leave island or patch cut
objectives. Multiple studies are underway to assess the responses to these treatments. Primary components include vegetation (trees, shrubs, and herbs), aquatic vertebrates and habitats, aquatic and terrestrial arthropods, riparian microclimate and
microhabitat, and the effectiveness of leave islands as refugia for mollusks, amphibians, ground arthropods, and herbaceous
vegetation.
1
Bureau of Land Management, Eugene, OR 97440, USA
USDA Pacific Northwest Research Station, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA. Chan is currently with Extension Sea Grant, Clackamas County Extension Service,
Oregon City, OR 97045, USA
3 Department of Forest Science, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
4 Botany and Plant Pathology Department, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
5 Forest Resources Department, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
6 Bureau of Land Management, Salem, OR 97306, USA
2
347
Balancing Ecosystem Values Proceedings, Poster Abstracts
Predicting Understory Light Availability Based on
Neighborhood Height Data Derived From Vertical Point Sampling
in Mature Douglas-fir Forests in the Western Cascades
Nathan Davis1 and Douglas Maguire1
The survival and growth of understory trees is strongly influenced by light levels below the over-story canopy. An
understanding of how stand composition and structure influence light is useful when developing management prescription
to create favorable conditions for understory trees. The growth of many coniferous species increases in linear matter with
light availability. Direct measurement of light levels with instruments has proven to be expensive and time-consuming.
Models have been developed that predict light transmittance on the basis of crown or stand architecture, but they involve
the collection of a detailed set of measurements to calibrate. To be useful for prescribing foresters, a model to characterize
light should only include variables easily measured in stand examinations. Micro-site measures including density, total volume, total height and total diameter at breast height on fixed neighborhoods have proven to be strong predictors of understory light. Total summed height has been shown to be an especially good predictor because it incorporates both stand
density and influence of height on angle of incidence of radiation to the forest floor. However, collecting total height data is
often cost prohibitive. In this study, we examined if vertical point sampling is a potential alternative approach to collecting
height data while retaining the structural attributes strong predictive power. Early results suggest that height data derived
from angle sampling is statistically correlated with light availability between 20-100 percent of full sun. However, when
the available light drops below 20 percent the performance of angle sample derived summed height data is very weak.
1
Department of Forest Science, Oregon State University, Richardson Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
348
Balancing Ecosystem Values Proceedings, Poster Abstracts
An Application of Hierarchy Theory
to Long-Term Sustainability
Thomas Dean,1 Andrew Scott,2 and Ray Newbold3
Traditionally, the effects of cultural practices on long-term productivity of commercial forests have been investigated
under the assumption that forest growth is substrate limited. Regarding regeneration, effects typically under consideration
are soil compaction and organic matter removal that either limit root growth or reduce nutrient availability in the absence of
erosion. Tree growth, however, is only weakly related to soil physical properties and nutrient availability. Furthermore, soil
structure and organic matter recover with time, in many cases, leading to the conclusion that any effects that regeneration
practices may have on forest growth are probably temporary.
One of the difficulties in assessing the long-term effects of cultural practices on forest productivity is the lack of a good
measure of productivity. Productivity is the capacity to produce, which is difficult to measure directly. This is why many
investigators use a soils-based approach to measure productivity.
Productivity is the outcome of a complex system, a system comprised of numerous levels of organization arranged within a hierarchy (Ahl and Allen 1996). The principal attribute of complex systems is asymmetric relationships between levels
where the behavior of lower, relatively more dynamic levels are held in check by higher, relatively slower levels. Asymmetric
relationships exist in many forms. The most easily recognized asymmetry is one where a higher level of organization places
constraints on the range of activity exhibited by a lower level of organization. Another important form of asymmetry is
where the higher level of organization buffers or filters factors influencing a lower level of organization. An example of
buffering is the influence of a mature canopy on the understory microclimate.
Many of the constraints and buffers provided by the higher levels of organization are disrupted, if not eliminated, during
the regeneration period of a commercial forest, especially in clearcut systems. For example, the exposure of saprophytic
organisms to the unfiltered physical environment could be one source of significant changes in mineral nitrogen often
detected in the soil at the start of the regeneration period. Constraints and buffers reestablish as the vegetation reestablishes,
and mineralization returns to preharvest rates. Unless the same hierarchy reestablishes, however, productivity may be changed.
In commercial forestry production, productivity is often defined as the capacity to produce wood. In conifers, two meristems are principally responsible for wood production: the primary meristem on the terminal bud and the cambium. Height
and diameter increments are difficult to correlate with any specific environmental variable; one of the reasons for this difficulty may be that higher levels of organization may buffer meristem activity from variation in the physical environment.
Results of past studies help identify levels of organization relevant to long-term productivity. Various pine species have
shown a correlation between the length of the terminal bud and the final length of the elongated node produced from that
bud. Research has also shown that the size of the overwintering bud depends on the vigor of the tree. Consequently, leader elongation and the stem appear to represent a hierarchical relationship with the stimuli influencing leader growth being buffered
1
School of Renewable Natural Resources, Louisiana State University AgCenter, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA
USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Prineville, LA 71360, USA
3 School of Forestry, Louisiana Tech University, LA 71272, USA
2
349
or constrained by the main stem. The crown may buffer
factors influencing stem growth. A recent study reports that
a large percentage of variation in cambial activity at breast
height in several pine species is explained by seasonal
increases in the amount and distribution of the leaf area.
This poster reports preliminary results of the effects of harvesting intensity and site preparation on leader elongation
and stem diameter from a hierarchical perspective.
In the west Gulf region of the United States, studies are
underway to chronicle the effects of organic matter removal
and soil compaction on growth of the subsequent generation
of loblolly pine (Pinus faeda L.). The experiments differ in
degree of control of treatment application. In the Long-Term
Soil Productivity experiment (LTSP) of the USDA Forest
Service, organic matter removal and soil compaction are
carefully controlled and uniformly applied to the plot. In
the Cooperative Research in Sustainable Silviculture and
Soil Productivity (CRiSSSP) commercial forest studies, the
degree of organic matter removal and soil compaction was
dictated by the equipment used to harvest the stand; however, they include a minimum disturbance treatment comparable to the zero compaction level and the minimum
removal of organic matter treatment of the LTSP study.
Both the LTSP study and each CRiSSSP installation were
blocked with factorial combinations of the treatments randomly assigned within each block. Height was measured
annually on every tree for the first 5 growing seasons. Measurement intervals varied after age 6. Diameter at breast
height (d.b.h.) was measured on trees greater than 1.37 m
tall. A simple power function was fit with nonlinear regression to the height—age data for each treatment combination across blocks. The first derivative of the fitted equation
was plotted against height to evaluate the hypothesis that
harvesting and site preparation change the hierarchical relationship between the main stem and elongation of the terminal shoot. The hierarchical relationship between cambium
activity and amount and distribution of leaf area was investigated by inspecting the relationship between d.b.h., the
product of leaf area, and the height to the middle of the
crown defined by the uniform-stress principle of stem formation (Dean et al. 2002). Changes in this relationship suggests changes in xylem anatomy and physiological processes
affected by xylem anatomy.
Harvesting had little if any effect on the relationship
between leader elongation and tree height. With the exception of the first level of compaction in the LTSP study,
compaction and organic matter removal slightly decreased
the leader elongation associated with a given height relative
to the control treatment. Conventional harvesting in the
350
CRiSSSP studies also reduced leader length per unit height
slightly at two locations but had no effect on the relationship at two other locations. Treatments that substantially
reduced interspecific competition or improved soil nutrition
did appear to significantly change leader elongation for
a given height. With the exception of one location, these
treatments increased the leader increment expected for a
given height. Based on this analysis, competition control and
fertilization seem more likely candidates than harvesting
for affecting long-term productivity in terms of height
accumulation.
Harvesting also appears to have little or no effect on the
relationship between d.b.h. and the amount and distribution
of leaf area on the stem. In the LTSP study, while the coefficients for indicator variables representing the various treatment factors indicate a significant effect on the constant,
plots of the equations for the various compaction and
organic matter removal levels lie nearly on top of each
other. Coefficients for indicator variables for harvesting in
the CRiSSSP studies were not significantly different from
zero. The only treatment having a significant effect on the
relationship was fertilization. With fertilized trees, the d.b.h.
associated with a specific combination of leaf area and
height to the middle of the crown was substantially lower
than unfertilized trees with the same combination of leaf
area and height to the middle of the crown.
Based on these results, harvesting does not seem to affect
these two, simple hierarchical relationships. Treatments
that affect competition or nutrient availability, however, do
seem to increase leader elongation for a given tree height,
and fertilization reduces the d.b.h. associated with a particular combination of leaf area and height to the middle of
the crown. Obviously, longer observation times are required
before such changes in these hierarchical relationships can
actually portend changes in long-term productivity; however, changes observed in this study suggest that hierarchical relationships may be useful in evaluating the effects of
regeneration practices on long-term productivity.
REFERENCES
Ahl, V.; Allen, T.F.H. 1996. Hierarchy theory: a vision,
vocabulary, and epistemology. New York: Columbia
University Press. 206 p.
Dean, T.J.; Roberts, S.D.; Gilmore, D.W.; Maguire, D.A.;
Long, J.N.; O’Hara, K.L.; Seymour, R.S. 2002. An
evaluation of the uniform stress hypothesis based on
stem geometry in selected North American conifers.
Trees: Structure and Function. 16: 559-568.
Balancing Ecosystem Values Proceedings, Poster Abstracts
Design Issues for Small Mammal Studies
in Silvicultural Experiments
Robert Gitzen,1 Stephen West,1 Chris Maguire,2 and Tom Manning2
Wildlife studies face design constraints that may be minor problems for other disciplines in large-scale silvicultural
experiments. To illustrate some of these issues, we use the small mammal research component of the Demonstration of
Ecosystem Management Options (DEMO) project, as a case study. The DEMO study is a USDA Forest Service-initiated
experiment examining effects of different patterns and amounts of green-tree retention harvests in mature coniferous forests
of the Pacific Northwest.
Variability in small mammal communities across the region of interest may reduce the effective sample size for some
analyses, and may contribute to variation in treatment effects across the study region. In the DEMO experiment, forest-floor
small mammals were sampled with pitfall traps during two pretreatment years and during the first and second years after
harvests. Many species were absent from two or four of six study blocks, lowering the number of replicates for analyses
focusing on these species. Some species showed initial trends of opposite sign among study blocks. In a randomized block
study, replication of treatments within blocks would address this community variation, but may require reducing the number
of treatments implemented.
Wildlife population studies also must consider the number of animals of each focal species present, on average, on each
study site, and the probability of observing each individual. Sampling precision decreases as population size decreases,
reducing statistical power (Skalski and Robson 1992). Moreover, wildlife statisticians increasingly dismiss studies that
analyze indices of abundance without examining whether capture probabilities (detectability) vary across sites (Anderson
2003). To meet rigorous statistical requirements, high numbers of captures for focal species on each site are needed. In the
DEMO study, even species captured in high numbers overall were found in low abundance at some blocks. For the most
abundant species captured (Sorex trowbridgii), estimated capture probabilities did not differ between forest and harvested
sites, but did show high variation overall. We examine whether estimated detectability differed across treatments for other
commonly captured small mammals in the DEMO study.
We frequently observed low densities and high local and regional spatial variability in the DEMO small mammal study.
Our observations reinforce the need for replication of treatments locally (within block) and regionally, with experimental
units big enough to support large sampling grids and relatively high captures of focal species. Sampling should conform to
a statistical model allowing estimation of abundance and detectability (e.g., mark-recapture model). These factors may place
strong constraints on the overall design of a silvicultural experiment with wildlife components.
1
2
Wildlife Science Group, College of Forest Resources, University of Washington, Box 352100, Seattle, WA 98195-2100, USA
Forest Science Department, Oregon State University, 321 Richardson Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331-5752, USA
351
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This research is a component of the Demonstration of
Ecosystem Management Options (DEMO) study. Funds
were provided by the USDA Forest Service, PNW Research
Station to Oregon State University and to the University of
Washington.
REFERENCES
Anderson, D.R. 2003. Response to Engeman: index values
rarely constitute reliable information. Wildlife Society
Bulletin. 31: 288-291.
Skalski, J.R.; Robson, D.S. 1992. Techniques for wildlife
investigations: design and analysis of capture data. San
Diego, CA: Academic Press. 237 p.
352
Balancing Ecosystem Values Proceedings, Poster Abstracts
Potential of Green-Tree Retention as a
Tool to Maintain Soil Function After Harvest
Susan Grayston,1 Janet Addison,2 Shannon Berch,10 Louise deMontigny,4
Daniel Dural,5 Keith Egger,6 Melanie Jones,5 Jeffrey Lemieux,7 Robin Modesto,8 William Mohn,9
Tochi Panesar,2 Cindy Prescott,1 Suzanne Simard,1 and Diane Srivastava3
The aim of this project is to assess the potential use of green-tree retention as a management tool to maintain soil functioning and site productivity after harvesting. Specifically, the project will identify the diversity and function of the “black
box” of largely unknown soil organisms and changes in these communities with several variable retention harvesting systems to determine (1) if green-tree retention is a suitable management option for maintaining a healthy soil and (2) the size
and density of retention patches most favorable for this purpose. The ultimate goal is to recommend the optimal design of
variable-rentention systems for maintaining soil biodiversity and function.
There are three main questions of interest: (1) Do patches of green-tree retention retain the structure and function of soil
biota of the uncut forest? (2) Is there a minimum retention patch size of green-tree retention necessary to do this? (3) How
far does the effect of a green-tree retention patch extend into the harvested area, and does the “shadow” vary with green-tree
retention patch size?
There is clear evidence that clear-cutting affects the biomass, diversity, and community structure of soil microorganisms
(Jones et al. 2003) and soil invertebrates (Addison et al. 2003). There is also evidence that partial cutting has less of an effect
than clear-cutting on soil organisms (Marshall 2000). It is less clear which type of partial cutting best protects soil biodiversity and functioning. This project brings together a unique, multidisciplinary group of researchers, applying a range of novel
techniques to quantify changes in soil microbial and faunal diversity and function in response to harvesting. The project is
using the second replicate of the STEMS (www.for.gov.bc.ca/hre/stems) installation near Elk Bay, Vancouver Island for the
study. STEMS is a large, multidisciplinary field experiment that compares the ecological, biological and socio-economic
effects of seven silvicultural systems including clear-cut, uncut, group selection, patch cuts, dispersed retention and aggregated retention. The site for the second replicate is CWHxm2—very dry Maritime Coastal Western Hemlock Subzone. The
site series is 05 western redcedar—sword fern, a slightly dry to fresh soil moisture regime and a rich to very rich soil nutrient
regime. The stand is 60 years old and has a site index of 35 m at 50 years. The advantage of using the STEMS experiment
is that it allows us to examine the same soils pre- and post-harvest. We will sample 4 replicate aggregated retention patches
of 4 sizes. In the first year (2004, preharvest) we will sample what will be (1) the center of each retention patch, (2) the
edge of each retention patch and (3) 30 m from the edge of the retention patch. We will also sample four areas of what will
be uncut control and clear-cut at the same distances to obtain a baseline comparison. In the second and subsequent years
1
Department of Forest Sciences, University of British Columbia, 2424 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC, Canada
Department of Science Technology and Environment, Royal Roads University, 2005 Sooke Road, Victoria, BC, Canada
3 Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, 6270 University Boulevard, Vancouver, BC, Canada
4 BC Ministry of Forests, PO Box 9519 Stn Prov Govt, Victoria, BC V8W 9C2, Canada
5 Department of Biology, Okanagan University College, 3333 College Way, Kelowna, BC, Canada
6 Ecosystem Science & Management Program, University of Northern British Columbia, 3333 University Way, Prince George, BC, Canada
7 Department of Forest Sciences, University of British Columbia, 2424 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC, Canada
8 International Forest Products Limited, #311-1180 Ironwood Street, Campbell River, BC, Canada
9 Department of Microbiology & Immunology, University of British Columbia, 2424 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC, Canada
10 BC Ministry of Forests, PO Box 9536 Stn Prov Govt, Victoria, BC, Canada
2
353
(2005 on, post-harvest) we will sample the patch center and
then along a transect going 30 m out from the patch edge
into the clear-cut. In year 3 we will compare treatments in
STEMS replicate 1, (5 years, post-harvest), comparing the
patches and associated openings with uncut forest and the
dispersed retention treatment to determine whether the
lighter influence shadow cast by dispersed retention retains
community structure and function across more of the opening than does aggregated retention.
Microbial community structure will be characterized by
phenotypic and molecular methods and function determined
by using biochemical analyses. DNA will be extracted from
soil and the community profiled through PCR-DGGE
analysis of ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) (Leckie et al.
2004). PCR primers specific for different phylogenetic
groups will ensure fine resolution. Primers for catabolic
genes characteristic of specific functional groups (e.g., NH4
oxidizers, N2 fixers) will be used to assess diversity of functional genes in different soils and treatments by T-RFLP. We
will use primers designed to amplify the nifH subunit of
nitrogenase, which have been widely used in functional
ecology studies of nitrogen-fixing microbial communities.
Ammonia oxidizing bacterial communities will be targeted
by using primers for the amoA gene. The biomass and
structure of the soil microbial community will be assessed
by analyzing the ester-linked phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA)
composition of the soil because certain groups of microorganisms have different “signature” fatty acids. PLFA will
be extracted from soil, fractionated and quantified using
the procedure described by Grayston et al. (2004). Microbial
activity and catabolic diversity will be assessed using basal
and substrate induced respiration using a variety of carbon
(C) sources. A rapid microplate enzyme assay system will
be used to compare the key enzymes involved in C, nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) cycling in soil. The enzymes
measured will be C (cellulase, B glucosidase, phenol oxidase and lignin peroxidase), N (chitobiosidase, N acetyl
glucosaminidase, urease and protease) and P (acid phosphatase). To assess fungal community structure, abundance
of mushrooms (including chanterelles) will be determined,
DNA extracted and analyzed by RFLP and sequencing.
Soil mesofauna (mites, collembolan, nematodes) will be
extracted from the soil by using standard wet and dry extraction techniques, and will be identified to species or morphospecies (Addison et al. 2003). A digital library of images will
be constructed to aid identification, allow remote species
confirmations, and facilitate consultation with researchers
world-wide. Functional roles of different species will be
determined by using published literature, analysis of gut
contents and mouth-part morphology. Coastal forests of
354
Vancouver Island are unique in that they contain not only
native earthworms, but a giant enchytraeid species, in addition to the keystone millipede Harpaphe haydeniana. The
abundance and community structure of these elements of
the soil macrofauna will be determined by using Tullgren
funnels and wet sieving.
Nutrient availability in the field will be determined close
to each sampling point in the transect, using ion-exchange
membranes ((PRS)™-probes (Western Ag Innovations,
Saskatoon, SK)), changed monthly during the year. Litter
fall will be measured by collecting litter four times per year
in 0.08 m2 trays placed at the transect sampling points, to
determine if patterns of soil biodiversity are related to the
“litter shadow” of remaining trees.
The study is designed to run at least 5 years and provide
new knowledge each year. In year 1, the project will identify the diversity of soil microorganisms and fauna in forest
soils, producing molecular and taxonomic databases, culture
collections, digital photographic records and species keys.
In year 2 and subsequent years, the project will produce
information on the initial effects of different retention treatments, which will allow us to make recommendations about
the effectiveness of partial harvesting at maintaining soil
diversity and function and the most appropriate retention
level and spatial arrangement. In year 3, we will be able to
make use of the longer time that replicate 1 of the STEMS
experiment has been in place and make 5-year measurements on the control, clear-cut, dispersed retention, and
aggregate retention treatments. We use these results to test
our initial predications and will adapt our recommendations
on the basis of new results. In year 4, we will use results
and trends to date to identify key indicators soil diversity
and soil functioning and will adapt our monitoring to emphasize these. We will generate hypotheses regarding the link
between the indicators and keystone groups to critical soil
processes, which we will test using manipulative experiments.
REFERENCES
Addison, J.A., et al. 2003. Abundance, species diversity,
and community structure of Collembola in successional
coastal temperate forests on Vancouver Island. Applied
Soil Ecology. 24: 233-246.
Grayston, S.J., et al. 2004. Assessing shifts in microbial
community structure across a range of grasslands differing in management intensity using CLPP, PLFA and
community DNA techniques. Applied Soil Ecology.
25: 63-84.
Jones, M.D., et al. 2003. Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities in young forest stands regenerating after clearcut
logging. New Phytology. 157: 399-422.
Leckie, S.E., et al. 2004. Comparison of chloroform fumigation-extraction, phospholipid fatty acid and DNA
methods to determine microbial biomass in forest
humus. Soil Biology & Biochemistry. 36: 529-532.
Marshall, V.G. 2000. Impacts of forest harvesting on biological processes in northern forests. Forest Ecology
and Management. 133: 43-60.
355
Balancing Ecosystem Values Proceedings, Poster Abstracts
Effects of Green-Tree Retention on the Availability
of Arthropod Prey to Bark-Gleaning Birds
Juraj Halaj,1 Maria Mayrhofer,2 and David Manuwal2
Green-tree retention is gaining popularity as a forest management tool in the Pacific Northwest. The Demonstration of
Ecosystem Management Options (DEMO) study is the first experimental attempt to provide the needed empirical evidence
to evaluate ecological consequences of this silvicultural model to a wide range of forest organisms. The current study investigated the effects of varying levels and patterns of green-tree retention on the availability of arthropod prey to bark-gleaning birds, primarily the brown creeper (Certhia americana). This ongoing study has a randomized block design and utilizes
three of the existing DEMO blocks in the western Cascade Range of Oregon and Washington. In each block, five 13-ha
treatment units were used in the experiment, including (1) 15-percent aggregated tree retention, (2) 15-percent dispersed
retention, (3) 40-percent aggregated retention, (4) 40-percent dispersed retention and (5) 100-percent retention (control).
Arthropods were collected by using crawl traps installed on live Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) trees
and snags and with D-vac sampling of tree boles during the brown creeper breeding season from May through August, 2003.
Preliminary results showed that the bark arthropod community was dominated by Collembola (44 percent), Araneae (18
percent), Coleoptera (11 percent) and Hemiptera (10 percent). The total arthropod abundance tended to be higher on live
trees than snags. Spiders appeared especially sensitive to different combinations of green-tree retention. Significant shifts in
the spider guild structure were found among individual treatments and the abundance of these predators was generally higher
in dispersed rather than aggregated treatments and at 15-percent rather than 40-percent tree-retention levels.
1
2
Cascadien, Inc., 1903 NW Lantana Drive, Corvallis, OR 97330-1016, USA
College of Forest Resources, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
356
Balancing Ecosystem Values Proceedings, Poster Abstracts
Vegetation Responses to Varying Levels and Patterns of
Overstory Retention: Early Results of the DEMO Experiment
Charles Halpern,1 Donald McKenzi,2 Shelley Evans,3
James Saracco,4 Doug Maguire,5 and Juraj Halaj6
INTRODUCTION
Retention of overstory trees during timber harvest
has become increasingly common in temperate and boreal
ecosystems as land managers seek to balance the commodity and ecological values of managed forests. In the Pacific
Northwest region of the United States, variable or greentree retention has replaced clearcut logging on federal lands
within the range of the northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina), with the expressed goal of enhancing the
structural and biological diversity of regenerating forests.
The Demonstration of Ecosystem Management Options
(DEMO) study examines the ecological responses of forest
ecosystems to variable-retention harvests. Specifically, it
tests how the level of tree retention and its spatial distribution (dispersed or aggregated) influence the persistence and
recovery of biological diversity. In this paper, we explore
some of the early responses of forest communities to variation in the level and/or patterns of retention. We focus on
post-harvest mortality of trees and on the responses of two
groups of understory plants likely to be sensitive to changes
in overstory structure—herbs associated with late-seral
forests and ground-layer bryophytes.
EXPERIMENTAL AND
SAMPLING DESIGNS
The full experimental design consists of six treatments,
including a control, replicated at each of six locations (blocks)
in southwestern Oregon and Washington (Aubry et al. 1999).
In this paper we focus on five of these treatments: the control (100 percent retention), and four that contrast level of
retention (40 vs. 15 percent of original basal area) and its
spatial distribution (aggregated vs. dispersed). Treatments,
assigned randomly to 13-ha experimental units within each
block, were applied as follows:
• Control: no harvest
• 40-percent aggregated retention: five 1-ha circular
aggregates were retained; all merchantable trees in the
surrounding area were cut and removed
• 40-percent dispersed retention: the same basal area
was retained as in the 40-percent aggregated retention,
but as dominant and co-dominant trees evenly dispersed
through the treatment area
• 15-percent aggregated retention: two 1-ha circular
aggregates were retained; all merchantable trees in the
surrounding area were cut and removed
• 15-percent dispersed retention: the same basal area was
retained as in 15-percent aggregate retention treatment,
but as dominant and co-dominant trees evenly dispersed
through the treatment area
Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco)
dominated all sites, but forest age, structure, and understory
composition varied considerably among blocks (Halpern et
al. 1999). Treatments were implemented within each block
1
College of Forest Resources, University of Washington, Box 352100, Seattle, WA 98195-2100, USA
Pacific Wildland Fire Sciences Lab, USDA Forest Service, 400 N 34th Street, Suite 201, Seattle, WA 98103, USA
3 College of Forest Resources, University of Washington, Box 352100, Seattle, WA 98195-2100, USA
4 The Institute for Bird Populations, PO Box 1346, Pt. Reyes Station, CA 94956-1346, USA
5 Department of Forest Science, Oregon State University, Richardson Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
6 Cascadian, Inc., 1903 NW Lantana Drive, Corvallis, OR 97330-1016, USA
2
357
within a period of 3 to 7 months during 1997 and 1998.
Details on harvest prescriptions, yarding methods, site preparation, and planting can be found in Aubry et al. (1999),
Halpern and McKenzie (2001), and Halpern et al. (2005).
Within each treatment unit, a systematic sampling grid
(40-m spacing) was established prior to harvest. Nested
vegetation plots were established for sampling overstory
trees, tall shrubs, and ground-layer plants, with the number
and distribution of plots varying by treatment. Overstory
trees were sampled in circular plots of 0.04 ha area. Following harvest, all residual trees >5 cm d.b.h. were tagged,
identified to species, measured for diameter, and assigned
to a canopy class (e.g., suppressed, co-dominant). Post-harvest mortality was assessed annually for 2 to 3 years. Preand post-harvest measurements of shrub height and cover
were taken along four perpendicular transects (total length
24 m). Presence of all herbaceous and bryophyte (moss and
liverwort) species was recorded within 24, 0.1 m2 quadrats
from which species’ frequencies were calculated. Species
in the herb layer were analyzed by seral status (early seral,
forest, and late-seral) to distinguish among taxa with differing successional roles and sensitivities to disturbance.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Over 2 to 3 years of observation, the rates, patterns and
causes of tree mortality were significantly affected by both
level and pattern of overstory retention. Cumulative mortality was significantly greater at 15 percent than at 40
percent retention (4.0 to 8.4 percent vs. 1.9 to 3.6 percent,
respectively). Additionally, at both levels of retention, aggregation of trees significantly reduced mortality: cumulative
rates were 1.9 to 4.0 percent in aggregated treatments and
3.6 to 8.4 percent in dispersed treatments. Furthermore,
mortality of co-dominant trees responded to level of retention, while suppressed trees showed a stronger response to
retention pattern. Mortality of co-dominants was greater at
lower levels of retention, particularly in dispersed treatments
(7.3 percent in 15-percent dispersed vs. 1.4 percent in 40
percent dispersed). In contrast, suppressed trees had higher
rates of mortality in dispersed than in aggregated treatments
(8.2 to 10.9 percent vs. 2.2 to 4.9 percent, respectively). These
differences are consistent with frequencies of bole damage
induced by logging activities (17 to 27 percent vs. 2 percent
in dispersed and aggregated treatments, respectively (Moore
et al. 2002)). Among the dominant forms of mortality, wind
damage (windsnap or wind throw) was particularly common in the 15-percent dispersed treatment (4.0 percent vs.
0.4 to 1.1 percent elsewhere).
358
In combination, these results lead to two general conclusions: (1) in the short-term, forest aggregates of 1-ha in
size are fairly stable; and (2) at low levels of retention, dispersed patterns are susceptible to logging and wind damage
that can lead to significant mortality, even among co-dominant trees. This latter result is especially relevant to the
design of variable retention harvests in that these larger,
more vigorous trees are typically selected for retention.
Among vascular understory plants, declines in species
frequency and richness, and changes in species composition
were significantly greater at lower levels of retention.
Pattern of retention, however, had surprisingly little
effect on understory response. This latter result can be
attributed to extremes in response within the aggregated
treatments: post-harvest changes were small within the
forest aggregates, but declines in adjacent harvest areas
were large and generally greater than those in dispersed
treatments. Late-seral herbs were particularly sensitive to
these effects, experiencing more frequent extirpations from
the harvested portions of aggregated treatments than from
dispersed treatments. These initial responses to harvest are
consistent with patterns of ground disturbance and slash
accumulation which varied markedly among treatments
(Halpern and McKenzie 2001). As effects of disturbance
diminish with time, however, we expect that variation in
overstory structure will play an increasingly important role
in understory recovery.
Ground-layer bryophytes showed greater sensitivity
to timber harvest than did vascular plants. Declines in total
cover, richness, and species frequency were large and comparable among treatments. For most measures of response,
declines in thinned plots (dispersed treatments) were as
large as those in cleared plots (harvested portions of aggregated treatments). This is not surprising given the limited
capacity of most shade-adapted bryophytes to tolerate heat
or moisture stress. In contrast, changes within the 1-ha forest
aggregates were generally small (comparable to changes
within the controls).
Do our results suggest clear differences in vegetation
response to different levels or spatial patterns of retention?
Higher levels of retention clearly reduced wind throw of
isolated or newly exposed trees and loss of herbaceous species
associated with late-seral forests. Responses to pattern of
retention, however, were mixed. Tree mortality was reduced
in aggregated treatments, but the benefit of aggregated
retention for understory plants was predictably localized
within the forest aggregates; in adjacent harvest areas,
species showed greater declines or more frequent extirpations than in dispersed treatments. For plant species that
are sensitive to disturbance or dependent on deep shade or
moist substrates, forest aggregates serve as temporary refugia, maintaining local populations through timber harvest.
In the longer term, moreover, they can serve as sources for
dispersal into adjacent harvest areas. Although these functions may be compromised by edge effects, our observations
suggest that patches of 1-ha in size are sufficiently large to
maintain viable populations of most species (see Nelson
and Halpern, this issue).
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This research is a component of the Department of
Ecosystem Management Options (DEMO) study. Funds
were provided by the USDA Forest Service, PNW Research
Station to Oregon State University and to the University of
Washington.
REFERENCES
Aubry, K.B., et al. 1999. Evaluating the effects of varying
levels and patterns of green-tree retention: experimental
design of the DEMO study. Northwest Science.
73(special issue): 12-26.
Halpern, C.B., et al. 1999. Response of forest vegetation
to varying levels and patterns of green-tree retention:
An overview of a long-term experiment. Northwest
Science. 73(special issue): 27-44.
Halpern, C.B., et al. [in press]. Early responses of forest
understories to timber harvest with varying levels
and patterns of green-tree retention. Ecological
Applications.
Halpern, C.B.; McKenzie, D. 2001. Disturbance and postharvest ground conditions in a structural retention
experiment. Forest Ecology and Management. 154:
215-225.
Moore, J.R., et al. 2002. Effects of varying levels and
patterns of green-tree retention on amount of harvesting
damage. Western Journal of Applied Forestry. 17:
202–206.
359
Balancing Ecosystem Values Proceedings, Poster Abstracts
Biodiversity at the Sicamous Creek Silvicultural Systems Project:
Treatment, Edge and Site Preparation Effects in Subalpine Forest
David Huggard,1 Alan Vyse,2 Walt Klenner,2 and Dennis Lloyd2
A multidisciplinary project at the Sicamous Creek Silvicultural Systems site in interior British Columbia, Canada, examines management alternatives for high-elevation Engelmann spruce–subalpine fir forests, by using a large-scale replicated
experiment. Harvest treatments, each replicated 3 times, include: 10-ha clearcuts and surrounding wide leave strips, arrays
of 1-ha patch cuts with 100 m wide leave strips, arrays of 0.1-ha patch cuts with narrow leave strips, uniform partial cuts
and uncut forest. Each harvest treatment removed a third of the trees. Openings are square and regularly spaced to allow
examination of edge effects into and out of openings unconfounded by changes in stand type or topographic features. Within
each main treatment unit, 30 m x 30 m experimental plots allow comparison of 4 site preparation techniques: standard operational mounding, prescribed burning, organic-layer removal and undisturbed. More than 40 researchers at the site have
examined a wide range of ecosystem components and resources. Here, we collate harvest treatment, site preparation, and
edge effects from biodiversity studies, which include lichens, bryophytes, vascular plants, wildlife habitat structures, pine
marten, spruce grouse, woodpeckers, songbirds, small mammals, and terrestrial invertebrates.
As expected, no single harvest treatment will best accommodate all species. However, many species showed similar
responses to treatments using 10-ha and 1-ha openings, but different responses to 0.1-ha openings or uniform partial cuts.
Recent operational changes from large clearcuts to 3- to 5-ha openings have reduced public concern about clearcutting, but
may make little difference for most organisms. For many, but not all, species studied at Sicamous Creek, 0.1-ha patch cuts
better retained sensitive species than uniform partial cuts. Maintaining small-scale heterogeneity with patch-cuts or group
selection should be favored over more uniform, continuous cover harvest systems.
Most species that differed between openings and retained forest showed no edge effects in this naturally open forest type.
A few species, such as three-toed woodpeckers, pine marten and grylloblattid insects, showed positive responses to edges.
Some species associated with retained forest extended 5 to 10 m into openings. These effects support the use of small openings. Short-term negative edge effects were found for spruce grouse, though this species was not disproportionately impacted
by small openings. Reductions in bryophyte abundance were measured up to 50 m into the forest from south-facing edges.
These results suggest that even narrow leave strips and small retained patches can remain as suitable habitat for many forestdwelling species. However, extensive windthrow observed near some edges of 1- and 10-ha openings may extend some
negative edge effects further into the forest over time.
Site preparation options altered vegetation succession and had some strong initial effects on invertebrates and small
mammals. The current operational practice of mounding was most similar to undisturbed sites, but did have some negative
effects on a few species. These are likely due to mechanical damage to shrubs and logs by the excavator used to do the
mounding, suggesting possibilities to reduce the impact with different machinery or operational practices where mounding
is necessary for silviculture.
More extensive summaries of the results for harvest treatments, edge effects and site preparation at Sicamous Creek are
available at http://www.for.gov.bc.ca/hfd/ pubs/Docs/En/En63.htm, …/En62.htm, and …/En65.htm
1
2
Weyerhaeuser BC Coastal Group, 517 E.10th St., North Vancouver, BC V7L 2E7, Canada
BC Forest Service, 515 Columbia St., Kamloops, BC V2C 2T7, Canada
360
Balancing Ecosystem Values Proceedings, Poster Abstracts
Operational Comparisons and Experiments for Monitoring Habitat
Structures in Weyerhaeuser’s Coastal BC Variable Retention
David Huggard,1 Glen Dunsworth,2 and Jeff Sandford2
Weyerhaeuser’s adaptive management program for monitoring and improving variable retention harvesting in coastal
British Columbia, Canada, includes monitoring operational harvest blocks and replicated, randomized experimental treatments. Both the operational and experimental approaches were used for the monitoring because the advantages and disadvantages of each mean that neither one alone is sufficient for a complete program. Randomization in experimental sites
removes some of the confounding effects between treatments and environmental variables typically found in operational
settings. However, with limited replication, confounding with at least a few of the innumerable possible pre-existing site
differences is still inevitable in experimental sites. Experimental sites have the advantage of allowing controlled manipulation of single important variables; the drawback is deciding which of the many possible important variables to study.
Perhaps most importantly, experimental blocks allow a greater range of treatments than operational blocks, which have
greater constraints due to economics and professional risk-aversion. On the other hand, monitoring operational blocks
allows a greater sample size of common treatments to represent a diverse range of ecosystems. It is also necessary for
determining the weakest points of operational practices and for measuring operational improvement over time. Operational
blocks are readily available, in contrast to typically slow implementation of designed experiments; this enables faster shortterm results to inform managers and to satisfy impatient funding institutions.
A critical part of learning from the operational monitoring is a sampling design that allows comparisons to address main
management questions. Weyerhaeuser’s design used in coastal British Columbia for operational monitoring of stand-level
habitat structures (trees, snags, logs, cover layers, heterogeneity and others) includes primary comparisons of (1) different
types of variable retention (dispersed, group and mixed), (2) unmanaged benchmarks versus variable retention blocks, (3)
relationships with percentage of retention in variable retention blocks, (4) edge effects into and out of variable retention
reserves, and (5) progress in retaining structures in operational blocks over time. To date, we have monitored structures in
180 variable retention blocks and 56 unmanaged benchmarks across the various ecosystems in coastal British Columbia
under Weyerhaeuser’s tenure. Additional sampling of operational blocks allows secondary comparisons of riparian versus
upland reserves, older clearcuts, older remnant (pre-variable retention) patches and nonharvestable “scrub” sites. We present
5-year results, management feedback, and lessons we have learned about monitoring with designed operational comparisons
and experimental treatments.
1
2
Weyerhaeuser BC Coastal Group, 517 E.10th St., North Vancouver, BC V7L 2E7, Canada
Weyerhaeuser BC Coastal Group, 65 Front St., Nanaimo, BC V9R 5H9, Canada
361
Balancing Ecosystem Values Proceedings, Poster Abstracts
Rediscovering What Works: The Stoddard-Neel Approach
as a Case Study of Conservation-Oriented Sustainable Forestry
Steven Jack1 and Kevin McIntyre1
Uneven-aged silvicultural approaches are often proposed as appropriate for many forest types in the United States to
provide a sustainable balance of biodiversity and ecosystem “health” in addition to timber products. Several uneven-aged
approaches have been well-documented and widely applied, but most are focused primarily on the production of wood
products in regulated systems. In thinking about appropriate new approaches to sustainable forestry, it is wise to remind
ourselves of approaches that have a long history of achieving the desired objectives. One such example is the Stoddard-Neel
approach developed by Herbert Stoddard and Leon Neel over several decades in open pine-grassland ecosystems (with
particular attention to longleaf pine) on the Southeastern Coastal Plain. The Stoddard-Neel approach is unique not for its
uneven-aged focus or method for selecting trees for removal, but rather in its overall guiding philosophy of resource management and what is selected to remain on the site after each harvest entry. In the Stoddard-Neel approach, the production
of timber and subsequent economic return are byproducts of a central focus on long-term stewardship. That is, rather than a
primary focus on timber management with other resources and amenities as secondary or ancillary, the Stoddard-Neel approach
seeks to preserve all characteristics of the ecosystem and then determine how much timber is available for harvest while
maintaining a balance of ecological, economic, conservation and aesthetic values. We will describe the Stoddard-Neel
approach to forest management, including key tenets and objectives, and provide an example using long-term records
from one property.
1
J.W. Jones Ecological Research Ctr, Rt 2 Box 2324, Newton, GA 39870, USA
362
Balancing Ecosystem Values Proceedings, Poster Abstracts
Extended Rotation Red Pine Stands in Minnesota
Christel Kern1 and Brian Palik1
Extended rotation stands are rare in most regions, but will likely be more common in the future because of the high conservation value placed on old forests by society. Quantitative data on growth and yield of extended rotation stands are not
common, making economic predictions and ecological expectations difficult to assess. This reflects the practice of basing
rotation age on culmination of mean annual volume increment (CAI) in unthinned stands, without necessarily factoring in
the influence of periodic thinning on growth. We are studying extended rotation red pine (Pinus resinosa Soland.) stands to
better understand the ecological, growth, and yield consequences of managing long-lived species beyond the traditional
rotation age (70 to 90 years for red pine). Our study uses a level of growing stock study that was installed in 85-year-old
red pine stands in 1950. Treatments consist of five levels of residual basal area from 14 to 32 m2/ha. The stands have been
thinned five to seven times. By age 138, mean annual increment had not culminated in the low basal area treatments, holding steady at around 2.5 m3/ha. Mean annual increment in the higher basal area treatments show signs of culmination
between ages 115 to 135 years. Our study reaffirms a growing belief that CAI has limited value for determining rotation
age, given objectives that are more inclusive of conservation and ecological goals. This study also reflects the value of
long-term experiments, even if established for other reasons, for addressing emerging silvicultural questions.
1
USDA Forest Service, NCRS, 1831 Hwy 169 E, Grand Rapids, MN 55744, USA
363
Balancing Ecosystem Values Proceedings, Poster Abstracts
Demonstrating Conservation Forestry: Increasing
Exposure to Increase Acceptance in the Southeast
Kevin McIntyre1 and Steve Jack1
There is increasing interest in alternatives to production-oriented resource management among landowners in the
Southeastern Coastal Plain of the United States, where almost 70 percent of the forestland is held in nonindustrial private
ownership. Most nonindustrial private landowners rely on forest consultants and extension programs for forest management
expertise, yet many of these sources of information offer a limited perspective that often focuses heavily on traditional
production-oriented silvicultural approaches. The Joseph W. Jones Ecological Research Center is located at Ichauway, a
11 700-ha property in southwestern Georgia that includes 7300 ha of fire-dependent longleaf pine dominated forests. The
Center, with missions in research, conservation and education, is a proponent of conservation-oriented resource management
where no single characteristic or factor is maximized at the expense of other resources, and a balance is sought between
biodiversity values, timber production, wildlife management, and overall aesthetics of the land. To further our mission goals
and to provide relevant information to regional landowners we are developing a 400-ha demonstration area that brings
together many of the components of this conservation management approach in one easily accessible location. Specific
aspects of this demonstration project include (1) multiple and integrated resource management for forest, wildlife and
biological diversity values, including examples of uneven-aged forestry practices, native groundcover maintenance, wildlife
management (including nongame and endangered species), and ecological restoration; (2) quantification of inputs to and
outputs from the demonstration area, both tangible and intangible, to enable economic comparisons between resource
management alternatives; and (3) implementation of basic and applied research projects within the managed landscape.
1
J.W. Jones Ecological Research Center, Rt. 2, Box 2324 Newton, GA 39870, USA
364
Balancing Ecosystem Values Proceedings, Poster Abstracts
Contribution of Monitoring Research to Forest Certification and
Ecologically Sustainable Forest Management in the Yamanashi
Prefectural Forest, Central Japan
Takuo Nagaike1
Yamanashi Prefectural Forest (YPF, 158 000 ha) comprises 35 percent of the Yamanashi prefecture, central Japan.
Because the people of the prefecture now expect ecologically sustainable forest management rather than solely timber production from the YPF, the management policy of the YPF has changed. Yamanashi Forest Ecosystem Monitoring Project,
which is a research project about criteria and indicators based on Montreal Process, was started in 1997 to contribute to ecologically sustainable forest management in the YPF (Nagaike 2002, Nagaike and Hayashi 2003). Because the forest in the
project area is dominated by Larix kaempferi plantations between 40 and 50 years old, it is desirable to change this age
structure. Thus, I studied the effects of stand age on the plant species diversity in plantations. I found the species composition of understory plants in 40- to 50-year-old plantation to be different than in older plantations (Nagaike et al. 2003;
Nagaike and Hayashi, in press). The YPF was certified by Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) in 2003. Although the YPF
received the FSC certification, the assessment team pointed out 17 stipulated conditions. The important points of the conditions were assessment and monitoring of forest management and landscape management. I will discuss the relationship
between the conditions and the project and other related research.
REFERENCES
Nagaike, T. 2002. Differences in plant species diversity
between conifer (Larix kaempfer) plantation and broadleaved (Quercus crispula) secondary forest in central
Japan. Forest Ecology and Management. 168: 111-123.
Nagaike, T.; Hayashi, A. 2003. Bark-stripping by Sika deer
(Cervus Nippon) in Larix kaempferi plantations in central Japan. Forest Ecology and Management. 175: 563572.
1
Nagaike, T.; Hayashi, A. [In press]. Effects of extending
rotation period on plant species diversity in Larix
kaempferi plantations in central Japan. Annals of Forest
Science.
Nagaike, T., et al. 2003. Differences in plant species diversity in Larix kaempferi plantations of different ages in
central Japan. Forest Ecology and Management. 183:
177-193.
Yamanashi Forest Research Institute, Masuho, Yamanashi 400-0502, Japan
365
Balancing Ecosystem Values Proceedings, Poster Abstracts
Short-Term Responses of Vascular Plants and Bryophytes in
Forest Patches Retained During Structural Retention Harvests
Cara Nelson1 and Charles Halpern1
INTRODUCTION
Aggregated retention of overstory trees is now a standard
component of timber harvest prescriptions on federal lands
in the Pacific Northwest. Patches of remnant forest (hereafter, forest aggregates) retained during harvest are thought
to enhance the structural and biological diversity of managed forests, but the extent to which they maintain components of the original understory or promote recovery in
adjacent harvest areas has not been tested. Although small
forest aggregates can have high conservation value, fragmentation or edge influences may diminish their ecological
functions. We examined short-term (1 and 2 year) responses
of understory plants to disturbance and creation of edges
in structural retention harvest units at two sites in western
Washington. Our design uses pre- and post-treatment measurements of permanent plots, allowing us to reliably quantify the spatial pattern, magnitude, and time course of
vegetation response. We pose the following questions: (1)
Do species richness and community composition remain
stable in forest aggregates? (2) Do aggregates retain disturbance-sensitive plants that decline in, or are lost from, adjacent areas of harvest? (3) Within forest aggregates, are there
edge-related gradients in vegetation response (changes in
species richness, community composition, or abundance of
individual species) and, if so, do these gradients correlate
with changes in light availability or disturbance?
FIELD METHODS
This study was conducted in mature Douglas-fir
(Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) forests on the
1
Gifford Pinchot National Forest, in conjunction with the
Demonstration of Ecosystem Management Options (DEMO)
experiment (Aubry et al. 1999, Halpern et al. 1999). Sampling occurred in two 13-ha aggregated retention harvest
units, in which five 1-ha (56-m radius) circular forest
aggregates were retained (Nelson and Halpern 2005). In
the surrounding area, all merchantable trees (> 18 cm
diameter at breast height) were cut and removed. Pretreatment sampling was conducted in 1996 and post-treatment
sampling in 1998 and 1999 (years 1 and 2). At each site,
two of the five 1-ha circular aggregates marked for retention were randomly selected. In each of these, we established four perpendicular transects, 81 m in length, which
extended in cardinal directions from the aggregate center
and ended 25 m into the surrounding area to be harvested.
Twelve bands of permanent plots were established along
each transect, eight in the area marked for retention (at distances of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, and 50 m from the edge)
and four in the area marked for harvest (at distances of 5,
10, 15, and 25 m from the edge). Each band consisted of
five, 1-m2 subplots, within which we estimated the cover
of all vascular plant species, and five 0.1-m2 microplots,
within which we estimated the cover of ground-layer
bryophytes. To explore possible correlates of vegetation
change, we quantified cover of logging slash and disturbed
soil (year 1) and light availability (year 2). Cover of logging slash and disturbed soil was estimated along the interior edge of each band by using the line-intercept method.
Light availability was estimated with a CI-110 digital canopy
imager with a 150-degree lens. Digital photographs were
taken from the end points of each band at a height of 1 m
from the ground surface. Digital images were analyzed
using Scanopy 2.0b software to calculate percent open sky.
College of Forest Resources, University of Washington, Box 352100, Seattle, WA 98195-2100, USA
366
ANALYSES
We considered three types of response variables: richness,
community composition, and species abundance. Separate
richness calculations were made for vascular plants classified as forest understory species, those classified as earlyseral species, and bryophyte species. Changes in community
composition were expressed as the percent dissimilarity
(PD) between pre- and post-treatment measurements (vascular plants only), using the quantitative form of Sørensen’s
community coefficient. Abundance was measured as percentage of cover for vascular plants and frequency of occurrence for bryophytes. To standardize for spatial variation in
species richness and abundance prior to treatment, a change
value was computed for each variable as the arithmetic
difference between pre- and post-treatment values.
Responses Within Forest Aggregates and Adjacent
Areas of Harvest
We assessed the comparative responses of vascular
plants in forest aggregates and adjacent areas of harvest by
conducting a series of two-sample t-tests using mean “change
values” (or mean PD for community composition) as the
measure of response. Bryophyte responses were assessed
using a series of paired t-tests to compare pre- and posttreatment values within each environment (harvest areas
and forest aggregates; n = 4). Tests of individual species’
responses were limited to taxa that (1) occurred in at least
three of the four replicates (i.e., forest aggregate/surrounding harvest area pairs) and (2) had greater than 10 percent
frequency (percentage of all possible bands); we refer to
these as “common species.”
were largely resistant to colonization by early-seral species
and remained stable with respect to forest species richness.
Eight of 29 common vascular plants showed significant
differences in response between environments: seven of
these showed greater magnitudes of decline in harvest areas
than in aggregates; only one showed a significantly greater
increase in abundance in harvest areas than in aggregates.
Ninety percent of bryophytes declined in the harvest area;
however, only five of the eight common taxa showed significant declines. In the short-term, forest aggregates provide refugia for shade-tolerant herbs and ground-layer
bryophytes that are extirpated from, or decline in, adjacent
areas of harvest. Because most forest species do not maintain a viable seed bank, local persistence in and subsequent
dispersal of seeds from aggregates may greatly facilitate
reestablishment of populations in harvested areas.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Gradients in Environment and Vegetation Response
Within Forest Aggregates
Within forest aggregates, increased light availability and
harvest-related disturbance were limited to a 10- to 15-mwide band, leaving approximately 50 percent of the forest
aggregate unchanged for these attributes (Nelson and
Halpern 2005). This large outer band was notably altered,
however, with logging slash covering 38 percent of the
ground surface and open sky roughly double that at the
center of the aggregate. Spatial gradients in community
composition, species richness, and the abundance of individual species correlated to varying degrees with proximity
to forest edge (Nelson and Halpern 2005). Changes in community composition were most apparent at the forest border (0-5 m). We also found slightly reduced richness of
vascular plants at the edge, reflecting declines of some
forest species (with minimal establishment of early-seral
species). We anticipate gradual increases in vascular plant
richness near aggregate edges with time, as early-seral
species become more abundant in adjacent harvested areas.
We found significantly reduced richness of ground-layer
bryophytes with proximity to edge, primarily due to extirpations of less common taxa. Although none of the common
shrub or moss species showed significant responses, 8 of
23 common herbs and 1 of 2 common liverworts declined
near edges. A marked increase from year 1 to 2 in both the
number of species showing significant declines and the
magnitude of decline suggests that edge effects will become
more apparent with time.
Differences Between Forest Aggregates and
Adjacent Areas of Harvest
Compared to harvested areas, forest aggregates showed
minimal change in species richness and composition 2 years
after treatment (Nelson and Halpern 2005). Aggregates
Management Considerations
Identifying minimum sizes for protected areas is an
important issue in conservation biology. Although large
reserves are clearly necessary for many ecosystem processes
and components (e.g., interior-forest microclimate and
Edge-Related Gradients in Vegetation Response and
Physical Environment Within Aggregates
Edge-related gradients in vegetation response were
assessed by calculating Spearman rank correlation coefficients between mean values of vegetation variables (changes
in richness and cover, and PD) and distance from the aggregate edge, with separate analyses for each post-treatment
year. Species-level analyses were limited to the common
taxa noted above. Environmental variables (open sky, logging slash, and disturbed soil) were also correlated with
distance from edge and with vegetation responses.
367
wide-ranging carnivores), smaller forest remnants also may
have high conservation value, especially in landscapes that
are intensively managed for timber production. Our results
suggest that, over short timeframes, aggregates at least 1 ha
in size may provide a refugium for disturbance-sensitive
species and a local dispersal source for recolonization of
harvested areas once microclimatic conditions become suitable for establishment. However, 1-ha remnant patches
may not be large enough to prevent declines of less common
bryophyte taxa. Furthermore, temporal trends suggest that
edge effects judged to be small in the short term may
become more prominent with time. Additional research at
these and other sites in the Pacific Northwest is necessary
to identify the temporal and spatial scales over which forest
aggregates serve their intended ecological functions.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This research is a component of the Department of
Ecosystem Management Options (DEMO) study. Funds
were provided by the USDA Forest Service, PNW Research
Station to Oregon State University and to the University of
Washington.
REFERENCES
Aubry, K.B., et al. 1999. Evaluating the effects of varying
levels and patterns of green-tree retention: experimental
design of the DEMO study. Northwest Science.
73(special issue): 12-26.
Halpern, C.B., et al. 1999. Response of forest vegetation
to varying levels and patterns of green-tree retention: an
overview of a long-term experiment. Northwest
Science. 73(special issue): 27-44.
Nelson, C.R.; Halpern, C.B. [In press]. Edge-related
responses of understory plants to aggregated retention
harvest in the Pacific Northwest. Ecological
Applications.
368
Balancing Ecosystem Values Proceedings, Poster Abstracts
Effects of Four Riparian Buffer Treatments
and Thinning on Microclimate and Amphibians in
Western Oregon Headwater Forests
Deanna Olson1 and Samuel Chan1,2
We examined the effects on microclimate and amphibians of four riparian buffer widths (ca. 6 m, 17 m, 62 m, 120 m;
untreated control) with thinning to 200 trees/ha in adjacent upland headwater forests, in 30- to 70-year-old stands previously
managed for wood production in western Oregon. Gradients in the summer microclimate (air and soil temperature, relative
humidity), measured at 4 p.m., were evident along transects from streams into the thinned upland forest (N = 6 sites). Mean
(4 p.m.) summer air temperature and relative humidity tended to be ca. 4 °C higher and 15 percent lower respectively, in the
thinned upland forest vs. the control. Riparian buffers averaging as narrow as 17 m wide mitigated the microclimates associated with thinning. Thinning did not affect riparian buffer soil temperature and the temperature of the stream. Amphibian
richness was relatively high (12 spp), but species abundances often were low and spatially variable, which may account for
few treatment effects in stream and bank animals (n = 11 sites), and variable upslope effects (1 of 2 sites). The occurrence
of the headwater-associated torrent salamander at 10 of 11 sites, and 33 of 68 stream reaches was notable. Regardless of
treatment, the steepest change in microclimate was often observed within 5 m from the center of the stream where most
amphibians were captured. To hedge uncertainty in long-term effects of riparian management on headwater resources, a mix
of buffers might be considered for zero-, first-, and second-order streams across subdrainages.
1
2
USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, 3200 SW Jefferson Way, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
Currently with Extension Sea Grant, Clackamas County Extension, 200 Warner-Milne Rd., Oregon City, OR 97045, USA
369
Balancing Ecosystem Values Proceedings, Poster Abstracts
Aesthetic Perceptions of Green-Tree Retention Harvests
in Vista Views: The Interaction of Cut Level, Retention
Pattern and Harvest Shape
Robert Ribe1 and Tony Silvaggio2
The scenic beauty of timber harvests affects perceptions of the social acceptability of forest management. Aesthetic
perceptions of green-tree retention options within harvests were investigated. Study scenes depicted close-up vista views of
clearcuts, an unharvested forest, and a full set of harvests that varied by amount and pattern of green-tree retention and by
the design of cut block shapes. These attributes were tested to explain differences in scenic beauty estimates derived from
331 respondents. Higher scenic beauty was associated with increased dispersed green-tree retention levels. An important
finding was that all levels of aggregated retention, with different amounts of clearcut patches inside harvests, were perceived
as ugly. Dispersed retention levels below about 25 percent are likely to produce various degrees of perceived ugliness,
whereas those with about 25 percent or more retention tend to be seen as beautiful. The design of harvest shapes to look
more irregular, rather than geometric, improved scenic beauty slightly only among harvests with 15 percent or lower retention, irrespective of retention pattern.
1 Department
2
of Landscape Architecture and Institute for a Sustainable Environment, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403, USA
Oregon Survey Research Laboratory and Department of Sociology, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403, USA
370
Balancing Ecosystem Values Proceedings, Poster Abstracts
Restoration of a Forested Coastal Watershed:
Ellsworth Creek, Washington
David Rolph,1 Steven Rentmeester,2 and Jesse Langdon3
In the Willapa Bay area of southwest Washington, The Nature Conservancy is embarking on an ambitious effort to protect and restore a highly productive and biologically diverse coastal watershed. The Ellsworth Creek watershed is a lowelevation coastal rainforest ecosystem with remnant old-growth trees, a rich freshwater aquatic system, and connectivity to
the fertile estuarine waters of Willapa Bay. Although 92 percent of the primary forests in Ellsworth Creek have been logged,
biological inventories indicate that the area still harbors much of its historic biological diversity within refugia found throughout the watershed. Because of its ecological and strategic significance, The Nature Conservancy is dedicated to making
Ellsworth Creek a model for watershed conservation where an adaptive management process closely links active restoration
and scientific investigation.
Specific goals for the conservation and restoration project at Ellsworth Creek include
1. Managing lands and waters within the project area by using stewardship practices that earn respect and build positive
relationships with the local community and partners throughout the forest management industry.
2. Restoring the Ellsworth Creek watershed to provide ecologically functional aquatic and upland forest habitats that are
capable of supporting a large diversity of biological communities and species typical of natural primary or late-successional forest landscapes of the Pacific Northwest coast.
3. Developing a scientifically-driven adaptive management framework for the project and maximizing opportunities for
exporting scientific knowledge and best management practices to other forest and aquatic conservation projects in the
Pacific Northwest.
Ellsworth Creek is a small (2035 ha), highly productive low-elevation watershed comprised of mixed-aged coniferous
forests, a freshwater stream system, and large estuary. Ellsworth Creek supports high-quality remnant low elevation western
redcedar (Thuja plicata Donn ex D. Don), Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr), and western hemlock (Tsuga
heterophyllaI (Raf.) Sarg.) old-growth forest stands. The approximately 130 ha of old-growth forest represents one of the
largest remaining stands within the Willapa Bay ecosystem and contains five distinct natural forest community types—
including 2 km of riparian associated forests. The watershed strategically connects protected old-growth habitats of the
Willapa National Wildlife Refuge and the Washington Department of Natural Resources Ellsworth Creek Natural Resource
Conservation Area (NRCA), which is located in the adjacent Smith Creek drainage. These conservation areas, together with
the nearby South Nemah NRCA, Bear River restoration project (Bear River Partnership), and Chinook River restoration
project (Sea Resources) create a functional forest, freshwater, and estuarine landscape of approximately 32 800 ha along
the southern fringe of Willapa Bay.
1
The Nature Conservancy, 410 N. 4th Street, Mt. Vernon, WA 98273, USA
of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences, University of Washington, Box 355020, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
3 The Nature Conservancy, 217 Pine Street, Suite 1100, Seattle, WA 98101, USA
2 School
371
Forests stands in the Ellsworth Creek watershed have
been harvested since the turn of the century, and the remaining old-growth stands are small and fragmented. Approximately 145 ha of old-growth forest remain in the watershed
with much of it being found near the mainstem of Ellsworth
Creek. Some of these stands were selectively harvested in
the past, including by the United States Spruce Production
Division in 1918 during the search for Sitka spruce during
World War I. Additional legacy trees, or small groves, are
found throughout forest stands older than 45 years of age
(470 ha) with these stands typically having a varied composition of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.)
Franco), western hemlock, western redcedar, and Sitka
spruce. Forest stands between 20 and 45 years of age (675
ha) have generally been precommercially thinned and are
dominated by planted Douglas-fir with many stands displaying significant sign of Swiss needle cast (Phaeocryptopus
gaeumannii) infestation. Young stands, less than 20 years
old (625 ha), are often composed of extremely dense hemlock and Douglas-fir with stem densities as high as 3200
trees/ha. Existing stand conditions will provide a challenge
for forest restoration; however, the combination of a productive growing environment, diverse stand composition,
and the existence of substantial legacy forest structures
should aid in the recovery and development of forest
complexity.
Inventories within old-growth forest habitats at Ellsworth
Creek have documented many avian, amphibian, mollusk,
lichen, and fungi species of state and federal concern.
Marbled murrelets (Brachyramphus marmoratus) are found
in all remnant old-growth patches and also appear to occupy
stands with scattered legacy structures, such as large trees
with mistletoe platforms, to a limited extent. A high diversity of amphibian species is also found in the watershed,
including particularly high population densities of many
regionally endemic amphibian species such as the Columbia
torrent salamander (Rhyacotriton kezeri), Van Dykes salamander (Plethodon vandykei), Dunn’s salamander (Plethodon
dunni), and tailed frog (Ascaphus truei). Initial surveys within the project area, however, have focused on old-growth
forest stands leaving managers with little understanding of
the general distribution of these species. Research and
monitoring is needed to better assess the current distribution of target species and track their dispersal into young
forest stands as those stands mature and develop greater
habitat complexity over the next few decades.
The freshwater aquatic system contains one of the
highest spawning densities of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus
keta) in the entire Willapa Bay watershed with close to
8,000 fish reported over a 1.9 km index reach in 2002.
372
Systematic inventories of other fish species are not known
from the watershed. Anecdotal observations, however, have
indicated significant coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch)
and coastal cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii clarkia)
populations. Lamprey (Lampetra spp.) are also present in
the system with smolts being found in mid-order stream
reaches within the watershed. In addition to anadromous
fish, the freshwater stream system provides habitat for
many amphibian species, invertebrates, and other resident
native fish species.
Stream inventory work in 2003 and 2004 has begun to
quantify habitat variables and the spatial distribution of
habitat forming processes within the watershed. Comparing
observed wood loading at Ellsworth with observed values
for unmanaged streams of similar size, headwater stream
segments were found to meet or exceed expected values,
while mainstem segments were depauperate of instream
wood. Headwater stream segments also had higher than
expected wood abundance and a greater number of key
pieces, while wood volume was not significantly different
than observed values for unmanaged streams. Mainstem
segments, however, had significantly lower abundance,
volume, and number of key pieces than would be expected
for unmanaged streams of a similar size. These results are
consistent with the findings of others who have reported an
overall increase in the number of wood pieces but distinct
decreases in the percentage of large instream wood (>50 cm
in diameter) in moderately and intensively harvested watersheds. Threshold relationships also appear in Ellsworth
Creek between drainage area and woody debris abundance,
volume, and the density of key instream wood pieces. Similar
relationships were found for stream gradient, the portion of
channels devoid of alluvium, and the portion of channels
dominated by fine sediments. These relationships suggest
that dominant habitat forming processes are distinct for
stream segments on either side of a threshold of 200 ha in
upstream drainage area. The high variance of habitat variables within headwater stream channels suggests that habitat
formation is dominated by catastrophic events for channels
in these areas. Habitat formation processes downstream of
the threshold appear to be dominated by fluvial and riparian
processes.
Because the watershed has been significantly modified
through a century of timber management, The Nature
Conservancy is expecting active restoration to play a significant role in the recovery of the Ellsworth Creek forest
ecosystem. Other than the impacts from timber management to forest and stream habitats noted above, a legacy of
forest roads threaten aquatic systems with sediment delivery
and hydrologic modification and fragment forest habitat.
Road density in the watershed is approximately 3.9 km/km2,
and many roads show signs of imminent failure or other
structural concerns. Road abandonment and upgrades,
therefore, will be an immediate management priority. In
forest stands, variable-density thinning and other silvicultural treatments are expected to be tested as tools for
increasing structural and compositional diversity and hastening the development of late-successional forest attributes. Other active management strategies could include
underplanting with native plant species, the creation of
snags and downed wood, and reintroduction of lichens and
fungi that are associated with late-successional forests. More
specific restoration strategies will be developed as habitat
variables within forest and stream habitats are further quantified during additional inventory work in 2004 and an
adaptive management framework is subsequently developed for the project.
The Nature Conservancy’s proposed restoration strategy
relies on using the best available science so lessons learned
at Ellsworth Creek can be used to inform future forest conservation and management decisions throughout the Pacific
Northwest. To help accomplish this strategy, a scientific
advisory group is being integrated into the early stages of
project design and management. Group members will
have considerable practical research experience in Pacific
Northwest forest ecosystems and come from a variety of
scientific disciplines. The advisory group is expected to
add scientific credibility, state-of-the-art knowledge, and
critical review that will raise the level of on-the-ground
restoration accomplishments and aid in leveraging conservation lessons beyond the project’s boundaries.
373
Balancing Ecosystem Values Proceedings, Poster Abstracts
Using Ethics to Educate Consumers
of Natural Resources
Viviane Simon-Brown1
At Oregon State University (OSU) and other land-grant institutions, we focus our educational efforts on teaching students to professionally manage natural resources. However, as population, economic, and consumption pressures increase,
addressing the responsibilities of the consumers of natural resources becomes a viable educational tool. Since 1998, the
Sustainable Living Project at OSU has been offering intelligent consumption programming to typical American adults and
older youth, thus creating an ethical foundation to support sustainable management of natural resources. Intelligent consumption is about managing ourselves. It acknowledges the role ethics play in decisionmaking. Contemplating cultural, economic and environmental ethics, considering the barriers to living sustainably, examining national trends, and determining
personal priorities are components of educating the public about their consumer choices.
1
Oregon State University Extension Forestry, 106 Richardson Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
374
Balancing Ecosystem Values Proceedings, Poster Abstracts
Assessing Threats to the Conservation of Siskiyou
Mountain Salamanders in Oregon
Nobuya Suzuki1 and Deanna Olson2
Assessing threats to the conservation of rare species requires enormous time and effort. Our objective was to develop GIS
maps to effectively assess threats to conservation of Siskiyou Mountain salamanders (Plethodon stormi) in southwestern
Oregon. Using GIS layers, we quantified potential risks within 100 and 1000 acres of 5875 random landscape points and
developed GIS maps showing threats to conservation. The threats we assessed included land-use pattern, road density, wildland-urban interface, and catastrophic fire. Cumulative scores of all the risks at the random points were used as z-values to
create 3-dimensional maps. To identify suitable habitats on the landscape, we developed a logistic regression model in which
probability of salamander occurrence was negatively associated with solar illumination. Of 86 conservation areas proposed
by experts based on salamander occupancy and habitat suitability, our maps identified 11 and 21 areas, at scales of 100 and
1000 acres, respectively, as moderate to high risk for the species. Experts may likely overlook threats at a broader spatial
scale without the aid of our maps. We conclude that our maps illustrating threats to conservation can be effectively used
to select low-risk areas for reserves and to increase consistency and objectivity of conservation planning.
1
2
Department of Zoology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
USDA Pacific Northwest Research Station, 3200 SW Jefferson Way, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
375
Balancing Ecosystem Values Proceedings, Poster Abstracts
Chronosequencial Changes in Forest Stand Structure
and Composition—Comparison Between the Post-Harvest
Secondary Deciduous Broadleaf Forests and the Plantation Forests
of Evergreen Japanese Cedar (Cryptomeria japonica)
Hiroshi Tanaka,1 Kaoru Niiyama,1 Mitsue Shibata,1 Tsutomu Yagihashi,1
Hanae Niwa,2 Hiroshi Yabe,3 Atsuko Hayashi,4 and Takuo Nagaike4
INTRODUCTION
Drastic conversion from the primary broadleaf forests,
coppice broadleaf forests, and semi-natural grassland to
conifer (Sugi (Japanese cedar: Cryptomeria japonica) and
Hinoki (Hinoki false cypress: Chamaecyparis obtusa))
plantations occurred between the 1940s and 1980s in the
mountainous area of Japan. To achieve the sustainable
management of the mosaic forest landscape composed of
secondary broadleaf forests and conifer plantation, it is
important to know the contribution of each forest type to
the maintenance of regional biodiversity. To obtain the scientific basis for the management, we addressed the following
two questions: (1) How does conversion from deciduous
broadleaf forest to evergreen conifer plantation impact
species and structural diversity? (2) How does structural
and biological diversity change (recover) in both plantation
and secondary natural forests? Instead of monitoring controlled field experimental sites, we compared sample stands
of different ages scattered in a typical landscape.
STUDY SITE AND METHODS
The studied forests covered about 200 km2 (ca. 600 to
800 m elevation) of the southern Abukuma mountains, central Japan. We examined forest structure and composition
in 11 post-harvest, secondary deciduous broadleaf forests
(DB) and 11 conifer (Sugi) plantation forests (CP) along a
chronosequence from just after the clear-cutting to mature
condition. A preserved deciduous broadleaf forest was also
1
studied as a reference of old-growth condition. In each forest, we established a 10 m x 100 m belt-shaped study plot
to cover all topographic variation of the forest. Trees and
vines taller than 2 m and larger than 5 cm d.b.h. (diameter
at breast height) were tagged and their g.b.h. (girth at breast
height) was measured for forty 5 m x 5 m quadrats along a
100 m line. A census of forest floor vegetation (vegetation
height < 2 m) was conducted following the Braun-Branque
method for 1 m x 1 m quadrats in each 5 m x 5 m quadrat.
Standing dead stems > 5cm d.b.h. were also tagged and
measured. We also recorded the names of all woody plants
taller than 2 m found in each 5 m x 5 m quadrat. Light condition on the forest floor was also measured by hemispherical photographs taken 1 m above ground in each 1 m x 1 m
quadrat.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The patterns of changes in structural attributes along
a chronosequence were different among the attributes and
between the two forest types. The increasing curves of
maximum d.b.h. were almost the same between the broadleaf
stands and conifer plantations, but the increasing curves of
mean d.b.h. were segregated. The patterns of the change in
basal area (BA) showed that tall trees occupy large space
more quickly in the conifer plantations than in the broadleaf
stands. Management practices in plantation forests (improvement felling and thinning) strongly affected the structural
attributes such as stem density and mean d.b.h..
Department of Forest Vegetation, Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Matsunosato 1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8687, Japan
Iwate Prefectual Forestry Technology Center, Yahaba, Shibagun, Iwate 028-3623, Japan
3 Tottori Prefectual Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Inatsune113, Kawaramachi, Yatougun, Tottori 680-1203, Japan
4 Yamanashi Forest Research Institute, Yamanashi 400-0502, Japan
2
376
According to the growth of trees, number of tree species
> 5 cm d.b.h. increased in the broadleaf stands as stand age
increased, but it was continuously low in the conifer plantations. Number of species (both woody > 2 m height and
forest floor) was the highest at the early stage after the clear
cutting for both types of the forests. As the stand age
increased, the number of woody species gradually decreased
in the broadleaf stands. The number of forest floor species
first decreased and then slowly increased in broadleaf stands.
The number of woody species and forest floor species sharply
decreased and then gradually increased in the conifer plantations. Higher numbers of woody species in the younger
forests were explained by abundant liana and shrub species.
In both the broadleaf stands and the conifer plantations,
the number of forest floor species had negative correlation with stem density (p < 0.05), which reflects the forest
floor light condition.
Ordination and cluster analyses showed the compositional differences of both woody and herbaceous species
between the broadleaf stands and conifer plantation. The
differences in species composition among stands may be
explained largely by the forest age. When forest age
increased, both woody and herbaceous species composition
of the conifer plantation became closer to those of broadleaf
stands. To evaluate the contribution of conifer plantations
and broadleaf stands of different ages to the maintenance
of regional plant diversity, further understanding on the
mechanisms shaping the species composition is necessary.
The number of species which had distributional bias to the
broadleaf stands was larger than that of the species which
had no significant bias to either type of forest or bias to
the conifer plantations. Functional characteristics of these
species groups should be analyzed for the next step.
377
Balancing Ecosystem Values Proceedings, Poster Abstracts
Influence of Silvicultural Intensity and Compositional Objectives
on the Productivity of Regenerating Acadian Forest Stands in Maine
Robert Wagner,1 Mike Saunders,1 Keith Kanoti,1
John Brisette,2 and Richard Dionne3
A mosaic of young, naturally regenerated stands of largely mixed wood (hardwood-conifer) composition dominate
cutover areas within Maine’s Acadian forest. Tremendous opportunity exists to improve the composition, quality, and
growth rates of these stands while they are in an early successional stage. Two factors determine the long-term outcome of
stand development: silvicultural intensity and compositional objective. Silvicultural intensity is determined by the degree
of investment in vegetation management and artificial regeneration. Compositional objectives are set by the manager and
determine whether conifer, hardwood, or a mixture of species is desired in the final stand. A long-term study is being established on the Penobscot Experimental Forest in central Maine that will (1) quantify the growth and development of early
successional stands to varying intensities of silvicultural intervention and compositional objectives, (2) document ecophysiological mechanisms affecting the dynamics and productivity of young forest stands, and (3) compare the energy requirements and financial returns associated with early intervention in these cutover stands. A 3 x 3 factorial design with four
replications of 30 m x 30 m (0.09 ha) treatment plots is being used. Three levels of silvicultural intensity (low, medium,
high) and three compositional objectives (conifer, mixed wood, hardwood) are being compared. An initial question being
addressed in the early phase of the study is whether silviculture can be used to mitigate any negative effects of global climate
change on soil temperature and moisture regimes by either encouraging or discouraging the germination and establishment
of various Acadian tree species.
1
Department of Forest Ecosystem Science, University of Maine, 5755 Nutting Hall, Orono, ME 04469, USA
USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station, P.O. Box 640, Durham, NH 03824, USA
3 USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station, RR1, Box 589, Bradley, ME 04411, USA
2
378
Balancing Ecosystem Values Proceedings, Poster Abstracts
Leave Islands as Refugia for Low-Mobility
Species in Managed Forests
Stephanie Wessell,1 Richard Schmitz,1 and Deanna Olson2
In the past decades, forest management in the U.S. Pacific Northwest has shifted from one based largely on resource
extraction to one based on ecosystem management principles. Forest management based on these principles involves simultaneously balancing and sustaining multiple forest resource values, including silvicultural, social, economic, and ecological
objectives. Leave islands, or green-tree retention clusters, have been proposed as an alternative silvicultural strategy designed
to sustain the ecological integrity and biological diversity of managed forests. However, pertinent questions regarding the
relation of the physical structure of leave islands to their associated microclimates, flora, and fauna remain largely unanswered. This study evaluates the effectiveness of three sizes of leave islands within a thinned forest matrix relative to thinned
and unthinned forest in providing refugia for low-mobility, ecologically-sensitive species 1 to 5 years following timber
harvest. Specifically, we are examining differences in microhabitat and amphibian, mollusk, arthropod, and vascular plant
abundance and diversity with respect to the size of leave islands in managed forests. By determining habitat correlates of
species and functional group occurrence, we envision that this study will provide vital information regarding leave islands
in managed forest landscapes. Initial results indicate treatment effects relative to microclimate, amphibian and arthropod
density, and vascular plant diversity and ground cover. These results suggest that leave islands may provide short-term
refugia for some low-mobility, ecologically sensitive species in managed forests of the Pacific Northwest.
1
2
Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Oregon State University, Nash Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station Research Station, 3200 S.W. Jefferson Way, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
379
Balancing Ecosystem Values Proceedings, Poster Abstracts
Effects of Partial Logging on Community Parameters
in a Northern Japanese Mixed Forest
Toshiya Yoshida1 and Mahoko Noguchi2
We investigated heterogeneity in community parameters and its determinant factors, with emphasis on effects of human
disturbances (logging activities) in a northern Japanese mixed forest. We used data from 50 study stands (0.25 to 0.50
hectare in area) located in the Nakagawa Experimental Forest, Hokkaido University (lat 44º48’N, long 142º14’E). These
stands were partially logged between 1969 and 1985. Trees with diameter at breast height larger than 6 cm were measured
at intervals of 5 to 8 years.
In this paper we analyzed data collected over 16 years following a partial logging and calculated demographic parameters
(growth rate, recruitment rate, and mortality; m-2year-1) for three species groups (conifers (mostly Abies sachalinensis),
shade-tolerant hardwoods (mainly Acer mono and Tilia japonica), and shade-intolerant hardwoods (mainly Betula ermanii
and Quercus crispula)). Then we conducted multiple regression analysis to explain causes of the heterogeneity among the
stands. The independent variables considered were sum of basal area (BA: m2ha-1), sum of logged basal area (LOG: m2
ha-1), and species diversity (Shannon H’, based on the basal area). The basal area were increased or decreased during the
15-year period, depending on the stands (the percentage of the term-end basal area to the initial basal area ranged from 70
to 145 percent). Conifers generally showed higher recruitment rate and mortality than hardwoods. The growth rates seemed
to be regulated mainly by a crowding effect (i.e., negative effects of BA as well as positive effects of LOG). In contrast, the
recruitment rates correlated with species diversity better than basal area or LOG. The species diversity also displayed significant correlations with recovery (growth + recruitment - death; m-2 year-1) of both conifers and shade-tolerant hardwoods.
Although the heterogeneity in community parameters seem to be caused by multiple factors including variation of topography
and climate, our study demonstrated the significance of the species diversity on the recovery process of the mixed forests
following a partial logging.
1
2
Uryu Experimental Forest, Field Science Center for Northern Biosphere, Hokkaido University, Moshiri, Horokanai, 074-0741, Japan
Graduate School of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Tokuda 250, Nayoro, 096-0071, Japan
380
Photo by Tom Iraci
BALANCING ECOSYSTEM VALUES:
INNOVATIVE EXPERIMENTS FOR SUSTAINABLE FORESTRY
AUGUST 15-20, 2004
FINAL PARTICIPANTS LIST
382
1 PAUL ANDERSON
USFS PNW RESEARCH
STATION
3200 SW JEFFERSON WAY
CORVALLIS OR 97331
(541) 758-7786
(541) 750-7329
[email protected]
2 JOHN BAILEY
PNW RESEARCH STATION
3695 93RD AVE SW
OLYMPIA WA 98512
(360) 357-5204
(360) 956-2346
[email protected]
3 BRUCE BARE
UNIVERSITY OF
WASHINGTON
COL OF FOREST
RESOURCES, BOX 352100
SEATTLE WA 98195
(206) 685-1928
(206) 616-9069
[email protected]
4 WILLIAM BAUGHMAN
MEADWESTVACO
PO BOX 1950
SUMMERVILLE SC 29483
(843) 851-4629
(843) 871-1035
[email protected]
5 WILLIAM BEESE
WEYERHAEUSER
65 FRONT ST
NANAIMO BC V9R 5H9
CANADA
(250) 755-3422
(250) 755-3550
[email protected]
6 LIANE BEGGS
OSU FOREST SCIENCE
321 RICHARDSON HALL
CORVALLIS OR 97331
(541) 737-8466
[email protected]
7 CARRIE BERGER
OREGON STATE
UNIVERSITY
321 RICHARDSON HALL
CORVALLIS OR 97331
(541) 737-6596
(541) 737-1393
[email protected]
8 SHANTI BERRYMAN
OSU FOREST SCIENCE
321 RICHARDSON HALL
CORVALLIS OR 97331
(541) 737-9882
(541) 737-1393
[email protected]
9 RICHARD BIGLEY
DEPT OF NATURAL
RESOURCES
1111 WASHINGTON ST
OLYMPIA WA 98405
(360) 902-1717
(360) 902-1789
[email protected]
10 LORI BLACKBURN
USDA FOREST SERVICE
7803 BEAVER CREEK RD
PAULINA OR 97751
(541) 477-6900
(541) 477-6949
[email protected]
11 FELIX BOULANGER
UNIVERSITE DE SHERBROOKE
DEPT OF BIOLOGIE
2500 BOUL. UNIVERSITE
SHERBROOKE QUEBEC
J1K 2R1 CANADA
(819) 573-0523
[email protected]
12 JEFF BOYCE
MERIDIAN ENVIRONMENTAL
1900 N NORTHLAKE WAY,
STE 211
SEATTLE WA 98103
(206) 522-8282
(206) 522-8277
[email protected]
13 GORDON BRADLEY
UNIVERSITY OF
WASHINGTON
BOX 352100
SEATTLE WA 98195
(206) 616-2874
(206) 685-0790
[email protected]
14 MICHAEL BREDEMEIER
UNIVERSITY OF
GOETTINGEN
BUESGENWEG 2
GOETTINGEN LOWER
SAXONY D-37077
[email protected]
15 LESLIE BRODIE
PNW RESEARCH STATION
3695 93RD AVE SW
OLYMPIA WA 98512
(360) 357-8581
(360) 956-2346
[email protected]
16 STEVE BULKIN
ROGUE RIVER-SISKIYOU
PO BOX 520
MEDFORD OR 97501
(541) 858-2324
(541) 858-2330
[email protected]
17 FRED BUNNELL
UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH
COLUMBIA
2036, 2424 MAIN MALL
VANCOUVER BC V6T 1Z4
CANADA
[email protected]
18 LYNN BURDITT
GIFFORD PINCHOT NAT’L
FOREST
106001 NE 51ST CIR
VANCOUVER WA 98682
(360) 891-5105
(360) 891-5045
[email protected]
19 ANDREW CAREY
PNW RESEARCH STATION
3625 93RD AVE SW
OLYMPIA WA 98512
(360) 753-7688
(360) 956-2346
[email protected]
20 JOHN CISSEL
BUREAU OF LAND MNGT
PO BOX 10226
EUGENE OR 97440
(541) 683-6410
(541) 683-6981
[email protected]
21 ROBERT CURTIS
PNW RESEARCH STATION
3695 93RD AVE SW
OLYMPIA WA 98512
(360) 753-7669
(360) 956-2346
[email protected]
22 BRIAN D’ANJOU
BC MINISTRY OF FORESTS
2100 LABIEUX RD
NANAIMO BC V9T 6E9
CANADA
(250) 751-7353
[email protected]
23 ROBYN DARBYSHIRE
USDA FOREST SERVICE
PO BOX 4580
BROOKINGS OR 97415
(541) 412-6071
(541) 412-6045
[email protected]
24 DAN DAVIS
CLEARWATER NAT’L FOREST
12730 HWY 12
OROFINO ID 83544
(208) 476-8353
(208) 476-8329
[email protected]
25 NATHAN DAVIS
OSU DEPT OF FOREST
SCIENCE
321 RICHARDSON HALL
CORVALLIS OR 97331
(541) 737-2375
(541) 737-1393
[email protected]
26 LOUISE DE MONTIGNY
27
BC MINISTRY OF FORESTS
PO BOX STN PROV GOVT
VICTORIA BC V8W 9C2
CANADA
(250) 387-3295
(250) 387-0046
[email protected]
28 THOMAS DEAN
LSU AGCENTER
SCHOOL OF RENEWABLE
NAT RESOURCES
BATON ROUGE LA 70803
(225) 578-4216
(225) 578-4227
[email protected]
29 MARGO DURAN
USDA FOREST SERVICE
3200 SW JEFFERSON WAY
CORVALLIS OR 97331
(541) 750-7272
(541) 750-7329
[email protected]
30 THOMAS EFIRD
USDA FOREST SERVICE PSW
REGION
1323 CLUB DRIVE
VALLEJO CA 94592
(707) 562-8976
(707) 562-9049
[email protected]
31 ROBERT FAHEY
32 ROGER FIGHT
USDA FOREST SERVICE
320 SW MAIN ST, STE 400
PORTLAND OR 97205
(503) 808-2004
(503) 808-2020
[email protected]
33 STEPHEN FITZGERALD
OSU EXTENSION SERVICE
3893 SW AIRPORT WAY
REDMOND OR 97756
(541) 548-6088
(541) 548-8919
[email protected]
ROBERT DEAL
USDA PNW RESEARCH
STATION
620 SW MAIN ST, SUITE 400
PORTLAND OR 97205
(503) 808-2015
(503) 808-2020
[email protected]
383
384
34 DAVID FORD
UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON
COLLEGE OF FOREST
RESOURCES
SEATTLE WA 98195-2100
(206) 685-9995
[email protected]
35 SAM FOSTER
USDA FOREST SERVICE
1400 INDEPENDENCE AVE SW
WASHINGTON DC 20050
(703) 605-5277
(703) 605-0279
[email protected]
36 JERRY FRANKLIN
UNIVERSITY OF WASHSINGTON
BOX 352100
SEATTLE WA 98195
(206) 543-2138
(206) 543-7295
[email protected]
37 LISA GANIO
OSU DEPT OF FOREST
SCIENCE
321 RICHARDSON HALL
CORVALLIS OR 97331
(541) 737-6577
(541) 737-1393
[email protected]
38 ROBERT GITZEN
UNIVERSITY OF
WASHINGTON
PO BOX 352100
SEATTLE WA 98195
(206) 543-7232
[email protected]
39 CINDY GLICK
DESCHUTES NATIONAL
FOREST
1645 E HWY 20
BEND OR 97701
(541) 383-5495
(541) 383-5300
[email protected]
40 JIM GOUDIE
RESEARCH BRANCH,
PO BOX 9519 STN PROV GOVT
VICTORIA BC V8W 9C2
CANADA
(250) 387-6535
(250) 387-0046
[email protected]
41 SUE GRAYSTON
UNIVERSITY OF BC
DEPT OF FOREST SCIENCES
2424 MAIN MALL
VANCOUVER BC V6T 1Z4
CANADA
(604) 822-5928
(604) 822-9102
[email protected]
42 TEMESGEN HAILEMARIAM
OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY
237 PEAVY HALL
CORVALLIS OR 97331
(541) 737-8549
(541) 737-3049
[email protected]
edu
43 CHARLES HALPERN
UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON
COL OF FOREST
RESOURCES, BOX 352100
SEATTLE WA 98195
(206) 543-2789
(206) 543-3254
[email protected]
44 THOMAS HANLEY
USDA FOREST SERVICE
2770 SHERWOOD LN, STE 2JUNEAU AK 99801
(907) 586-8811
(907) 586-7848
[email protected]
45 BRUCE HANSEN
USFS PNW RESEARCH
STATION
3200 SW JEFFERSON WAY
CORVALLIS OR 97331
(541) 750-7311
(541) 750-7329
[email protected]
46 TIM HARRINGTON
USFS PNW RESEARCH
STATION
3695 93RD AVE SW
OLYMPIA WA 98512
(360) 753-7674
(360) 956-2346
[email protected]
47 CONNIE HARRINGTON
PNW RESEARCH STATION
3695 93RD AVE SW
OLYMPIA WA 98512
(360) 753-7670
(360) 956-2346
[email protected]
48 GARY HARTSHORN
WORLD FORESTRY CENTER
4033 SW CANYON RD
PORTLAND OR 97221
(503) 488-2110
(503) 288-4608
[email protected]
49 TROY HEITHECKER
UNIVERSITY OF
WASHINGTON
BOX 352100
SEATTLE WA 98195
(206) 612-0383
(206) 543-3254
[email protected]
50 PAUL HENNON
USFS, FOREST HEALTH
2770 SHERWOOD LN, 2A
JUNEAU AK 99801
(907) 586-8769
(907) 586-7848
[email protected]
51 PETE HOLMBERG
WA STATE DEPT OF NAT
RESOURCES
PO BOX 47016
OLYMPIA WA 98504
(360) 902-1348
(360) 902-1789
[email protected]
52 JIM HOTVEDT
WA DEPT OF NAT
RESOURCES
601 BOND RD
CASTLE ROCK WA 98611
(360) 274-2005
(360) 274-4196
[email protected]
53 SUSAN HUMMEL
USDA FOREST SERVICE
620 SW MAIN ST, STE 400
PORTLAND OR 97205
(503) 808-2084
(503) 808-2020
[email protected]
54 JOHN INNES
UNIVERSITY OF BC FOREST
RESOURCES
2045, 2424 MAIN MALL
VANCOUVER BC V6T 1Z4
CANADA
(604) 822-6761
(604) 822-9106
[email protected]
55 STEVE JACK
JOSEPH W. JONES ECO
RESEARCH CNTR
RT 2, BOX 2324
NEWTON GA 39870
(229) 734-4706
(229) 734-4707
[email protected]
56 HYON-SUN JEON
KOREA FOREST RESEARCH
INST
SEOUL 130-712 KOREA
[email protected]
57 JOHN JOHANSEN
USFS SIUSLAW NF
PO BOX 235
HEBO OR 97122
(503) 392-5131
(503) 392-5143
[email protected]
58 TERRY JOHNSON
BUREAU OF LAND MNGT
59 ADELAIDE JOHNSON
USDA FOREST SERVICE
770 SHERWOOD LN, STE 2A
JUNEAU AK 99801
(907) 586-8811
(907) 586-7848
[email protected]
60 MORRIS JOHNSON
USDA FOREST SERVICE
400 N 34TH ST, STE 201
SEATTLE WA 98103
(206) 732-7852
(206) 732-7801
[email protected]
61 STUART JOHNSTON
US FOREST SERVICE
4480 HWY 101, BLDG G
FLORENCE OR 97439
(541) 902-6958
(541) 902-6946
[email protected]
62 KEITH KANOTI
UNIVERSITY OF MAINE
5755 NUTTING HALL
ORONO ME 04469
(207) 581-2763
(207) 581-4257
[email protected]
63 WILLIAM KEETON
UNIVERSITY OF VERMONT
SCHOOL OF ENVIRON &
NAT RESOURCES
BURLINGTON VT 05405
(802) 865-5234
(802) 865-5234
[email protected]
64 CHRISTEL KERN
US FOREST SERVICE
1831 HWY 169 E
GRAND RAPIDS MN 55744
(218) 326-7133
(218) 326-7123
[email protected]
65 WAE-JUNG KIM
KOREA FOREST RESEARCH
INST
SEOUL 130-712 KOREA
[email protected]
66 BRIDGET KORMAN
PNW RESEARCH STATION
3695 93RD AVE SW
OLYMPIA WA 98512
(360) 753-7655
(360) 956-2346
[email protected]
67 TIMO KUULUVAINEN
UNIVERSITY OF HELSINKI
DEPT OF FOREST ECOLOGY
HELSINKI FIN-00014
FINLAND
[email protected]
68 DAVID LARSON
USFS PNW RESEARCH
STATION
3200 SW JEFFERSON WAY
CORVALLIS OR 97331
(541) 754-7485
(541) 750-7329
[email protected]
69 JOHN LAURENCE
USDA FOREST SERVICE
3200 SW JEFFERSON WAY
CORVALLIS OR 97331
(541) 750-7357
(541) 758-8791
[email protected]
385
386
70 DIANA LIVADA
PNW RESEARCH STATION
3695 93RD AVE SW
OLYMPIA WA 98512
(360) 753-7679
(360) 956-2346
[email protected]
71 KOSHARE LOMNICKI
WA DEPT OF NAT
RESOURCES
(360) 664-2960
[email protected]
72 DAN LUOMA
OSU DEPT OF FOREST
SCIENCE
PEAVY HALL 154
CORVALLIS OR 97331
(541) 737-8595
(541) 737-1393
[email protected]
73 DAVID LYTLE
USDA FOREST SERVICE
1831 E WHY 169
GRAND RAPIDS MN 55744
(218) 326-7105
(218) 326-7123
[email protected]
74 CHRIS MAGUIRE
OSU DEPT OF FOREST
SCIENCE
RICHARDSON HALL
CORVALLIS OR 97331
(541) 737-6571
(541) 737-5814
[email protected]
75 DOUG MAGUIRE
OREGON STATE
UNIVERSITY
DEPT OF FOREST SCIENCE
CORVALLIS OR 97331
(541) 737-4215
(541) 737-5814
[email protected]
76 DOUG MAINWARING
OREGON STATE
UNIVERSITY
321 RICHARDSON HALL
CORVALLIS OR 97331
(541) 737-8107
(541) 737-1393
[email protected]
77 GARY MANNING
USDA FOREST SERVICE
PLOUSE RANGER DIST
ROUTE 6
POTLATCH ID 83855
(208) 875-1721
(208) 875-1133
[email protected]
78 DAVID MANUWAL
UW COLLEGE OF FOREST
RESOURCES
PO BOX 352100
SEATTLE WA 98195-2100
(206) 543-1585
(206) 543-3254
[email protected]
79 DAVID MARSHALL
PNW RESEARCH STATION
3695 93RD AVE SW
OLYMPIA WA 98512
(360) 753-7673
(360) 956-2346
[email protected]
80 ERIC MARTZ
USDA FOREST SERVICE
42861 HWY 242
POWERS OR 97466
(541) 439-6200
(541) 439-6217
[email protected]
81 MARIA MAYRHOFER
UW COLLEGE OF FOREST
RESOURCES
PO BOX 352100
SEATTLE WA 98195-2100
(206) 543-1585
(206) 543-3254
[email protected]
82 MICHAEL MCCLELLAN
JUNEAU FORESTRY
SCIENCES LAB
2770 SHERWOOD LN, STE 2A
JUNEAU AK 99801
(907) 586-8811
(907) 586-7848
[email protected]
83 KEVIN MCINTYRE
JOSEPH W. JONES ECO
RESEARCH CNTR
RT 2, BOX 2324
NEWTON GA 39870
(229) 734-4706
(229) 734-6650
[email protected]
84 RUSS MCKINLEY
BOISE CASCADE
PO BOX 100
MEDFORD OR 97501
(541) 776-6606
(541) 776-6618
[email protected]
85 JIM MITAL
CLEARWATER NAT'L FOREST
12730 HWY 12
OROFINO ID 83544
(208) 476-8348
(208) 476-8288
[email protected]
86 AL MITCHELL
CANADIAN FOREST SERVICE
506 W BURNSHIDE RD
VICTORIA BC V8Z 1M5
CANADA
(250) 363-0786
(250) 363-6005
[email protected]
87 ANDREW MOORES
OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY
321 RICHARDSON HALL
CORVALLIS OR 97331
(541) 737-9882
(541) 737-1393
[email protected]
88 TAKUO NAGAIKE
YAMANASHI FOREST
RESEARCH INST
SAISHOJI 2290-1
MASUHO YAMANASHI
4000502 JAPAN
[email protected]
89 JON NAKAE
USDA FOREST SERVICE
2455 HWY 141
TROUT LAKE WA 98650
(509) 395-3480
[email protected]
90 GRETCHEN NICHOLAS
WA STATE DEPT OF NAT
RESOURCES
PO BOX 47016
OLYMPIA WA 98504
(360) 902-1360
(360) 902-1789
[email protected]
91 GARY NORRIS
USDA FOREST SERVICE
42861 HWY 242
POWERS OR 97466
(541) 439-6200
(541) 439-6217
[email protected]
92 BRIAN PALIK
USDA FOREST SERVICE
1831 E WHY 169
GRAND RAPIDS MN 55744
(218) 326-7116
(218) 326-7123
[email protected]
93 WAYNE PATTERSON
SIUSLAW NATIONAL FOREST
PO BOX 235
HEBO OR 97122
(503) 392-5136
(503) 392-5143
[email protected]
94 CHARLEY PETERSON
PNW RESEARCH STATION
620 SW MAIN ST, STE 400
PORTLAND OR 97205
(503) 808-2026
(503) 808-2020
[email protected]
95 DAVID PETERSON
USDA FOREST SERVICE
1133 N WESTERN AVE
WENATCHEE WA 98801
(509) 664-1737
(509) 665-8362
[email protected]
96 PAM PHILLIPS
PNW RESEARCH STATION
3695 93RD AVE SW
OLYMPIA WA 98512
(360) 753-7681
(360) 956-2346
[email protected]
97 NATHAN POAGE
USDA FOREST SERVICE
620 SW MAIN ST, STE 400
PORTLAND OR 97205
(503) 808-2074
(503) 808-2020
[email protected]
98 KLAUS PUETTMANN
OREGON STATE
UNIVERSITY
321 RICHARDSON HALL
CORVALLIS OR 97331
(541) 737-8974
(541) 737-1393
[email protected]
99 VALERIE RAPP
USDA FOREST SERVICE
PO BOX 3890
PORTLAND OR 97208
(503) 808-2132
(503) 808-2130
[email protected]
100 STEVE REUTEBUCH
USDA FOREST SERVICE
UNIV OF WASHINGTON, PO
BOX 352100
SEATTLE WA 98195
(206) 543-4710
(206) 685-3091
[email protected]
101 ROBERT RIBE
UNIVERSITY OF OREGON
5234 U OREGON
EUGENE OR 97403
(541) 346-3648
(541) 346-3626
[email protected]
102 JIM RICE
USDA FOREST SERVICE
495 NW INDUSTRIAL WAY
ESTACADA OR 97023
(503) 630-8710
[email protected]
103 JEFF RICKLEFS
DEPT OF NATURAL
RESOURCES
1111 WASHINGTON ST
OLYMPIA WA 98405
(360) 902-1762
(360) 902-1789
[email protected]
104 MARTIN RITCHIE
PSW RESEARCH STATION
3644 AVTECH PKWY
REDDING CA 96003
(530) 226-2551
(530) 226-5091
[email protected]
105 SCOTT ROBERTS
MISSISSIPPI STATE UNIVERSITY
DEPARTMENT OF FORESTRY
MISSISSIPPI STATE MS 39762
(662) 325-3044
(662) 325-3044
[email protected]
387
388
106 DAVID ROLPH
THE NATURE CONSERVANCY
410 N 4TH ST
MOUNT VERNON WA 98273
(360) 419-0155
(360) 419-0817
[email protected]
107 MIKE SAUNDERS
108 PAUL SCHWARZ
UNIVERSITY OF MAINE
OSU FOREST SCIENCE
5755 NUTTING HALL
RICHARDSON HALL
ORONO ME 04469
CORVALLIS OR 97331
(207) 581-2763
(541) 737-8481
(207) 581-4257
[email protected]
[email protected]
109 BOB SEYMOUR
UNIVERSITY OF MAINE
5755 NUTTING HALL
ORONO ME 04469-5755
(207) 581-2860
(207) 581-4257
[email protected]
110 LAURA SHEEHAN
111 RYAN SINGLETON
BOISE CASCADE CORP
OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY
450 PACIFIC AVE N
1230 NE 3RD ST, STE A-262
MONMOUTH OR 97361
BEND OR 97701
(503) 838-6955
(541) 383-4011
(503) 838-6907
(541) 383-4700
[email protected]
[email protected]
112 NICK SMITH
WEYERHAEUSER BC
COASTAL GROUP
65 FRONT ST
NANAIMO BC V9R 5H9
CANADA
(250) 755-3517
(250) 755-3550
[email protected]
113 CLINT SMITH
OREGON DEPT OF
FORESTRY
5005 THIRD ST
TILAMOOK OR 97141
(503) 842-2545
(503) 842-3143
[email protected]
114 THOMAS SPIES
USDA FOREST SERVICE
3200 SW JEFFERSON WAY
CORVALLIS OR 97331
(541) 750-7354
(541) 750-7329
[email protected]
115 SUSAN STAFFORD
COLLEGE OF NATURAL
RESOURCES
235 SKOK HALL,
2003 UPPER BUFORD CIR
ST PAUL MN 55108
(612) 624-1234
(612) 624-8701
[email protected]
116 CHRISTINE STALLING
ROCKY MNN RESEARCH
PO BOX 8089
MISSOULA MT 59807
(406) 542-4153
(406) 329-2124
[email protected]
117 NOBI SUZUKI
OSU DEPT OF ZOOLOGY
3200 SW JEFFERSON WAY
CORVALLIS OR 97331
(541) 750-7356
(541) 750-7329
[email protected]
118 MARK SWANSON
119 HIROSHI TANAKA
FORESTRY & FP
RESEARCH INST
MATUNOSATO 1
TSUKUBA, IBARAKI 3058687 JAPAN
[email protected]
120 KLAUS VON GADOW
UNIVERSITY GOTTINGEN
GUSGENWEG 5
GOTTINGEN, LOWER
SAXONY D-37077
[email protected]
121 ALAN VYSE
BC FOREST SERVICE
515 COLUMBIA ST
KAMLOOPS BC V2C 4E5
CANADA
(250) 372-8607
[email protected]
122 ROBERT WAGNER
UNIVERSITY OF MAINE
5755 NUTTING HALL
ORONO ME 04469
(207) 581-2903
(207) 581-2833
[email protected]
123 FRED WAHL
USDA FOREST SERVICE
201 14TH ST, SW
WASHINGTON DC 20024
(202) 205-0919
(202) 205-1599
[email protected]
124 STEPHANIE WESSELL
OSU DEPT OF FISHERIES
AND WILDLIFE
3200 SW JEFFERSON WAY
CORVALLIS OR 97331
(541) 750-7284
(541) 750-7760
[email protected]
125 CASSIE WIEDEN
BLUE LAKE LLC
224 NW 13TH, STE 304
PORTLAND OR 97213
(503) 937-7437
(503) 937-8437
[email protected]
126 TOSHIYA YOSHIDA
HOKKAIDO UNIVERSITY
MOSHIRI
HOROKANAI HOKKAIDO
0740741 JAPAN
[email protected]
127 ANDREW YOUNGBLOOD
USDA FOREST SERVICE
1401 GEKELER LN
LAGRANDE OR 97850
(541) 962-6530
(541) 962-6504
[email protected]
128 STEVE ZACK
WILDLIFE CONSERVATION
SOCIETY
219 SE STARK STREET,
SUITE 200
PORTLAND OR 97204
(503) 241-3743
[email protected]
129 ERIC ZENNER
UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA
1530 CLEVELAND AVE N
ST PAUL MN 55108
(612) 625-3733
(612) 625-5212
[email protected]
UNIT CONVERSION TABLE
When you know:
Meters (m)
Square meters (m2)
Centimeters (cm)
Hectares (ha)
Trees per hectare
Kilometers (km)
Kilogram (kg)
Gram (g)
Liters (l)
Degrees Celsius (C)
Feet (ft)
Square feet (ft2)
Inches (in)
Acres
Trees per acre
Miles
Pounds (lbs)
Ounces (oz)
Gallons (gal)
Degrees Fahrenheit
Multiply by:
3.28
10.8
.394
2.47
.405
.62
2.205
.0352
.265
1.8C + 32
.305
.093
2.54
.405
2.471
1.609
.454
.0296
3.78
(F-32)/1.8
To find:
Feet
Square feet
Inches
Acres
Trees per acre
Miles
Pounds
Ounces
Gallons
Degrees Fahrenheit
Meters
Square meters
Centimeters
Hectares
Trees per hectare
Kilometers
Kilograms
Liters
Liters
Degrees Celsius
389
The Forest Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture is dedicated to the principle of
multiple use management of the Nation’s forest resources for sustained yields of wood,
water, forage, wildlife, and recreation. Through forestry research, cooperation with the
States and private forest owners, and management of the National Forests and National
Grasslands, it strives—as directed by Congress—to provide increasingly greater service to
a growing Nation.
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activities on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex, religion, age, disability, political
beliefs, sexual orientation, and marital or family status. (Not all prohibited bases apply to
all programs.) Persons with disabilities who require alternative means for communication
of program information (Braille, large print, audiotape, etc.) should contact USDA’s TARGET
Center at (202) 720-2600 (voice and TDD).
To file a complaint of discrimination, write USDA, Director, Office of Civil Rights, Room
326-W, Whitten Building, 14th and independence Avenue, SW, Washington, DC 20250-9410
or call (202) 720-5964 (voice or TDD). USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer.
USDA is committed to making its information materials accessible to all USDA customers
and employees.
Pacific Northwest Research Station
Web site
Telephone
Publication requests
FAX
E-mail
Mailing address
http://www.fs.fed.us/pnw
(503) 808-2592
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Publications Distribution
Pacific Northwest Research Station
P.O. Box 3890
Portland, OR 97208-3890