Unit 14 FRQ Practice - Lewis Download

Transcript
Unit 14 FRQ Practice
Essay
1. You are talking quietly with some friends at a restaurant when all of a sudden a new student at your
school, Dave, sits down at your table. Dave immediately starts to tell a loud, funny story to everyone
at the table while he gobbles French fries from your plate. Use the following theories to explain or
describe aspects of Dave's behavior:
• Reaction formation
• Trait theory
• Maslow's hierarchy of needs
• Reciprocal determinism
• Operant conditioning
• Drive-reduction theory
• Incentive theory
2. As you know, the Advanced Placement (AP) Psychology exam involves 100 multiple-choice
questions and two free response essay questions. The goal of the exam is to accurately measure
knowledge of psychological concepts and to communicate to colleges which students would most
likely succeed in a college-level psychology course. Each year, few students receive composite
scores of 1 and 5, and more students receive scores of 2, 3, or 4. Use the following terms to describe
how the College Board most likely developed and evaluates the AP Psychology exam.
• Recognition
• Recall
• Standardization
• Normal curve
• Reliability (test-retest reliability or split-half reliability)
• Content validity
• Predictive validity
3. The diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders involves concepts and research from other
areas of psychology. In this way, the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders is an
example of applied psychology. Identify some of the symptoms of the psychological disorders listed
below and explain how the accompanying concept relates to the symptoms or treatment of the
disorder.
• Dissociative identity disorder (DID): constructive memory
• Major depressive disorder: mood- congruent memory
• Schizophrenia: dopamine hypothesis
• Antisocial personality disorder: autonomic nervous system
4. Many treatments for psychological disorders are based on one of the following psychological
perspectives: psychoanalytic, learning, or biological. Define each of the following concepts and
explain which of the three perspectives the concept is based on.
• Electroconvulsive therapy
• Transference
• Token economy
• Systematic desensitization
• Resistance
• Psychopharmacology
5. Ken, Elizabeth, and Charlie are in charge of a week-long Chinese language summer camp. This year,
they promised the children's parents that they would try to get the children to spend at least five
hours a day practicing their Chinese: In their experience, however, campers usually prefer other
camp activities (hiking, canoeing, etc.) to language practice. Explain how Ken, Elizabeth, and
Charlie could use the psychological principles below to encourage campers to complete their five
hours of language practice per day.
• Positive reinforcement
• Negative reinforcement
• Central route persuasion
• Peripheral route persuasion
• Foot-in-the-door phenomenon
• Superordinate goal
• Conformity
• Obedience
Unit 14 FRQ Practice
Answer Section
ESSAY
1. ANS:
Point 1: Reaction formation: Students should explain that Dave's outgoing behavior may be caused
by the defense mechanism reaction formation. If Dave has unconscious feelings and anxieties about
being inadequate, not entertaining or not liked, his ego may try to reduce these unconscious negative
anxieties by causing him to react in the opposite way, like telling the loud story at the table (reaction
formation). Dave exhibits these extremely outgoing behaviors because unconsciously he is anxious
about being liked and fitting in.
Point 2: Trait theory: Students should explain that trait theorists would describe Dave's behavior by
identifying specific personality traits (categories of behavior or disposition) that describe the
behavior. Specifically, students should identify the trait of extraversion (outgoing, social behaviors)
as describing Dave's behavior well.
Point 3: Maslow's Hierarchy of needs: Students should explain that applying Maslow's hierarchy of
needs could help explain Dave's behavior. The hierarchy of needs predicts that people will act to
satisfy the next level of needs. Dave's safety and physiological needs may be satisfied, so his
outgoing behaviors may be explained by his desire to satisfy the next level of needs on the hierarchy:
belongingness and love needs. Dave may be telling funny stories to make sure he is included and
accepted by the social group. Alternatively, students could use the hierarchy of needs to explain
Dave's eating behavior: Dave was trying to satisfy his physiological need of hunger by stealing the
fries.
Point 4: Reciprocal determinism: Students should explain that Dave's behavior could be explained
through reciprocal determinism: this behavior may result from the interaction of three factors—the
behavior itself, internal cognitive factors, and environmental factors. Students need to point out that
these factors all affect one another. For example, Dave's storytelling behavior at the table (behavior)
could cause some people to laugh (environmental factor), and Dave might interpret this laughter as
positive and accepting (internal cognitive factor), which in turn encourages Dave to continue with
the story. Alternatively, students could use reciprocal determinism to explain Dave's behavior of
stealing French fries. The French fries look appetizing (environmental factors) and Dave doesn't
think you will mind if he steals some (internal cognitive factor) and this encourages him to steal the
fries (behavior). Your reaction (environmental factor) may influence whether he continues to steal
the fries.
Point 5: Operant conditioning: Students should explain that operant conditioning could explain
Dave's storytelling behavior through positive reinforcement. If the people at the table laugh at Dave's
joke, he may continue or repeat the story-telling behavior because it was rewarded with laughter.
Alternatively, students could explain Dave's fry-stealing behavior through positive reinforcement:
Dave steals a fry, is rewarded by the taste of the fry, and is likely to steal another fry because of the
positive reinforcement.
Point 6: Drive-reduction theory: Students should explain that drive-reduction theory predicts that
people's behavior is aimed at reducing physiological needs (drives). It is likely that Dave was hungry
(physiological need); he stole French fries because this physiological hunger need created an aroused
state, and Dave was motivated to steal the fries in order to reduce this drive.
Point 7: Incentive theory: Students should explain that incentive theory could explain Dave's fryeating behavior. Incentive theory explains that we are not only motivated by drives (see drivereduction theory), we are also motivated by incentives, which are positive or negative stimuli that
attract us or cause us to avoid an action. The French fries may have looked and smelled delicious
and encouraged Dave to steal the fries through this incentive.
REF: Section- Personality
2. ANS:
Point 1: Recognition: Students should explain that the College Board decided to use multiple-choice
questions, that depend on recognition, because it's important for students to be able to recognize the
correct answer from the five options on each multiple-choice question. Students can also discuss
content validity related to this point: Because they chose to use multiple-choice questions that
depend on recognition, the College Board decided that part of the definition of “knowledge of
psychological concepts” involves being able to recognize the correct answer from a series of options.
Point 2: Recall: Students should explain that the College Board decided to use free response essay
questions that depend on recall, because students also need to be able to remember and demonstrate
knowledge of some psychological concepts without “cues” or options. Students can also discuss
content validity related to this point: Because they chose to use free response essay questions that
depend on recall, the College Board decided that part of the definition of “knowledge of
psychological concepts” involves being able to recall knowledge of psychological concepts well
enough to write about them in an essay.
Point 3: Standardization: Students should explain that the College Board would have needed to test
AP exam questions on a representative sample of high school and college psychology students in
order to be able to compare scores of test-takers to this standardization group. Students can also
discuss predictive validity related to this point: The College Board could use the standardization
group of college students to compare high school test scores to college student test scores in order to
determine how well high school test scores predict how successful the high school students would be
in a college-level course.
Point 4: Normal curve: Students should explain that the distribution of composite scores on the AP
psychology exam fall approximately along the normal curve, with few students receiving scores at
either end of the distribution (scores of 1 and 5) with most scores falling in the middle (scores of 2,
3, or 4).
Point 5: Reliability: Students should explain that scores on the AP test need to be proven to be
reliable, so the College Board most likely tested reliability through either the test-retest method
(administering the test more than once to the standardization group) or the split-half method
(administering half the test items to two different groups and comparing scores).
Point 6: Content validity: Students should explain that the College Board needed to test the content
validity of the AP exam, that is, whether the test actually measures relevant psychological content.
Students can explain this by describing some likely method of testing content validity (e.g., showing
test items to college psychology professors and asking whether the items address important
psychological content) or students can explain content validity in the context of points 1 or 2 above.
Point 7: Predictive validity: Students should explain that the College Board needed to test the
predictive validity of the AP exam, that is, whether AP test scores accurately predict the grades these
students would receive in a college-level psychology course. Students can explain this by describing
some likely method of testing predictive validity (e.g., administering exam items to both high school
students and current college students in psychology courses and comparing whether students
receiving high scores on the exam receive high grades in college courses), or students can explain
predictive validity in the context of point 3 above.
REF: Section- Testing and Individual Differences
3. ANS:
Point 1: Dissociative identity disorder (DID): Students should identify the main symptom of DID as
the expression of two or more distinct identities that alternately control the person's behavior.
Point 2: Constructive memory: Students should explain that some psychologists are concerned that
constuctive memory may play a role in the increasing rates of DID diagnoses. Some research
indicates that therapists who ask leading questions may contribute to patients constructing false
memories (often of childhood trauma), eventually leading to a DID diagnosis.
Point 3: Major depressive disorder: Students should identify the main symptoms of depression as
depressed moods, lethargy, feelings of worthlessness, and loss of interest in social groups that last
two or more weeks.
Point 4: Mood-congruent memory: Students should explain that mood-congruent memory may
contribute to depression (and/or complicate treatment). Since mood-congruent memory predicts that
memories encoded during a certain mood are more easily recalled when we are in that mood again,
depressed inviduals are more likely to remember depressing events, which may contribute to the
depression and complicate talk therapy.
Point 5: Schizophrenia: Students should identify the main symptom of schizophrenia as delusions
(false beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur) and/or hallucinations (perceiving sensations that do
not exist).
Point 6: Dopamine hypothesis: Students should explain that schizophrenia is associated with an
excess of receptors for dopamine, and that the brain activity associated with excess dopamine
reactions is related to positive symptoms of schizophrenia (e.g., hallucinations, delusions, and
paranoia).
Point 7: Antisocial personality disorder: Students should identify the main symptom of antisocial
personality disorder as a lack of conscience, (which contributes to antisocial behaviors such as lying,
stealing, fighting, and sexual promiscuity).
Point 8: Autonomic nervous system: Students should explain that individuals diagnosed with
antisocial personality disorder show little, or no physiological reaction to aversive events, such as
electric shocks or loud noises. This lack of arousal may lead these people toward fearless behaviors
(which may lead them into criminal activity).
REF: Section- Abnormal Psychology
4. ANS:
Point 1: Electroconvulsive therapy: Students should define electroconvulsive therapy as a technique
that involves delivering a short (20–60 second) shock to the client's brain. These shock treatments
may help alleviate depression that does not respond to other treatments. Students should also explain
that this treatment is based on the biological perspective because it assumes that depression can be
treated through the changes in the brain produced by electroconvulsive therapy.
Point 2: Transference: Students should define transference as the strong positive or negative feelings
patients may feel about the psychoanalyst that reflect similar unconscious feelings repressed from
earlier relationships. Students should also explain that this treatment is based on the psychoanalytic
perspective because it involves the impact of unconscious feelings or anxieties (the positive or
negative feelings experienced earlier) on current behavior (reaction toward the psychoanalyst).
Point 3: Token Economy: Students should define token economy as a behavior modification
technique that involves “tokens” that can be exchanged for rewards (such as candy or TV time).
Therapists give these tokens to clients when they perform desired behaviors. Students should also
explain that this treatment is based on the learning perspective because it assumes that clients'
behaviors are controlled by rewards for desired behaviors.
Point 4: Systematic desensitization: Students should define systematic desensitization as a classical
conditioning technique involving the gradual exposure of a client to feared behaviors, step-by-step,
starting with situations that cause low levels of anxiety and gradually progressing to more intense
situations. Students should also explain that this treatment is based on the learning perspective
because it assumes that clients' anxieties can be gradually reduced through exposure to each
situation.
Point 5: Resistance: Students should define resistance as episodes in which the patient omits or
forgets events, pauses, or changes the subject during discussions with the psychoanalyst. Students
should also explain that this treatment is based on the psychoanalytic perspective because the
concept of resistance depends on the idea that the patient's behavior is driven by an unconscious
desire to avoid specific thoughts or memories.
Point 6: Psychopharmacology: Students should define psychopharmacology as the study of the
effects of drugs on thinking and behavior. Students should also explain that this treatment is based
on the biological perspective because it assumes that behavior can be changed through the changes
in brain chemistry produced by psychoactive drugs.
REF: Section- Treatment of Psychological Disorders
5. ANS:
Point 1: Positive reinforcement: Students should explain a likely way that the camp leaders could use
positive reinforcement to increase language practice. The example needs to involve a stimulus (such
as awards for completing language study) and a description of how language study increases
following the addition of the stimulus (campers participate in more language study after the awards
are given).
Point 2: Negative reinforcement: Students should explain a likely way that the camp leaders could
use negative reinforcement to increase language practice. The example needs to involve a stimulus
(such as the smells involved in cleaning the camp latrine) and a description of how language study
increases following the removal of the stimulus (campers who are released from latrine cleaning
duty for completing their language study participate in more language study).
Point 3: Central route persuasion: Students should discuss how the camp leaders could explain the
positive benefits campers might receive from more language study (e.g., increased ability in the
language, cognitive benefits of learning a second language, and increased knowledge of another
world culture). Using these reasonable arguments to encourage systematic, analytical thinking about
the decision follows central route persuasion.
Point 4: Peripheral route persuasion: Students should discuss how the camp leaders could use
peripheral routes to persuade campers to study Chinese, such as making sure the person in charge of
the language study is attractive to and admired by the campers. Using this kind of incidental cue
follows peripheral route persuasion
Point 5: Foot-in-the-door phenomenon: Students should explain that the camp leaders could use the
foot-in-the-door phenomenon by getting the campers to agree to small requests first, then gradually
increasing the request over time: The camp leaders could ask campers to complete two hours of
language learning the first day, then increase the time gradually over the week-long camp
experience.
Point 6: Superordinate goal: Students should explain that a superordinate goal (a shared goal that
requires the entire group to complete) could positively influence language-learning behaviors. They
could announce that the camp will earn a respected national award for merit if each person in the
camp completes five hours a day of Chinese language study.
Point 7: Conformity: Students should explain that the camp leaders could group campers to try to
take advantage of the tendency to conform within groups. The camp leaders could place the campers
in groups, making sure that students who tend not to complete their language-learning work are
placed in a group of campers who all complete it. The reluctant camper is likely to conform to the
good work habits of the group.
Point 8: Obedience: Students should explain that the camp leaders could increase the chances that
the campers will obey their request for five hours a day of language learning by making sure that the
people giving the order (the camp leaders) are often close at hand and campers are aware of their
presence, that the camp leaders are seen as respected authority figures (possibly making campers
aware of awards or degrees earned by the leaders), and that there are no role models for defying the
request for language learning (discouraging and isolating any camper who defies the request).
REF: Section- Social Psychology