Name:__________________________________________ Chapter 7 Behavioral Approaches 1. Which of the following scenarios provides the best example of a mental process? a. A child draws a picture of a car. b. A child plays the violin. c. A child tries to decide which crayon to use next. d. A child runs home from school. 2. In classical conditioning, a generalization occurs when: a. A previously reinforced response is no longer reinforced but continues to be observed. b. A previously reinforced response is no longer reinforced, and the response decreases. c. A decrease occurs in the frequency of an undesired response. d. It involves the tendency of a new stimulus similar to the original stimulus to elicit a similar response. 3. Which of the following individuals proposed the law of effect stating that behaviors followed by positive outcomes are strengthened, while behaviors followed by negative outcomes are weakened? a. Ivan Pavlov b. David Premack c. B. F. Skinner d. E. L. Thorndike 4. Kathy’s heart rate increases every time she goes down a certain hallway at school. The boy that she likes has a locker in that hallway, and he often stands beside his locker and talks with friends. In the preceding scenario, what is most likely the unconditioned stimulus? a. Kathy’s heart rate b. Kathy’s attraction for the boy c. The hallway where the boy’s locker is located d. The boy 5. Several weeks ago, Jonathan bought a new car. For the first few weeks, the buzzer went off every time he started the car because he had forgotten to buckle his seatbelt. Now, he always buckles his seatbelt as soon as he sits down, before starting the car. Which of the following is Jonathan’s conditioned response? a. Starting the car prior to buckling his seatbelt b. Feeling annoyed at the sound of the buzzer c. Buckling his seatbelt in response to the sound of the buzzer d. Buckling his seatbelt as soon as he sits in the car 6. A social studies teacher frequently ignores the quiet child in the social studies class. As time passes, the quiet child becomes restless and disruptive whenever she is in the social studies classroom, even when a substitute teacher is in charge. Which of the following is the conditioned stimulus? a. Being in the social studies classroom b. The child’s feelings of restlessness c. The teacher’s tendency to ignore the child d. The child’s restless and disruptive behavior 7. Isaac runs to the door whenever he hears a car pull into the driveway during the late afternoon. This is when Isaac’s dad usually comes home from work. Isaac never runs to the door during the morning, and he never runs to the door if he hears a truck. Isaac’s behavior can best be described as which of the following? a. Extinction b. Generalization c. Discrimination d. Desensitization 8. Which of the following scenarios best depicts negative reinforcement? a. A student raises her hand to answer a question. The teacher compliments the student for answering the question. The student continues to raise her hand to answer questions. b. A student raises her hand to answer a question. The teacher stops criticizing the student for not paying attention. The student continues to raise her hand to answer questions. c. A student answers a question incorrectly. The teacher criticizes the student for not paying attention. The student begins to pay attention and starts answering questions correctly. d. A student answers a question incorrectly. The teacher criticizes the student for not paying attention. The student stops trying to answer questions. 9. Which of the following scenarios best depicts positive reinforcement? a. A student raises her hand to answer a question. The teacher compliments the student for answering the question. The student continues to raise her hand to answer questions. b. A student raises her hand to answer a question. The teacher stops criticizing the student for not paying attention. The student continues to raise her hand to answer questions. c. A student answers a question incorrectly. The teacher criticizes the student for not paying attention. d. The student begins to pay attention and starts answering questions correctly. e. A student answers a question incorrectly. The teacher criticizes the student for not paying attention. The student stops trying to answer questions. 10. Alex loses his best friend, Tyler, when he tattles on Tyler at recess. Alex learns that tattling on friends is not a good idea. The loss of Tyler’s friendship is an example of: a. Positive reinforcer b. Classical conditioning c. Punishment d. None of the above 11. Applied behavior analysis involves applying the principles of classical conditioning to change human behavior. TRUE FALSE 12. The Premack principle states that a low-probability activity can serve as a reinforcer for a high-probability activity. TRUE FALSE 13. The uses of applied behavior analysis are especially important in doing all of the following except which one? A. Increasing desirable behavior B. Using prompts and shaping behavior C. Decreasing undesirable behavior D. Modifying involuntary responses 14. Under which of the following conditions, if any, is physical punishment of students recommended? A. When a student physically harms another student B. When a student physically harms or threatens a teacher C. When a student repeatedly misbehaves and no other form of punishment has been successful D. It is not recommended in any circumstance. 15. Physical punishment can lead to negative student behaviors including __________. A. fear, rage, and avoidance of school or particular teachers B. inability to focus attention C. increased misbehavior to get attention from teachers and classmates D. all of the above 16. A teacher who uses pop quizzes to reinforce good study behaviors is using which of the following schedules of reinforcement? A. Fixed-interval B. Fixed-ratio C. Variable-interval D. Variable-ratio 17. The belief that one can master a situation and produce positive outcomes is _________. A. self-esteem B. self-efficacy C. self-regulation D. self-reinforcement 18. Summarize the four steps proposed by Zimmerman et al. for turning low self-regulatory learners into those who engage in multi-step strategies characteristic of high self-regulatory learners. 19. Mrs. Toledo knows that it is difficult for kindergarteners to perform all of the routines of the classroom perfectly right away. Thus, at the beginning of the year, she gives all of her students some stickers on the sticker board for performing at least 3 out of the 12 tasks required in the classroom correctly even if they have not yet mastered the others. Slowly throughout the year, Mrs. Toledo increases the number of tasks that the students must do in order to receive the stickers, and by the end of the year the students are performing all of the 12 tasks correctly and receiving their stickers. In this scenario, what is Mrs. Toledo using to encourage her students to learn all of the tasks required? 20. Matthew’s teacher praised him for how well he was behaving, she especially commented on how quietly he had completed his spelling assignment. She told all of the other students that they should all follow Matthew’s lead. Matthew was very excited about his teacher’s comment. Throughout the day, although the class was no longer working on spelling, Matthew continued to behave well. Using applied behavioral analysis, discuss why Matthew’s behavior continued through the day.