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Long term effects of
training/exercise
Heart
Circulatory
system
muscles
Breathing
Long term
effects of
training/
exercise
‘Feel good’
Body
composition
Rate of
recovery
HEART
Larger, stronger heart chambers
Stronger heart beat – more efficient
circulation
Lower resting heart rate – greater
capacity for work
Stroke volume – can be double that of an
untrained athlete
Cardiac output – larger stroke volume
increases the blood processed per minute
A healthy heart is so strong that it is
almost never a cause of tiredness
during exercise.
Tiredness during exercise comes from
your muscles. They run out of fuel or
out of oxygen. Skeletal muscles use
both fat and sugar for energy.
When your muscles run out of their
stored sugar supply, called glycogen,
they cannot contract and function
adequately. You feel tired, your
muscles hurt and you have difficulty
coordinating them.
On the other hand, your heart muscle
gets energy directly from fat and
sugar in your blood and even from a
breakdown product of metabolism
called lactic acid. It is virtually
impossible for the heart muscle to run
out of fuel unless you are starving to
death.
BREATHING
Lung capacity increased
Increased number of alveoli in lungs
This allows a greater volume of air to pass into
blood stream
We can therefore maintain higher levels of
activity for longer and are less likely to become
breathless when performing normal daily tasks
Gaseous exchange is improved so that CO2 and
other waste products are removed more
efficiently.
This also improves our anaerobic capacity
BODY COMPOSITION
Bones become stronger due to
increased calcium production
Muscles and their tendons become
stronger & more elastic
With aerobic exercise body uses fat
more efficiently as fuel instead of
carbohydrate (leads to loss of
bodyweight)
RATE OF RECOVERY
Faster repayment of o2 debt and
removal of lactic acid
Recovery rate accelerated allowing
us to cope with increased physical
demands
This capacity grows (adaptability &
progression) with training
CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
Arteries become larger and more elastic
Blood pressure reduced
More red blood cells produce more
haemoglobin
Lower levels of fat in the blood as the
body has learned to utilise it as fuel
Increased capacity to process lactic acid
during exercise
MUSCLES
Become larger (hypertrophy)
Growth governed by type of activity (heavy
weights = muscle size, lighter weights = muscle
endurance)
Fast twitch muscle fibres increase in size with
speed work
Increased network of blood vessels improves the
supply of blood to the muscles (vascularisation)
Muscle cells store larger amounts of energy
Tendons and ligaments become stronger and
more flexible
‘FEEL GOOD’
A fitter, healthier body
An improved sense of well being
Stronger bones
More elastic tendons and muscles
Increased range of movement
Better and more regular patterns of sleep
A healthier appetite
More positive attitude to life and work
Less susceptible to every day illnesses,
aches and pains
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