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BY
Mrs. Rand Omran Alastal
11-0
Robbins & Judge
Organizational Behavior
14th Edition
Communication
Kelli J. Schutte
William Jewell College
11-1
After studying this chapter you should be able to:
1. Identify the main functions of communication.
2. Describe the communication process and distinguish
between formal and informal communication.
3. Contrast downward, upward, and lateral communication
with examples.
4. Contrast oral, written, and nonverbal communication.
5. Contrast formal communication networks and the
grapevine.
6. Analyze the advantages and challenges of electronic
communication.
7. Show how channel richness underlies the choice of
communication channel.
8. Identify common barriers to effective communication.
9. Show how to overcome the potential problems in crosscultural communication.
11-2
content
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1.functions of communication
2. the communication process
3. direction of communication
4. interpersonal communication
5. organizational communication
6. choice of communication channel
7. persuasive communication
8. barriers to effective communication
9. global implications
10. Summary and implications for managers
1-3
1. Functions of Communication
 Define the communication? What are the main
functions of communication?
 Communication
The transference and understanding of meaning
 Communication Functions
1. Control member behavior
2. Foster motivation for what is to be done
3. Provide a release for emotional expression
4. Provide information needed to make decisions
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2. The Communication Process
 Communication Process
The steps between a source and a receiver that
result in the transference and understanding of
meaning
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What are the Key Parts of Communication Process?
1. The Sender – initiates message
2. Encoding – translating thought to message
3. The Message – what is communicated
4. The Channel – the medium the message travels through
5. Decoding – the receiver’s action in making sense of the
message
6. The Receiver – person who gets the message
7. Noise – things that interfere with the message
8. Feedback – a return message regarding the initial
communication
11-6
What is channel?
What are the types of Communication Channels?
 Channel
The medium selected by the sender through which
the message travels to the receiver
 Types of Channels
1. Formal Channels: Are established by the
organization and transmit messages that are
related to the professional activities of members
2. Informal Channels: Used to transmit personal or
social messages in the organization. These
informal channels are spontaneous and emerge as
a response to individual choices
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3. Direction of Communication
CEO
U
P
W
A
R
D
VP
Mgr
VP
Mgr
Mgr
Mgr
D
O
W
N
W
A
R
D
LATERAL
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4. Interpersonal Communication
 1. Oral Communication
– Advantages: Speed and feedback
– Disadvantage: Distortion of the message
 2. Written Communication
– Advantages: Tangible and verifiable
– Disadvantages: Time consuming and lacks feedback
 3. Nonverbal Communication
– Advantages: Supports other communications and provides
observable expression of emotions and feelings
– Disadvantage: Misperception of body language or gestures
can influence receiver’s interpretation of message
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Forms of Nonverbal Communication
 Body Movement
Unconscious motions that provide meaning
Shows extent of interest in another and relative
perceived status differences
 Intonations and Voice Emphasis
The way something is said can change meaning
 Facial Expressions
Show emotion
 Physical Distance between Sender and Receiver
Depends on cultural norms
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Can express interest or status
5. Three Common Formal Small-Group Networks
 1. Chain:
Rigidly follows the chain of command
 2. Wheel:
Relies on a central figure to act as the
conduit for all communication
Team with a strong leader
 3. All Channel: mix
All group members communicate actively
with each other
Self-managed teams
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Small Group Network Effectiveness
 Small group effectiveness depends on the
desired outcome variable
TYPES OF NETWORKS
Criteria
Chain
Wheel
All Channel
Speed
Moderate
Fast
Fast
Accuracy
High
High
Moderate
Emergence of a leader
Moderate
High
None
Member satisfaction
Moderate
Low
High
 Definition of Grapevine
 An organization’s informal communication
network.
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The Grapevine
 Three Main Grapevine Characteristics
1. Informal, not controlled by management
2. Perceived by most employees as being more believable
and reliable than formal communications
3. Largely used to serve the self-interests of those who use
it
 Results from:
– Desire for information about important situations
– Ambiguous conditions
– Conditions that cause anxiety
 Insightful to managers
 Serves employee’s social needs
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Reducing Rumors
1. Announce timetables for making important
decisions
2. Explain decisions and behaviors that may appear
inconsistent or secretive
3. Emphasize the downside, as well as the upside, of
current decisions and future plans
4. Openly discuss worst-case possibilities—they are
almost never as anxiety-provoking as the
unspoken fantasy
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Electronic communications
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
E-mail
Instant messaging and text messaging
Social networking
Blog
Twitter (tweets)
Video conferencing
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E-mail
 E-mail: use internet to transmit and receive computer
generated text and documents.
 Advantages:
quickly written, sent, and stored; low cost for distribution
 Disadvantages:
1. Messages are easily and commonly misinterpreted
2. Not appropriate for sending negative messages
3. Overused and overloading readers
4. Removes inhibitions and can cause emotional responses and
flaming
5. Difficult to “get” emotional state understood – emoticons
6. Non-private: e-mail is often monitored and may be forwarded
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to anyone
Instant/Text Messaging
 Forms of “real time” communication of short messages
that often use portable communication devices.
1. Explosive growth in business use
2. Fast and inexpensive means of communication
3. Can be intrusive and distracting
4. Easily “hacked” with weak security
5. Can be seen as too informal
 Instant Messaging
Immediate e-mail sent to receiver’s desktop or device
 Text Messages
Short messages typically sent to cell phones or other handheld
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devices
Social Networking Software
 Linked systems organically spread throughout the
nation and world that can be accessed by a PC
 Includes:
– Social networks like MySpace, linkedin and Facebook
– Professional networks like Zoominfo and Ziggs
– Corporate networks such as IBM’s BluePages
 Key Points:
– These are public spaces – anyone can see what you post
– Can be used for job application screening
– Avoid “overstimulation” your contacts
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Electronic Comms: Blogs and Videoconferencing
 Blogs:
Web sites about a single person (or entity) that are
typically updated daily
A popular, but potentially dangerous activity:
– Employees may post harmful information
– Such comments may be cause for dismissal
– No First Amendment rights protection
– Can be against company policy to post in a blog during
company time and on company equipment/connections
 Videoconferencing:
uses live audio and video Internet streaming to create
virtual meetings
Now uses inexpensive webcams and laptops in place of
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formal videoconferencing rooms
6. Choice of Communication Channel
 The model of “media richness” helps explain an
individual’s choice of communication channel
– Channels vary in their capacity to convey information
 A “rich” channel is one that can:
– 1. Handle multiple cues simultaneously
– 2. Facilitate rapid feedback
– 3. Be very personal
 Choice depends on whether the message is routine
 High-performing managers tend to be very mediasensitive
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Information richness and communication channels
Low channel richness
High channel richness
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7. Persuasive communication
1. Automatic and controlled
processing
2. Interest level
3. Prior knowledge
4. Personality
5. Message characteristics
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8. The main Barriers to Effective Communication(8)
 1. Filtering
– A sender’s manipulation of information so that it will be
seen more favorably by the receiver
 2. Selective Perception
– People selectively interpret what they see on the basis
of their interests, background, experience, and
attitudes
 3. Information Overload
– A condition in which information inflow exceeds an
individual’s processing capacity
 4. Emotions
– How a receiver feels at the time a message is
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received will influence how the message is interpreted
Cont.
 5. Language
– Words have different meanings to different people
 7. silence
 8. Communication Apprehension
– Undue tension and anxiety about oral
communication, written communication, or both
 9. lying
 10. Gender Differences
– Men tend to talk to emphasize status while women
talk to create connections
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9.Global Implications
 Cross-cultural factors increase communication difficulties
 Cultural Barriers:
– Semantics: some words aren’t translatable
– Word Connotations: some words imply multiple meanings beyond
their definitions
– Tone Differences: the acceptable level of formality of language
– Perception Differences: language affects worldview
 Cultural Context:
– The importance of social context to meaning
– Low-context cultures (like the U.S.) rely on words for meaning
– High-context cultures gain meaning from the whole situation
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Body Language Issues
All of these common U.S. hand signs are offensive
somewhere in the world.
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A Cultural Guide
 To reduce your chance of making a faux pas in
another culture, err on the side of caution by:
1. Assuming differences until similarity is proven
2. Emphasizing description rather than interpretation or
evaluation
3. Practicing empathy in communication
4. Treating your interpretations as a working
hypothesis
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10.Summary and Managerial Implications
 The less employees are uncertain, the greater
their satisfaction; good communication
reduces uncertainty!
 Communication is improved by:
– Choosing the correct channel
– Being a good listener
– Using feedback
 Potential for misunderstanding in electronic
communication is higher than for traditional
modes
 There are many barriers to international
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communication that must be overcome
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