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Mosses and Ferns
• How did they evolve from Protists?
Moss and Fern Life Cycles
Group 1: Seedless, Nonvascular Plants
• Live in moist
environments to
reproduce
• Grow low to ground to
retain moisture
(nonvascular)
• Lack true leaves
• Common pioneer
species during
succession
• Gametophyte most
common (dominant)
• Ex: Mosses, liverworts,
hornworts
Moss Life Cycle
1)Moss
gametophytes
grow near the
ground
(haploid stage)
2) Through water,
sperm from the male
gametophyte will
swim to the female
gametophyte to
create a diploid
zygote
3) Diploid sporophyte
will grow from zygote
Diploid
sporophyte
4) Sporophyte will
create and release
haploid spores
...
zygo
egg
te
zygo
egg
te
zygo
egg
te
male male
female
zygo
egg
te
female female
male
Haploid gametophytes
female male
5) Haploid
spores land
and grow into
new
gametophytes
6) The process
repeats
ground
Haploid gametophytes
...
sporophyte
zygo
egg
te
zygo
egg
te
zygo
egg
te
male male
female
zygo
egg
te
female female
male
Haploid gametophytes
female male
Group 2: Seedless,
Vascular Plants
• Vascular system allows
– Taller growth
– Nutrient transportation
• Live in moist
environments
– swimming sperm
• Gametophyte stage
– Male gametophyte: makes
sperm
– Female gametophyte: makes
eggs
– Sperm swims to fertilize eggs
• Sporophyte stage
– Spores released into air
– Spores land and grow into
gametophyte
• Ex: Ferns, Club mosses,
Horsetails
Fern Life Cycle
1) Sporophyte creates and releases haploid spores
Adult
Sporophyte
.
.
. .
ground
2) Haploid spores land in the soil
ground
3) From the haploid spores, gametophyte grows in the soil
Let’s zoom in
Fern gametophytes
are called a prothallus
ground
4) Sperm swim through water from the male parts (antheridium) to the female parts
(archegonia)…zygote created
Let’s zoom back out
zygo
egg
te
zygo
egg
te
zygo
egg
te
5) Diploid sporophyte grows from the zygote
sporophyte
Fern gametophytes
are called a prothallus
ground
6) Fiddle head uncurls….fronds open up
7) Cycle repeats
-- Haploid spores created and released
.
.
fiddlehead
frond
.
ground
.
2) Haploid spores land in the soil
ground
3) From the haploid spores, gametophyte (called the prothallus) grows in the soil
Let’s zoom in
ground
4) Sperm swim through water from the male antheridium to the female archegonia
Let’s zoom back out
zygo
egg
te
zygo
egg
te
zygo
egg
te
5) Diploid sporophyte grows from the zygote
fiddlehead
sporophyte
ground
6) Fiddlehead uncurls….fronds open up.
7) Cycle repeats
.
.
.
ground
.
Moss & Fern Quiz
1) Why do moss grow so low to the ground?
2) Which stage is the main stage of moss: sporophyte or
gametophyte?
3) How do moss reproduce?
4) What is the major difference between moss and ferns?
5) What are the leaves of ferns called?
6) What is needed for moss and ferns to reproduce?
7) Which stage is the main stage of ferns: sporophyte or
gametophyte?
8) What stage is created when sperm and egg fuse: sporophyte or
gametophyte?
9) Name the gametophytes of ferns.