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Knee joint

It consists of:

Articulation between femur and tibia.

Articulation between patella and femur.
Articular surfaces

Two femoral condyles.

Superior aspect of tibial condyles.
Menisci

Medial meniscus.

Lateral meniscus.
Synovial membrane

Infrapatellar fat pad.

Alar fold.

Infrapatellar synovial fold.



2 pouches:
Subpopliteal recess.
Suprapatellar bursa.
Fibrous membrane

Medially: blends with tibial collateral
ligament and attached to medial meniscus.

Laterally: separated from fibular collateral
ligament and not attached to lateral
meniscus.

Anteriorly: attached to patella.

Oblique popliteal ligament.
Ligaments
Patellar ligament
Collateral ligaments

Fibular collateral ligament.

Tibial collateral ligament.
Cruciate ligaments

Anterior cruciate ligament.

Posterior cruciate ligament.
Vascular supply and innervation
Tibiofibular joint
Popliteal fossa

Boundaries: is a diamond-shaped space.

Upper part:


Medially: semitendinosus and semimembranosus.
Laterally: biceps femoris.

Lower part:


Medially: medial head of gastrocnemius.
Laterally: plantaris and lateral head of gastrocnemius.

Floor:


Superiorly: capsule of knee joint and adjacent surfaces of
femur and tibia.
Inferiorly: popliteus.

Roof: deep fascia.
Contents
Tibial and common fibular nerves

Tibial nerve: descends through popliteal
fossa and exits deep to margin of plantaris
to enter posterior compartment of leg.

Common fibular nerve: follow biceps
femoris tendon over lower lateral margin of
popliteal fossa, and continues to lateral side
of leg to enter lateral compartment of leg.
Popliteal artery and vein
Roof of popliteal fossa

Proximally: structures pass between thigh
and leg through popliteal fossa.

Distally: structures pass between leg and
foot through tarsal tunnel on posteromedial
side of ankle, except anterior tibial artery
and the ends of deep and superficial
peroneal (fibular) nerves.

Fibula.

Tibia.

Leg is divided into anterior (extensor),
posterior (flexor), and lateral (fibular or
peroneal) compartments by:

Interosseous membrane between tibia and
fibula.

Two intermuscular septa between fibula and
deep fascia.

Direct attachment of deep fascia to the
anterior and medial borders of tibia.
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