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Week 6: Chapter 6 Agenda
Automation of SQL Server tasks using:
• SQL Server Agent
• Scheduling
• Scripting Technologies
Benefits of Automation
1. Saves time
2. Reduces chance of human error
(forgetting , running wrong task, …)
3. Allows easy execution of tasks in nonpeak times or at scheduled times
SQL Server Agent
 SQL Server’s primary tool for automation
and scheduling
 A service in the control panel of the SQL
Server2000 machine
 Configured with Enterprise Manager in
Management object
 Can automate many tasks using
• SQL statements
• Operating System Commands
• Programming
Configuring SQL Server Agent
SQL Server Agent must be running at all
times. To do this:
• Using Service Manager, configure SQL
Server Agent to auto start
• Using Enterprise Manager, configure
SQL Server and SQL Server Agent
service to restart automatically if these
services stops unexpectedly
Configuring SQL Server Agent (ctd)
 SQL Server Agent logon Account must be
mapped to sysadmin role
• Map this account to administrators local
group
• Use a windows domain user account
logon account
 Use windows authentication mode for SQL
Server Agent to permit greater flexibility
SQL Server Agent Objects
SQL Server agent works with following
objects:
• Jobs – series of tasks
• Operators – names and contact info
• Alerts – response to conditions
(normally for errors)
Jobs
• A job is a set of instructions, schedules and
notifications
• Each individual operation is called a step
• Step types include Transact-SQL
commands, O/S commands, Scripts
(ActiveX)
• Scripts can use VBScript, JavaScript, etc
• Jobs can use conditional logic
• Notification methods include email, email
pager and Windows NET SEND
Create a Job
• Ensure that job is enabled (jobs are
enabled by default)
• Specify the owner who is responsible for
performing the job (by default the owner
is the logon account creating the job)
• Define whether the job is to execute on a
local server or on multiple remote servers
• Job categories help to organize, filter and
manage many jobs
Define job step using T-SQL
• Identify database to be used
• Include required variable and parameters
• Can send a result set of a job step to an
output file (output files are often used in
troubleshooting to capture an error message
that may have occurred while the statement
is executing)
Define a job step using OS commands
• Operating System commands are
identified by .exe, .bat, .cmd, .com files
extension
• Identify a process exit code to indicate
that process was successful
• Include the full path to the executable
application in the command text box.
Defining Job Steps
• Can use ActiveX Script with languages such
as Microsoft VBScript, Microsoft Jscript etc.
• Must identify scripting language in which the
job step is written
• Write or Open Active Script (use the SQL
ActiveScriptHost object to print output to the
job step history or create object)
Job Flow Logic Example
JOB 1: Data Transfer
Job Step 1: Back Up Database
Type: Transact-SQL:
Retry attempts: 1
FAIL?
Y
N
Job Step2: Transfer Data
Type: CmdExec;
Retry attempts : 2
FAIL?
Write to
Windows
Application Log
Y
N
Job Step3: Custom Application
Type: Active Scripting:
Retry attempts: 0
Notify Operator
Y
FAIL?
N
Notify Operator
Job Scheduling
 After job has been defined you can schedule
the job to be executed automatically
 A schedule must be enabled to permit
automated execution
 Can use Enterprise Manager (GUI) or
execute sp_add_jobschedule stored
procedure to define job schedule
 Job schedules are stored in the
msdb.sysjobschedules system tables
Job Scheduling (ctd)
 Can schedule jobs to start automatically:
• When SQL Server Agent started
• At a specific time (one time only)
• On a recurring basis (daily, weekly, or
monthly)
• When CPU is idle
Notification
 Operators are notified of events that take
place on SQL Server
 Operators don’t require a SQL Server login
 Notifications are messages sent to the
operators
 Notification methods can be:
• Email
• Email pager
• Windows NET SEND command
 Operators should be available for contact as
required
Operators
• Use group email alias to notify more than one
individual to respond to notification
• Test each notification method to ensure that
the operator is able to receive messages
• Should specify a work schedule for each
operator to be notified by pager
• Use NET SEND command to send messages
to network operators and servers running
Windows 2000 or Windows NT.
Operator Notification
• Ensure operator is available to receive
notifications
• Ensure messenger service is running on
computer of the operator to be notified by NET
SEND command
• Review most recent notification steps to
determine date and time of last notification
• Test individual notification methods outside of
SQL Server by verifying that you can send email messages, page an operator or
successfully execute a NET SEND command.
Job History
 Job history can be viewed from Enterprise
Manager and directly in the
msdb..sysjobhistory system table
 Sysjobhistory table records:
• Date and time each job step occurred
• Success or failure of job step
• The operator notified and notification
method
• The duration of job step
• Errors or messages from job step
Job History Size
• By default, msdb database file properties are
set to auto growth, and the Truncate log on
checkpoint database option is turned on.
• By default, maximum job history size is set
at 1,000 rows
• By default, maximum job history size for
each job is set at 100 rows
• Rows are removed from sysjobhistory
system table in a first-in, first-out (FIFO)
manner when size limit is reached
Execution Permissions
 For T-SQL Jobs:
• context of job owner or a specific user
 Operating System and ActiveX Script jobs:
• Members of Sysadmin role use the SQL
Server Agent login account
• Job owners that are not members of the
sysadmin role use defined domain user
account called a proxy account