Chapter 7 Behavioral Approaches Download

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Name:__________________________________________
Chapter 7
Behavioral Approaches
1. Which of the following scenarios provides the best example of a mental process?
a. A child draws a picture of a car.
b. A child plays the violin.
c. A child tries to decide which crayon to use next.
d. A child runs home from school.
2. In classical conditioning, a generalization occurs when:
a. A previously reinforced response is no longer reinforced but continues to be
observed.
b. A previously reinforced response is no longer reinforced, and the response
decreases.
c. A decrease occurs in the frequency of an undesired response.
d. It involves the tendency of a new stimulus similar to the original stimulus to elicit a
similar response.
3. Which of the following individuals proposed the law of effect stating that behaviors
followed by positive outcomes are strengthened, while behaviors followed by negative
outcomes are weakened?
a.
Ivan Pavlov
b.
David Premack
c.
B. F. Skinner
d.
E. L. Thorndike
4. Kathy’s heart rate increases every time she goes down a certain hallway at school. The boy
that she likes has a locker in that hallway, and he often stands beside his locker and talks
with friends. In the preceding scenario, what is most likely the unconditioned stimulus?
a.
Kathy’s heart rate
b.
Kathy’s attraction for the boy
c.
The hallway where the boy’s locker is located
d.
The boy
5. Several weeks ago, Jonathan bought a new car. For the first few weeks, the buzzer went off
every time he started the car because he had forgotten to buckle his seatbelt. Now, he always
buckles his seatbelt as soon as he sits down, before starting the car. Which of the following
is Jonathan’s conditioned response?
a.
Starting the car prior to buckling his seatbelt
b.
Feeling annoyed at the sound of the buzzer
c.
Buckling his seatbelt in response to the sound of the buzzer
d.
Buckling his seatbelt as soon as he sits in the car
6. A social studies teacher frequently ignores the quiet child in the social studies class. As time
passes, the quiet child becomes restless and disruptive whenever she is in the social studies
classroom, even when a substitute teacher is in charge. Which of the following is the
conditioned stimulus?
a.
Being in the social studies classroom
b.
The child’s feelings of restlessness
c.
The teacher’s tendency to ignore the child
d.
The child’s restless and disruptive behavior
7. Isaac runs to the door whenever he hears a car pull into the driveway during the late
afternoon. This is when Isaac’s dad usually comes home from work. Isaac never runs to the
door during the morning, and he never runs to the door if he hears a truck. Isaac’s behavior
can best be described as which of the following?
a.
Extinction
b.
Generalization
c.
Discrimination
d.
Desensitization
8. Which of the following scenarios best depicts negative reinforcement?
a. A student raises her hand to answer a question. The teacher compliments the student
for answering the question. The student continues to raise her hand to answer
questions.
b. A student raises her hand to answer a question. The teacher stops criticizing the
student for not paying attention. The student continues to raise her hand to answer
questions.
c. A student answers a question incorrectly. The teacher criticizes the student for not
paying attention. The student begins to pay attention and starts answering questions
correctly.
d. A student answers a question incorrectly. The teacher criticizes the student for not
paying attention. The student stops trying to answer questions.
9. Which of the following scenarios best depicts positive reinforcement?
a. A student raises her hand to answer a question. The teacher compliments the student
for answering the question. The student continues to raise her hand to answer
questions.
b. A student raises her hand to answer a question. The teacher stops criticizing the
student for not paying attention. The student continues to raise her hand to answer
questions.
c. A student answers a question incorrectly. The teacher criticizes the student for not
paying attention.
d. The student begins to pay attention and starts answering questions correctly.
e. A student answers a question incorrectly. The teacher criticizes the student for not
paying attention. The student stops trying to answer questions.
10. Alex loses his best friend, Tyler, when he tattles on Tyler at recess. Alex learns that tattling
on friends is not a good idea. The loss of Tyler’s friendship is an example of:
a.
Positive reinforcer
b.
Classical conditioning
c.
Punishment
d.
None of the above
11. Applied behavior analysis involves applying the principles of classical conditioning to
change human behavior.
TRUE
FALSE
12. The Premack principle states that a low-probability activity can serve as a reinforcer for a
high-probability activity.
TRUE
FALSE
13. The uses of applied behavior analysis are especially important in doing all of the following
except which one?
A. Increasing desirable behavior
B. Using prompts and shaping behavior
C. Decreasing undesirable behavior
D. Modifying involuntary responses
14. Under which of the following conditions, if any, is physical punishment of students
recommended?
A. When a student physically harms another student
B. When a student physically harms or threatens a teacher
C. When a student repeatedly misbehaves and no other form of punishment has been
successful
D. It is not recommended in any circumstance.
15. Physical punishment can lead to negative student behaviors including __________.
A. fear, rage, and avoidance of school or particular teachers
B. inability to focus attention
C. increased misbehavior to get attention from teachers and classmates
D. all of the above
16. A teacher who uses pop quizzes to reinforce good study behaviors is using which of the
following schedules of reinforcement?
A. Fixed-interval
B. Fixed-ratio
C. Variable-interval
D. Variable-ratio
17. The belief that one can master a situation and produce positive outcomes is _________.
A. self-esteem
B. self-efficacy
C. self-regulation
D. self-reinforcement
18. Summarize the four steps proposed by Zimmerman et al. for turning low self-regulatory
learners into those who engage in multi-step strategies characteristic of high self-regulatory
learners.
19. Mrs. Toledo knows that it is difficult for kindergarteners to perform all of the routines of the
classroom perfectly right away. Thus, at the beginning of the year, she gives all of her
students some stickers on the sticker board for performing at least 3 out of the 12 tasks
required in the classroom correctly even if they have not yet mastered the others. Slowly
throughout the year, Mrs. Toledo increases the number of tasks that the students must do in
order to receive the stickers, and by the end of the year the students are performing all of the
12 tasks correctly and receiving their stickers. In this scenario, what is Mrs. Toledo using to
encourage her students to learn all of the tasks required?
20. Matthew’s teacher praised him for how well he was behaving, she especially commented on
how quietly he had completed his spelling assignment. She told all of the other students that
they should all follow Matthew’s lead. Matthew was very excited about his teacher’s
comment. Throughout the day, although the class was no longer working on spelling,
Matthew continued to behave well. Using applied behavioral analysis, discuss why
Matthew’s behavior continued through the day.