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Cells and Organelles Chapter 4 – Cells: The Basic Units of Life
4.1 Organization of Life
4.2 The Discovery of Cells
4.3 Eukaryotic Cells: The Inside Story
Review
4.1 Organization of Life
Cells: Starting Out Small
Tissues: Cells Working in Teams
Organs: Teams Working Together
Organ Systems: A Great Combination
Organisms: Independent Living
The Big Picture –
Populations
Communities
Ecosystems
Biosphere
4.2 The Discovery of Cells
Seeing the First Cells
Seeing Cells in Other Life Forms
The Cell Theory
Cell Similarities
Cell Membrane
Hereditary Material
Cytoplasm and Organelles
Small Size
Giant Amoeba Eats New York City – Surface
to Volume Ratio limitations
The Benefits of Being Multicellular
Two Types of Cells
Prokaryotes
Eukaryotic Cells
4.3 Eukaryotic Cells: The Story Inside
Holding It All Together
cell membrane and cell wall
The Cell’s Library - nucleus
Protein Factories – ribosomes
The Cell’s Delivery System
The Cell’s Power Plants
Mitochondria
Chloroplasts
Endosymbiotic Theory
The Cell’s Packaging Center
The Cell’s Storage Centers
Packages of Destruction
Plant or Animal
4.1 Organization of Life
Cells: Starting Out Small Terms
 __________– a group of similar cells that work together ___________________________
(function) in the body
 __________ – A combination of ___________________ that work together to perform a specific
function in the body
 _____________ – Groups of organs working together to perform body functions
 _____________– anything that can live on its own
 _____________ – made of one cell
 _____________ – made of many cells
 ________________ – a group of individuals of the ______________ that live together in the
same area at the same time
 ________________ – All of the populations of different species that live and interact in an area
 ________________– a community of organisms (biotic) and their non-living (abiotic) environment
 ________________ – all life on Earth
Cells Starting Out Small
Example of a cell that is large enough to be seen without a microscope: Chicken egg – The first cell of a
chick is yellow with a tiny whit dot in it and it is surround by a _________________________ called
_____________. The white dot divides over and over again to form a chick. The yellow yoke from the
first cell and the egg white provide the nutrients for the developing chick’s cell growth.
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___________________ have about 200 different kinds of cells and each type is specialized to do a
particular job.
Tissues: Cells Working Together - Tissues are groups of cells that work together to perform a specific
function
Organs: Tissues working together-Two or more tissues working together
Plant Organs
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Organ Systems: A Great Combination
Organs working together in groups to perform particular functions are called organ systems.
Organ system card activity
From Cell to Organ System
Muscle cell makes up heart tissue that makes up a heart (organ) that is part of the
circulatory/cardiovascular system.
Respiratory System
Note the haversian
Inhalation (Breathing in)
canal and
surrounded by
Exhalation (Breathing out)
osteocytes and a
Skeletal System– Bone Tissue
mineralized matrix
Bone has ________________in
the matrix, giving it greater
strength. Bone also serves as a reservoir (or sink) for calcium.
Protein fibers provide elasticity while minerals provide strength.
Two types of bone occur.
 Dense bone has osteocytes (bone cells) located in lacunae connected by canaliculi. Lacunae are
commonly referred to as Haversian canals.
 Spongy bone occurs at the ends of bones and has bony bars and plates separated by irregular
spaces. The solid portions of spongy bone pick up stress.
Organisms: Independent Living
Anything that can live on its own is an organism.
Recall virus are not considered living – here is another reason way – because they cannot live on their own.
_____________ – one cell, usually requires a microscope to view.
Multicellular organisms - A group of cells that can remain alive
only together as a unit.
Plant Organ Systems
In flowering plants, the flower functions in sexual reproduction.
The essential flower parts are: male parts are called the
___________ and the female part is called the ___________.
The stamen is the male plant organ and has two parts: ________________________. Pollen
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(usually yellow) is produced at the ends of the stamens on structures called anthers. Anthers are
supported by a thread-like structure called a filament.
The pistil which is the female plant organ has three parts: stigma, style, and ovary. The stigma is the
sticky surface at the top of the pistil; it traps and holds the pollen. The style is the tube-like
structure that supports the stigma. The style leads down to the ovary which contains the ovules.
During the process of pollination
 Pollen moves from the male parts to the female parts.
 Pollen grains land on the _________________
 A tiny tube grows from it and down the style into the ______________.
 Sperm cells travel down the tube from the pollen grains and join with an egg cell in the ovule
___________________________________.
 The fertilized ovule becomes the seed and ______________________________________.
The Big Picture
Organisms interact in populations:
All of the red oak trees make up the forest’s red oak population.
Communities include two or more different ________________living in the same area.
The populations of foxes, oak trees, lizards, flowers, and other organisms in a forest are all part of a
particular forest community
Ecosystems: Community (all living organisms, biotic) and all nonliving things (abiotic) like: water, soil,
rocks, temperature, and light.
Sample Ecosystem
What makes up a community?
A _______________________ is made up of the ______________ of living things (biotic) in the
ecosystem. So the community in the ecosystem is the deer, butterflies, trees, grasses, and flowers.
4.2 The Discovery of Cells
Seeing the First Cells
________________________: 1665 British scientist. Looking for demonstration for a scientific meeting.
Hooke looked at a piece of cork and noticed hundreds of little boxes.
He named the little boxes cells which means in Latin “little rooms”
Seeing Cells in Other Life Forms
_________________________
 Used his own handmade microscope that be built to look more closely at fabrics he was buying while in Holland.
 Looked at blood, teeth tarter and all kinds of living cells. He also discovered that yeasts that make bread are
unicellular.
The Cell Theory
1. _____________________________________________________________________
2. _____________________________________________________________________
3. _____________________________________________________________________
Three scientists involved:
___________________ (1838) German, plant cells
__________________ (1839) German, animal cells. Wrote the first two parts of the theory.
__________________ (1858) German doctor. Wrote the last part after observing that cells could not
develop from anything but other cells.
Cell Similarities
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All Cells have the following in common:
 Cell membranes – _________________ to the outside world. ___________the passage of
materials into and out of the cell.
 Hereditary Material – _____________ (_________________________) or sometimes RNA
(ribonucleic acid)
 Cytoplasm and Organelles
Cytoplasm is the ____________ that is contained within the cell and where the organelles are
found. Not all cells have membrane-bound organelles (nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplasts, golgi, etc.)
 Small size – too small to be seen by the eye.
Giant Amoeba Eats New York City
The surface area and volume of a cube can be found with the following equations: SA = 6L2 , and V = L3
where
S = surface area (in units squared),
V = volume (in units cubed), and
L= the length of one side of the cube.
What is important about Surface-to-Volume
 Cells need food, energy, and to remove wastes and heat in proportion to its size or volume, V
 All of these things must be transported across the cell's ______________, S, so the rate at which
needs can be met is _______________________________________________.
 Small size structures that are more "surfacey" than __________________ structures can meet
their needs faster.
 This can be seen by considering 2 cubes of different size.
Surface to Volume Ratio
What are the two types of cells?
Eukaryotic cells – have a nucleus
Prokaryotic cells – do not have a nucleus or other membrane bound organelles
Prokaryotes
no nucleus
no membranes except cell membrane
bacteria or blue/green algae
very small
almost always unicellular
ribosomes
single circular DNA chromosome
Eukaryotes
 nucleus (eukaryotic means “true nucleus” in
Greek)

many linear DNA chromosome

evidence indicates that they first appeared
about 2 billion years ago during the
Precambrian Era.

animals, plants, fungi, protista
 membrane bound Organelles
 larger in size
 uni or multicellular
4.3 Eukaryotic Cells: The Inside Story
Holding it all together
Cell Membrane - phospholipids
Cell Wall have different compositions depending on the organism
Plant cells – cellulose cell wall
Fungal cells – chitan usually
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Cell Membrane
The cell membrane is a structure that forms the outer boundary of the cell and
allows only certain materials to move into and out of the cell.
o Food, oxygen and water move into the cell through the membrane.
Waste products also leave through the membrane.
o Cells that perform photosynthesis (plants and some protists) take
in carbon dioxide through the cell membrane instead of oxygen.
Cell Membrane Function: The cell membrane allows ______________________________to move in
and out of the cell
Cell Membrane Composition: The current best model of what a cell membrane looks like is in the figure
below. As you can see it is made up of three parts.
1. ___________________
2. ___________________
3. ___________________ Carbohydrates can be attached to either the phospholipids or the
proteins in the cell membrane.
The Cell’s Library – Nucleus – means “_______________________” because it is the “essence of cells”
o In all _______________________ the nucleus is the largest and most visible organelle.
o Is called the______________________of the cell
o Stores _________________ which has the information to make all of the cell’s __________.
o The dark central area is called the ______________ which stores materials to make
ribosomes in the cytoplasm. (RNA)
Protein Factories - Ribosomes
o
Proteins are the building blocks of all cells
o
Proteins are made up _____________________.
o
Ribosomes make __________________ by linking ______________ together in accordance
with the information stored in DNA
o
All cells have ___________________ because all cells need _____________ to live
o
Ribosomes are _____________ by a membrane – NOT Membrane Bound
Review: Do prokaryotic cells have ribosomes? ___________________________________________
Cell’s Delivery System – Endoplasmic Reticulum
o
_______________________________
o
Flattened sacks stacked side by side
o
May be covered with _________________ (rough endoplasmic reticulum)
o
Makes __________________and other materials for use inside and outside of the cell.
o
Is an internal delivery system of the cells (tubular connections – like cars moving through tunnels
Review: Are endoplasmic reticulum found in prokaryotes?__________________________________
Cell Power plants- ______________________ and _______________________
o
All cells need _______________
Mitochondria and chloroplasts both have ______________________
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o
Mitochondria are in _____ eukaryote cells
o
Mitochondria create __________________ (_____) from ___________ using oxygen
o
Only ____________contain chloroplasts
o
Plant cells create _____________ using ____________, _________________, and _______.
Mitochondria (2 or more mitochondrion)
o Have 2 membranes: folded inner membrane and an outer membrane.
o Where _______ is made
o Needs oxygen to perform cellular respiration where glucose (sugar) is broken down to release
energy in the form of ATP
Chloroplasts
o Plants and algae have this organelle that can covert _____________________, _________
and _______________into glucose (______________)
o Chloroplast means “green structure”.
o _____________________ make chloroplasts green and is the compound that ___________
the light energy
Both mitochondria and chloroplasts have __________________
Endosymbiotic Theory
o
Endo – ______________________________________________________________
o
Symbiotic- ___________________________________________________________
The Endosymbiotic Theory is an explanation for the origins of mitochondria and chloroplasts.
The theory states that mitochondria and chloroplasts originated as ___________________that
were eaten (endocytosis) and instead of being digested they survived and continued functioning.
Lines of evidence for the Endosymbiotic Theory:
o
Mitochondria and chloroplasts are about the ____________________as bacteria (prokaryotes)
o
Mitochondria and chloroplasts are surround by ___________________________.
The _________________________ is thought to be the original bacterial cell
membrane and the _________________________ created during endocytosis.
o
Mitochondria and chloroplasts contain a separate circular DNA which is duplicated when
mitochondria and chloroplasts created.
The Cell’s Packaging Center-
Golgi complex
o
The Golgi complex modifies and packages compounds such as lipids or proteins.
o
Golgi look like ___________________________ (____) but are usually located closer to the
cell membrane than ER.
o
Final modified products are enclosed in a piece of the Golgi membrane that pinches off to form a
small compartment (vesicles) that transport the modified
The Cell’s Storage Centers
o
The cell’s storage centers are: _________________ and ________________
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o
_________________are membrane covered compartments that are found in all eukaryotic cells.
o
__________________ are membrane covered compartment that contain water and other liquids
that help support the plant cells.
Special Vesicles
o
____________________are a type of vesicle that helps to control excess fluid in some
unicellular organisms.
Breath out – exhalation results from a ________________ of the _________________.
o
________________________ are specialized vesicles that contain ___________________
that get rid of _______________ and __________________, protects cells from foreign
invaders, and helps digest food particles.
Central Dogma: DNA to messenger RNA (mRNA) to proteins
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Review
1. (Organs or Organelles) ___________are made up of various tissues that work together to perform a
specific job.
2. The role of the cell’s ____________ (nucleus or mitochondria) is to release energy that can be used
to power various cellular processes.
3. Unlike animal cells, plant cells have _____________(nuclei or chloroplasts) to capture energy from
the sun.
4. DNA, the genetic material of a eukaryotic cell, is located in the cell’s ___________ (nucleus or
ribosome).
5. Cells that have no membrane-covered organelles are _____________ (prokaryotic or eukaryotic).
6. A part of the endoplasmic reticulum can pinch off and form a______________ (lysosome or vacuole),
which contains digesting enzymes.
7. Which of the following statements is not part of the cell theory?
a. The most basic component of any organism is the cell.
b. All cells originate from other cells.
c. All cells have a nucleus and a cell membrane.
d. All living things are made up of one or more cells.
8. A life scientist who observes the relationships between plants, animals, weather,and soil on a
mountaintop is studying a(n) ________________
a. community.
b. population.
c. ecosystem.
d. organism.
9. Which of the following is not found in plant cells?
a. lysosomes
b. ribosomes
c. cell membrane
d. Golgi complex
10. Which of the following contain cellulose?
a. all plant cell walls
b. all mushroom cells c. all eukaryotic cells
d. some prokaryotic cells
11. Which part of a cell manufactures lipids? __________________
a. nucleolus
b. endoplasmic reticulum
c. cell membrane
d. vesicles
12. Materials that are to be released outside the cell are transported to the cell membrane in a small
compartment that has pinched off of the
a. nucleus.
b. contractile vacuole.
c. rough ER.
d. Golgi complex.
13. Which of the following is not a characteristic of bacteria?
a. They are prokaryotes.
c. They have an endoplasmic reticulum.
b. Their DNA is one long, circular molecule.
d. They have a cell membrane.
Unit 3 Structure and Function Notes Part 2
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