Mosses and Ferns • How did they evolve from Protists? Moss and Fern Life Cycles Group 1: Seedless, Nonvascular Plants • Live in moist environments to reproduce • Grow low to ground to retain moisture (nonvascular) • Lack true leaves • Common pioneer species during succession • Gametophyte most common (dominant) • Ex: Mosses, liverworts, hornworts Moss Life Cycle 1)Moss gametophytes grow near the ground (haploid stage) 2) Through water, sperm from the male gametophyte will swim to the female gametophyte to create a diploid zygote 3) Diploid sporophyte will grow from zygote Diploid sporophyte 4) Sporophyte will create and release haploid spores ... zygo egg te zygo egg te zygo egg te male male female zygo egg te female female male Haploid gametophytes female male 5) Haploid spores land and grow into new gametophytes 6) The process repeats ground Haploid gametophytes ... sporophyte zygo egg te zygo egg te zygo egg te male male female zygo egg te female female male Haploid gametophytes female male Group 2: Seedless, Vascular Plants • Vascular system allows – Taller growth – Nutrient transportation • Live in moist environments – swimming sperm • Gametophyte stage – Male gametophyte: makes sperm – Female gametophyte: makes eggs – Sperm swims to fertilize eggs • Sporophyte stage – Spores released into air – Spores land and grow into gametophyte • Ex: Ferns, Club mosses, Horsetails Fern Life Cycle 1) Sporophyte creates and releases haploid spores Adult Sporophyte . . . . ground 2) Haploid spores land in the soil ground 3) From the haploid spores, gametophyte grows in the soil Let’s zoom in Fern gametophytes are called a prothallus ground 4) Sperm swim through water from the male parts (antheridium) to the female parts (archegonia)…zygote created Let’s zoom back out zygo egg te zygo egg te zygo egg te 5) Diploid sporophyte grows from the zygote sporophyte Fern gametophytes are called a prothallus ground 6) Fiddle head uncurls….fronds open up 7) Cycle repeats -- Haploid spores created and released . . fiddlehead frond . ground . 2) Haploid spores land in the soil ground 3) From the haploid spores, gametophyte (called the prothallus) grows in the soil Let’s zoom in ground 4) Sperm swim through water from the male antheridium to the female archegonia Let’s zoom back out zygo egg te zygo egg te zygo egg te 5) Diploid sporophyte grows from the zygote fiddlehead sporophyte ground 6) Fiddlehead uncurls….fronds open up. 7) Cycle repeats . . . ground . Moss & Fern Quiz 1) Why do moss grow so low to the ground? 2) Which stage is the main stage of moss: sporophyte or gametophyte? 3) How do moss reproduce? 4) What is the major difference between moss and ferns? 5) What are the leaves of ferns called? 6) What is needed for moss and ferns to reproduce? 7) Which stage is the main stage of ferns: sporophyte or gametophyte? 8) What stage is created when sperm and egg fuse: sporophyte or gametophyte? 9) Name the gametophytes of ferns.