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Math Voc. By: Reed Carpenter Integer • 1. A member of the set of positive whole numbers {1, 2, 3, . . . }, negative whole numbers {-1, -2, -3, . . . }, and zero {0}. • 2. A complete unit or entity. Rational Number • A number that can be expressed as an integer or a quotient of integers. For example, 2, -5, and 1/2 are rational numbers. Scientific Notation • A method of writing or displaying numbers in terms of a decimal number between 1 and 10 multiplied by a power of 10. The scientific notation of 10,492, for example, is 1.0492 × 104 Perfect Square • An integer that is the square of an integer. Irrational Number • A number that cannot be expressed as a ratio between two integers and is not an imaginary number. If written in decimal notation, an irrational number would have an infinite number of digits to the right of the decimal point, without repetition. Pi and the square root of 2 (2) are irrational numbers. Real Numbers • A number that can be written as a terminating or no terminating decimal; a rational or irrational number. The numbers 2, -12.5, 3/7 , and pie are all real numbers. Density Property • The commutative property of addition says that we can add numbers in any order. The commutative property of multiplication is very similar. It says that we can multiply numbers in any order we want without changing the result. Adjacent Angles • (Mathematics) two angles that have the same vertex and a side in common Coefficient • 1. A number or symbol multiplied with a variable or an unknown quantity in an algebraic term, as 4 in the term 4x, or x in the term x(a + b). • 2. A numerical measure of a physical or chemical property that is constant for a system under specified conditions such as the coefficient of friction. Distance Formula • Given the points ( 1, -2 ) and ( -3, 5 ), find the distance between them. Domain • 1. Mathematics The set of all values that an independent variable of a function can have. In the function y = 2x, the set of values that x (the independent variable) can have is the domain. Compare range. • 2. Computer Science A group of networked computers that share a common communications address. • 3. Biology A division of organisms that ranks above a kingdom in systems of classification that are based on shared similarities in DNA sequences rather than shared structural similarities. In these systems, there are three domains: the archaea, the bacteria, and the eukaryotes. • 4. Physics A region in a ferromagnetic substance in which the substance is magnetized with the same polarization throughout. Hypotenuse • The side of a right triangle opposite the right angle. It is the longest side, and the square of its length is equal to the sum of the squares of the lengths of the other two sides. Legs Of A Right Triangle • In a right triangle, the sides opposite to the acute angles are called the Legs of a Triangle. Range • The difference between the lowest and highest values. In {4, 6, 9, 3, 7} the lowest value is 3, and the highest is 9, so the range is 9-3 = 6. Range can also mean all the output values of a function. Slope • The rate of change of a line. For any two points, it is the change in the y values divided by the change in the x values, and is referred to as the change in the rise over the change in the run of a line. Prism • A solid with two congruent parallel faces, where any cross section parallel to those faces is congruent to them. Scatter Plot • A graph of plotted points that show the relationship between two sets of data. In this example, each dot represents one person's weight versus their height. Slope Intercept Form • Slope Intercept Form is also called as gradient, y-intercept form. Slope Intercept Form is used to generate the Equation of a straight line with a slope m and y - intercept c of the line. Absolute Value • The absolute value of a number may be thought of as its distance from zero. Exponent • An Exponent is a mathematical notation that implies the number of times a number is to be multiplied by itself. Product • Product simply means 'multiply'. Pythagorean Theorem • The theorem that the sum of the squares of the lengths of the sides of a right triangle is equal to the square of the length of the hypotenuse. Acute Triangle • A triangle where all three internal angles are acute (less than 90 degrees). Probability • Probability is the likelihood of something happening in the future. It is expressed as a number between zero (can never happen) to 1 (will always happen). It can be expressed as a fraction, a decimal, a percent, or as "odds". Factor • To factor a number means to break it up into numbers that can be multiplied together to get the original number. Variable • Variables are (usually) letters or other symbols that represent unknown numbers or values. Evaluate • 1. to determine or set the value or amount of; appraise: to evaluate property. • 2. to judge or determine the significance, worth, or quality of; assess: to evaluate the results of an experiment. • 3. Mathematics . to ascertain the numerical value of (a function, relation, etc.). Quotient • the result of division; the number of times one quantity is contained in another. Acute Angle • An angle whose measure is between 0° and 90°. Congruent • 1. agreeing; accordant; congruous. • 2. Mathematics . of or pertaining to two numbers related by a congruence. • 3. Geometry . coinciding at all points when superimposed: congruent triangles. Reciprocal • 1. given or felt by each toward the other; mutual: reciprocal respect. • 2. given, performed, felt, etc., in return: reciprocal aid. • 3. corresponding; matching; complementary; equivalent: reciprocal privileges at other health clubs. • 4. Grammar . (of a pronoun or verb) expressing mutual relationship or action: “Each other” and “one another” are reciprocal pronouns. • 5. inversely related or proportional; opposite. Vertex • 1. the highest point of something; apex; summit; top: the vertex of a mountain. • 2. Anatomy, Zoology . the crown or top of the head. • 3. Craniometry . the highest point on the midsagittal plane of the skull or head viewed from the left side when the skull or head is in the Frankfurt horizontal. • 4. Astronomy . a point in the celestial sphere toward which or from which the common motion of a group of stars is directed. • 5. Geometry . a. the point farthest from the base: the vertex of a cone or of a pyramid. • b. a point in a geometrical solid common to three or more sides. • c. the intersection of two sides of a plane figure. Polygon • a figure, especially a closed plane figure, having three or more, usually straight, sides. Scalene Triangle • A triangle where all three sides are different in length. Area • 1. any particular extent of space or surface; part: the dark areas in the painting; the dusty area of the room. • 2. a geographical region; tract: the Chicago area; the unsettled areas along the frontier. • 3. any section reserved for a specific function: the business area of a town; the dining area of a house. • 4. extent, range, or scope: inquiries that embrace the whole area of science. • 5. field of study, or a branch of a field of study: Related areas of inquiry often reflect borrowed notions. Perimeter • 1. the border or outer boundary of a twodimensional figure. • 2. the length of such a boundary. • 3. a line bounding or marking off an area. • 4. the outermost limits. • 5. Military . a fortified boundary that protects a troop position. Circumference • 1. the outer boundary, especially of a circular area; perimeter: the circumference of a circle. • 2. the length of such a boundary: a one-mile circumference. • 3. the area within a bounding line: the vast circumference of his mind. Obtuse Angle • an angle greater than 90° but less than 180°. Complementary • 1. forming a complement; completing. • 2. complementing each other. Diameter • Diameter is a line segment that passes through the center of a circle with both its endpoints lying on the circle. Sum • The result of adding two or more numbers. Dividend • The number that is divided by another number in a division operation is called a Dividend. Divisor • The quantity by which another quantity, the dividend, is to be divided. Median • The median of a set of numbers is the number in the middle. For example, in the set of numbers {4,6,25}, the median is 6. However the numbers must be in order for the median to be in the middle. If there are an even number of numbers, then the median is the average of the last 2 middle numbers. There are 2 ways to find the median of a set of numbers: 1. Rewrite the numbers in order, then find the one in the middle 2. Cross off the highest number, then the lowest, then the highest, lowest, on and on, until only one number is left. That number will be the median. This second method works best when you have a large number of numbers. So, here is a problem for you: What is the median of {9,2,1,6,3}? Mean • The mean of a set of numbers is their average. You find the average of a set of numbers by adding them up and dividing by the number of numbers you have. So, the mean of 3,4,6,9, and 3 is: Mode • The mode of a set of data is the value in the set that occurs most often. Pyramid • A pyramid is a polyhedron with a polygonal base and triangles for sides. Quadrilateral • A quadrilateral with both pairs of opposite sides parallel. Parallelogram • A Parallelogram is a quadrilateral whose opposite sides are parallel and equal and opposite angles are equal. Rectangle • A 4-sided polygon where all interior angles are 90° Reflection • A Reflection is a transformation in which the figure is the mirror image of the other. Rate • A rate is a ratio that compares two quantities having different units of measure. Trapezoid • The trapezoid has 2 sides that are parallel lines. • Trapezoid is a quadrilateral with only one pair of parallel sides. Cylinder • A Cylinder is a three-dimensional geometric figure that has two congruent and parallel bases. Octagon • A polygon with eight sides is called an octagon. Pentagon • Pentagon is a polygon with five sides. Right Triangle • The longest side of a right triangle. The side opposite the right angle. Rhombus Lowest Terms X- Axis and Y- Axis