Contemporary Society Download

Transcript
Test Bank
for
Contemporary Society
An Introduction to Social Science
Twelfth Edition
John A. Perry
Emeritus, Cuyahoga Community College
Erna K. Perry
Boston New York San Francisco
Mexico City Montreal Toronto London Madrid Munich Paris
Hong Kong Singapore Tokyo Cape Town Sydney
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved. The contents, or parts thereof, may be reproduced with Contemporary
Society: An Introduction to Social Science, Twelfth Edition, by John A. Perry and Erna K. Perry,
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ISBN-13: 978-0-205-57915-0
ISBN-10:
0-205-57915-9
Printed in the United States of America
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
12 11 10 09 08
Test Bank Contents
Chapter 1
1
Chapter 2
15
Chapter 3
31
Chapter 4
46
Chapter 5
62
Chapter 6
76
Chapter 7
91
Chapter 8
109
Chapter 9
125
Chapter 10
139
Chapter 11
157
Chapter 12
174
Chapter 13
192
Chapter 14
209
Chapter 15
226
Chapter 16
239
Chapter 17
256
Chapter 18
273
Chapter 19
290
TEST BANK
Chapter 1 Through the Lens of Science
1.1 True/False Questions
1) The scientific method may be considered apart from science
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 5
2) Selecting an area to be researched and defining the problem to be investigated are steps that are taken for granted
and, therefore, are unimportant.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 7
3) Researchers use their senses and precision instruments such as computers to observe and record the subject under
investigation.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 8
4) Only selected social sciences study human societies and human behavior.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 9
5) Sociology deals with the study and comparison of preliterate societies.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 13
6) Economics is concerned with the universal problem of scarce resources and how T societies and individuals deal
with this problem.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 11
7) Specialization results from the attempt to learn as much as possible about a small portion of knowledge–all social
sciences study the same subject.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 9
8) It is as easy to study people as it is to study inanimate objects or other animals.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 21
9) In participant observation, the researcher studies the subject in a laboratory setting.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 17
10) Participant observation is the social scientist's most trusted method of research.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 17
11) Verification is an important step in the scientific method.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 9
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1
CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
12) Research is used mainly to refute theories.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 6
13) Concepts, theories, and research constitute the scientific spirit.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 5-6
14) Psychology and sociology both study individuals in interaction.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 13-14
15) In a cross-sectional study, a broad spectrum of the population is surveyed at a specific point in time.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 17
16) Descriptive statistics convey the central tendency of a group of numbers.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 19
17) The mean, the median, and the mode are concepts used in participant observation.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 19-20
18) Controlling variables and observing the results is part of the case study.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 19
19) A longitudinal study is a survey taken on the same day throughout the country.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 17
20) Systematically and methodically are key words in scientific investigation.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 5
1.2 Multiple-Choice Questions
1) In defining the social sciences, which of the following phrases is the most appropriate:
A) rules for behavior
B) social philosophy
C) systematic and methodical study
D) study of individual behavior
Answer: C
Page Ref: 2
2) The research method in which the researcher controls one variable and observes and records the results is called:
A) case study
B) observation
C) experiment
D) social research
Answer: C
Page Ref: 19
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2
TEST BANK
3) A detailed investigation of a single social unit in order to study it in depth is:
A) a case study
B) participant observation
C) sample survey
D) laboratory experiment
Answer: A
Page Ref: 17
4) Human beings are born into a social world that is:
A) not of their own making
B) newly created in each generation
C) the result of cultural development over previous generations
D) totally beyond their control
Answer: C
Page Ref: 1
5) People manipulate the social world, which helps them to:
A) change the nature of the physical environment
B) adapt to the environment
C) take over the environment
D) regulate the environment
Answer: B
Page Ref: 2
6) Scientific conclusions are:
A) relative to time and place of study and subject to revision
B) absolute truths for all times
C) universally accepted
D) personal opinions of important scholars
Answer: A
Page Ref: 9
7) Scientific observations are based on:
A) controlled conditions
B) precision
C) organization of the data
D) none of the above
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 7-9
8) The social sciences have:
A) more control over data than physics
B) complete objectivity
C) problems with studying people in laboratories
D) been accepted as equally valid as the physical sciences
Answer: C
Page Ref: 21
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3
CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
9) Scientists start an investigation with by:
A) selecting and defining a topic
B) verifying an hypothesis
C) analyzing data
D) replicating an experiment
Answer: A
Page Ref: 7
10) During the Enlightenment of the 18th century:
A) scholars emphasized the supernatural
B) scholars denied the possibility of a scientific study of humans
C) a number of scholars believed human social life could be studied scientifically
D) none of the above
Answer: C
Page Ref: 3
11) The Industrial Revolution:
A) eliminated social classes
B) made all social classes equal
C) created a class of industrial workers
D) none of the above
Answer: C
Page Ref: 4
12) Anthropology is restricted to the study of:
A) primitive peoples only
B) prehistoric peoples only
C) modern peoples only
D) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 10-11
13) Economics deals with:
A) production of goods and services
B) consumption of goods and services
C) distribution of goods and services
D) none of the above
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 11
14) The social science that deals with human use of the natural environment is:
A) genetics
B) geography
C) chemistry
D) physiology
Answer: B
Page Ref: 11
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4
TEST BANK
15) History is often NOT considered a social science because:
A) its primary concern is to record events of the past
B) historians do not use computers
C) it does not study people
D) it is not based on evidence
Answer: A
Page Ref: 12-13
16) Political science stresses the study of:
A) government
B) state
C) power
D) none of the above
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 13
17) Psychology deals with:
A) only violent behavior
B) only normal behavior
C) mental states of individual humans
D) groups of people in interaction
Answer: C
Page Ref: 13
18) The study of human group behavior is the definition of:
A) psychology
B) geology
C) sociology
D) none of the above
Answer: C
Page Ref: 13-14
19) Durkheim was one of the first scientific sociologists who studied:
A) suicide
B) mental illness
C) sex
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: A
Page Ref: 15
20) A theory is a:
A) scientific law
B) set of concepts and generalizations
C) speculation about truth and beauty
D) hunch regarding reality
Answer: B
Page Ref: 5-6
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
21) The social sciences lack:
A) theories
B) concepts
C) scientific laws
D) generalizations
Answer: C
Page Ref: 5
22) Scientific research relates to:
A) controlled inquiry
B) relationships among variables
C) consideration of independent and dependent variables
D) none of the above
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 5-7
23) A sample survey deals with:
A) an entire population
B) a statistically valid section of a population
C) eating samples at various supermarkets
D) asking people who walk by to fill out questionnaires
Answer: B
Page Ref: 16-17
24) An intensive study of an individual or a small group is made by using the following research method:
A) case study
B) crosssectional sample
C) longitudinal sample
D) experiment
Answer: A
Page Ref: 17
25) An anthropologist living with a group of people and engaging in some of their rituals is using the following
research method:
A) sample survey
B) participant observation
C) statistical survey
D) experiment
Answer: B
Page Ref: 17
26) Experiments are:
A) the most common method of social investigation
B) based on controlling a variable and observing the results
C) not used in the study of humans
D) valid only if performed on white mice
Answer: B
Page Ref: 19
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6
TEST BANK
27) Objectivity means:
A) precision
B) taking nothing for granted
C) eliminating bias
D) repeating observations
Answer: C
Page Ref: 9
28) Skepticism refers to:
A) impartiality
B) doubting
C) repetition
D) precision
Answer: B
Page Ref: 9
29) Once a social scientist has formulated the hypothesis, what is the next step of the scientific method?
A) Generalization
B) Developing a research design
C) Data analysis
D) Replication
Answer: B
Page Ref: 7
30) The scientific method contains all but one of the following techniques:
A) scientific observation
B) systematic collection of data
C) making data public
D) selecting data to prove a point
Answer: D
Page Ref: 5-9
31) The current trend in the social sciences is toward:
A) statistical and quantitative ways of investigating human behavior
B) a totally valuefree approach
C) using the findings of the social sciences to reform society
D) using whatever technique seems best to fit
Answer: D
Page Ref: 21
32) The study and comparative analysis of preliterate societies is one of the chief concerns of:
A) sociology
B) psychology
C) anthropology
D) history
Answer: C
Page Ref: 10-11
33) For the better part of recorded history, knowledge about social relationships was principally based on:
A) scientific investigation
B) speculation
C) inspiration
D) measurement
Answer: B
Page Ref: 2
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
34) Scientific observation in the social sciences differs from that in the natural sciences because:
A) the social sciences deal with the behavior of people
B) the social sciences deal with the extraterrestrial
C) the social sciences have developed concrete laws of behavior, while the natural sciences have only theories
D) people's behavior is predictable, while the behavior of inanimate objects is not
Answer: A
Page Ref: 21
35) Which of the following is FALSE? Scientific observation:
A) must proceed systematically
B) must occur under controlled conditions
C) yields valid data with classification, organization, or recording
D) is open to anyone who wants to pursue it
Answer: D
Page Ref: 5
36) All but WHICH of the following characteristics of humans led to the development of science?
A) Blushing
B) Curiosity
C) Fascination with the self
D) The use of reason
Answer: D
Page Ref: 4
37) It is true of science that:
A) it is a body of knowledge organized in a logical manner
B) it is not concerned with the method of acquiring knowledge
C) it does not include the method of investigation
D) its content is more important than its method
Answer: A
Page Ref: 3
38) The first step in the scientific method is:
A) obtaining a government grant
B) classification and organization of data
C) selection of area to be researched
D) observation and recording of data
Answer: C
Page Ref: 7
39) It is true that the differences among the social sciences:
A) are differences of vantage point
B) are a matter of stress
C) consist of the examination of various facets of a social universe
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 9
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8
TEST BANK
40) The scientific method in the social sciences:
A) is as effective as in the natural sciences
B) is hampered by difficulties in attaining objectivity
C) has led to great discoveries in the human knowledge of the physical universe
D) has been found to be totally useless
Answer: B
Page Ref: 9
41) Which of the following is NOT an example of a subject investigated by social scientists?
A) The functioning of supply and demand
B) Case study of an urban gay community
C) The interaction of various drugs in humans.
D) The course of population growth and decline
Answer: C
Page Ref: 9-15
42) Intuition, authority, tradition, and common sense:
A) have been totally replaced by the scientific method
B) are all equally valid tools of inquiry
C) are still used as tools of inquiry
D) are just as exact as the scientific method
Answer: C
Page Ref: 2
43) When gathering data, the scientist is required to exhibit all BUT which one of the following traits?
A) Courage
B) Patience
C) Ethical neutrality
D) Social involvement
Answer: D
Page Ref: 8- 9
44) The hypothesis is a statement of:
A) a universal truth
B) the scientist's conclusions
C) a tentative statement of a topic that is subject to testing
D) disagreement with a generally accepted theory
Answer: C
Page Ref: 7
45) The social sciences first emerged:
A) as a method of social control
B) as a search for universal social laws
C) to systematically apply common sense to issues
D) to defend the established order
Answer: B
Page Ref: 4
46) The social sciences were initially concerned with the consequences of:
A) the American Revolution
B) the French Revolution
C) the Russian Revolution
D) the Industrial Revolution
Answer: D
Page Ref: 4
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
47) Concepts in the social sciences:
A) resemble common-sense notions
B) reflect the biases of their authors
C) differ considerably from the generally understood versions
D) are vaguely defined
Answer: C
Page Ref: 5
48) Social science theories:
A) have the force of laws
B) are open to challenge
C) are little more than educated guesses
D) always express ideological preferences
Answer: B
Page Ref: 5
49) The social sciences have no laws because:
A) social scientists are a lawless group
B) social science research techniques are flawed
C) the various disciplines squabble among themselves
D) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 5
50) The opposite of a variable is a:
A) law
B) concept
C) value
D) constant
Answer: D
Page Ref: 7
51) Variables that exercise influence on other variables are called:
A) independent variables
B) constants
C) dependent variables
D) none of the above
Answer: C
Page Ref: 7
52) The scientist's skepticism extends to:
A) the value of scientific objectivity
B) his or her own credentials
C) his or her own findings
D) the usefulness of scientific inquiry
Answer: C
Page Ref: 9
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10
TEST BANK
53) Ethical neutrality is the opposite of:
A) objectivity
B) judgmental social science
C) generalization
D) participant observation
Answer: B
Page Ref: 9
54) A trained observer:
A) knows what to expect
B) knows which data are relevant to the research problem
C) records everything that he or she sees
D) is most at home in experimental settings
Answer: B
Page Ref: 5
55) A case study is most useful when:
A) limited research funds are available
B) no hypothesis can be formulated
C) events under consideration are rare
D) facts must be established
Answer: D
Page Ref: 17
56) Experiments:
A) are conducted in both field and laboratory settings
B) involve the risk that people may modify their behavior
C) must involve control groups of some kind
D) all of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 19
57) Correlation differs from causation in that correlation:
A) precedes causation
B) only indicates a probable relation
C) occurs purely by chance
D) occurs among more than two variables
Answer: C
Page Ref: 7
58) A researcher will settle for pinpointing a correlation when:
A) a causal relationship is of no consequence
B) a causal relationship is difficult to prove
C) variables are vaguely defined
D) research monies are not forthcoming
Answer: A
Page Ref: 7
59) Every hypothesis must:
A) predict a relationship between two factors
B) be general
C) be based on scientific theory
D) predict a causal relationship
Answer: A
Page Ref: 7
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
60) Repeating a research project is called:
A) verification
B) generalization
C) replication
D) validation
Answer: C
Page Ref: 9
61) The study of traits that appear in specific populations as adaptations to specific environments is called:
A) physical anthropology
B) cultural anthropology
C) demography
D) psychology
Answer: A
Page Ref: 10
62) Furnishing historical data about past societies with no written records is the task of:
A) archaeology
B) cultural geography
C) history
D) ornithology
Answer: A
Page Ref: 11
63) Political science has taken a turn toward the social sciences in its studies of:
A) law and administration
B) the moral effects of government policies
C) work as a source of identity
D) the social impact of government on groups and individuals
Answer: D
Page Ref: 13
64) The most experimental of the social sciences is:
A) sociology
B) psychology
C) archaeology
D) economics
Answer: B
Page Ref: 13
65) If a broad spectrum of the population is surveyed at a given time, the study is called:
A) longitudinal
B) inferential
C) descriptive
D) cross sectional
Answer: D
Page Ref: 17
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12
TEST BANK
66) The totality of the phenomenon under study is called the:
A) population
B) universe
C) sample
D) inferential
Answer: A
Page Ref: 16-17
67) Participant observation:
A) is exclusively used by anthropologists
B) requires the researcher to disguise his or her identity
C) involves experimental controls
D) may compromise the objectivity of the researcher
Answer: D
Page Ref: 17
68) If we add the numerical values of all our cases together and divide by the number of cases, we get the:
A) median
B) mode
C) mean
D) moot
Answer: C
Page Ref: 19-20
69) Statistics that allow researchers to generalize to a population from a sample are called:
A) correlational
B) descriptive
C) inferential
D) longitudinal
Answer: C
Page Ref: 20
70) Descriptive statistics:
A) permit researchers to generalize from samples
B) convey information about central tendency
C) allow researchers to test hypotheses
D) convey information about atypical behavior
Answer: B
Page Ref: 20
71) Types of survey data include:
A) questionnaires
B) personal interviews
C) previously gathered statistical information
D) all of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 16-17
72) Anthropologists have developed:
A) laws governing ancient societies
B) a number of theories
C) methods of explaining human behavior
D) none of the above
Answer: B
Page Ref: 10
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
73) The classical, neoclassical, monetarist, Keynesian refers to the discipline of:
A) economics
B) anthropology
C) sociology
D) psychology
Answer: A
Page Ref: 11
74) The discipline that studies such disparate subjects as the environment, religion, politics, criminality,
organization, and so on, is:
A) history
B) sociology
C) political science
D) psychology
Answer: B
Page Ref: 13
75) Symbolic interactionism, functionalism, conflict, feminism, exchange are:
A) economic theories
B) issues in psychology
C) theoretical models used by sociologists and anthropologists
D) the vocabulary of computer science
Answer: C
Page Ref: 10-13
1.3 Essay Questions
1) If you were a social scientist and you wanted to establish the existence of a relationship between single
parenthood and social class, what kind of a research design would you choose? Explain why your particular choice
is the best, as well as the steps you will have to follow.
Answer:
Page Ref:
2) There has been pressure on a number of state legislatures to give legal status to gay and lesbian unions, and a few
states have done so. You, as a social scientist, are conducting research on how the American people feel about the
issue. How do you go about it? Do your feelings interfere with the way you form your questions? With the way you
report the answers?
Answer:
Page Ref:
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14
TEST BANK
Chapter 2 In the Beginning…
2.1 True/False Questions
1) Life on earth began on dry land and moved into the oceans.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 27
2) The advantage of mammals was that they were larger than the reptiles.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 37
3) Mammals took to the trees as a result of climatic changes on earth.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 37
4) Prosimians developed grasping hands with which they hung onto branches.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 37
5) The first hominid appeared on earth some 90 million years ago.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 38
6) Humans evolved in a straight line from prosimian to Ramapithecus.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 37
7) Homo sapiens is descended from monkeys.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 38
8) CroMagnon humans have given us the stereotype of the "caveman."
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 42
9) Until the invention of agriculture, humans survived by hunting and gathering alone.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 42
10) Biological and cultural evolution proceeded separately.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 44
11) Walking on two feet instead of four was a successful adaptation for humans to their environment.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 44
12) When human mothers began to walk on two feet, they became less effective food providers because they had to
hold on to their babies.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 44
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
13) All manner of social processes developed from biological changes in our prehuman ancestors.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 44
14) Organization into troops, tribes, and tribal confederations became necessary with the increase in numbers.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 44
15) The discovery of fire contributed to the development of language and religion.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 44
16) Human nature and the way of life of people emerged in tandem with biological developments.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 44-45
17) The theory of evolution proposes that species change to adapt to changing environments.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 28-29
18) The biblical view is one of immutable creation.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 28
19) The 19th century introduced a questioning attitude that made the work of Darwin and Mendel acceptable.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 29
20) Darwin maintained that species were changeable, that they evolved into more successful forms, and that the less
successful forms became extinct.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 30
21) The mechanism at work in evolution is natural selection.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 30
22) Gregor Mendel said that the traits of each parent are blended in the offspring.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 30
23) Natural selection is a process in which all of an individual's traits are passed on to his/her offspring.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 30
24) A trait that helps in survival is at first acquired at random.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 30
25) The science that studies heredity is evolution.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 30
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TEST BANK
26) Chromosomes are organized into genes.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 31-32
27) The genetic blueprints are contained in the cell nucleus.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 32
28) A person's genotype is his/her visible traits.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 34
29) An offspring receives two genes for each trait, one from each parent.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 32
30) Genes are made up of a complex biochemical substance.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 31
31) Permanent changes in genetic material are called gene flow.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 34
32) Gene flow is the movement of genes from one breeding population to another.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 34
33) Genetic drift causes changes in the gene pool.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 34
34) Speciation is the evolution of one species from another.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 35
35) Variation among humans occurs because of heredity.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 31-35
36) There are a definite number of races in the world.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 35
37) A race is a breeding population in which a number of inherited traits appear with great frequency.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 35
38) The traits that differ among breeding populations are adaptations to a specific environment at a certain stage of
evolution.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 35
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
2.2 Multiple-Choice Questions
1) Evolution refers to:
A) the gradual development of living organisms over time
B) the development of humans from early forms of hominids
C) the process of genetic flow and mutation
D) the beginning of technology in human history
Answer: A
Page Ref: 28
2) Definite Homo sapiens fossils date back approximately:
A) 12 billion years
B) 75, 000 years
C) 1 million years
D) 2000 years
Answer: B
Page Ref: 40
3) To which of the following categories do humans belong?
A) animalia
B) chordata
C) vertebrata
D) hominidae
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 38
4) What was the situation on earth ten million years ago, compared to five million years ago?
A) Five million years ago the world was inhabited by apes.
B) Homo sapiens sapiens appeared five million years ago.
C) Ten million years ago the earth was inhabited by hominids.
D) Five millions years ago hominids appeared, and ten million years ago the earth was full of apes.
Answer: D
Page Ref: 39
5) The fossil remains of the Neanderthals have been found:
A) only in western Europe
B) in North Africa
C) in the Fertile Crescent
D) on all continents except Oceania and the Americas
Answer: D
Page Ref: 41-42
6) The CroMagnon are:
A) an African tribe contemporary to the Neanderthal
B) definitely classified as Homo sapiens sapiens
C) what is meant by the stereotype of a caveman
D) the inventors of agriculture
Answer: B
Page Ref: 42
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TEST BANK
7) It is thought that Homo sapiens sapiens first arrived in the Americas by way of the:
A) Panama Canal
B) Fertile Crescent
C) Bering Strait
D) Persian Gulf
Answer: C
Page Ref: 42
8) Which statement is true?
A) The earth is the center of the universe
B) The Milky Way galaxy is the largest in the universe
C) The Big Bang theory is the only possible explanation for the origin of the universe
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 25-26
9) The first form of life was probably a:
A) onecelled organism called thermophile
B) onecelled organism on land
C) multicelled organism on both land and in water
D) multicelled organism in the air
Answer: A
Page Ref: 27
10) Which early thinkers believed that life changed by adapting to different environments?
A) Christian thinkers
B) Greek and Roman thinkers
C) followers of Biblical writings
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: B
Page Ref: 28
11) During the 17th and 18th centuries, events and trends led to an emphasis on:
A) stability
B) lack of critical thinking
C) change
D) none of the above
E) all of the above
Answer: C
Page Ref: 28
12) Darwin's famous work, On the Origin of Species, stated that:
A) species do change
B) change results from adaptation to the environment
C) natural selection is the basis of evolutionary change
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 29-30
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon.
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
13) Natural selection refers to:
A) lack of adaptation
B) having a trait or traits useful in a change of environment
C) creationism
D) none of the above
Answer: B
Page Ref: 30
14) Darwin's theory lacked an explanation of:
A) how traits were transmitted to offspring
B) environmental influences
C) how species changed
D) why chimps did not evolve into humans
Answer: A
Page Ref: 30
15) Gregor Mendel's experiments indicated that traits:
A) would disappear completely
B) were blended
C) were either dominant or recessive
D) would repeat themselves in every third generation
Answer: C
Page Ref: 30
16) The original size of the universe, according to the Big Bang theory, was:
A) unthinkable in its vastness
B) submicroscopic
C) about that of a grapefruit
D) no larger than our solar system
Answer: B
Page Ref: 25
17) The chemical basis of the gene consists of:
A) ABC
B) BBD
C) DNA
D) DOC
Answer: C
Page Ref: 33
18) Regarding chromosomes, it is true that:
A) they are found in the nucleus of a cell
B) humans have 46 of them
C) each parent contributes half of them to the offspring
D) none of the above
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 31
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon.
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TEST BANK
19) Change in a gene caused by a change in its chemical composition is called:
A) mutation
B) gene drift
C) gene flow
D) speciation
Answer: A
Page Ref: 33-34
20) Change in the gene frequency when traits are lost by chance in a small population is referred to as:
A) gene flow
B) gene presence
C) gene drift
D) gene theft
Answer: C
Page Ref: 34
21) The movement of genes from one population to another is:
A) gene flow
B) mutation
C) speciation
D) gene loss
Answer: A
Page Ref: 34
22) Speciation refers to:
A) one species becoming larger
B) a species separating into new species that cannot interbreed with one another
C) the development of the human species
D) the disappearance of a species
Answer: B
Page Ref: 34-35
23) Human evolution is:
A) based only on biochemical changes
B) also related to cultural factors like mating customs
C) not related to any genetic factors
D) a figment of the creationists' imagination
Answer: B
Page Ref: 35-36
24) The first major primate adaptation was to:
A) mountains
B) trees
C) water
D) deserts
Answer: B
Page Ref: 37
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon.
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
25) Hominids are primates that exhibit:
A) bipedal locomotion
B) tool making
C) fire
D) none of the above
E) all of the above
Answer: A
Page Ref: 37-38
26) Studies of human fossils and molecular evidence:
A) agree that hominids appeared 14 million years ago
B) differ in that fossil studies show humans to be only 4 million years old
C) show that hominids appeared between 7 and 5 million years ago
D) prove that humans were created only six thousand years ago
Answer: C
Page Ref: 38
27) Australopithecus robustus, Australopithecus africanus and Australopithecus boisei had these traits in common:
A) very tall bodies
B) macrobiotic diet
C) they coexisted by exploiting different resources
D) ability to write
Answer: C
Page Ref: 39
28) Homo sapiens:
A) has a multiregional origin
B) had teeth like presentday apes
C) hunted alone
D) lived in an urban setting
Answer: A
Page Ref: 38
29) Neanderthals:
A) had tall bodies but thin skulls
B) exhibited no brow ridges
C) buried their dead
D) had organized religion
Answer: C
Page Ref: 41-42
30) The hominid that lived in France 35,000 years ago and painted cave walls was:
A) Homo habilis
B) Homo erectus
C) Cro-Magnon
D) Piltdown Man
E) all of the above
Answer: C
Page Ref: 42
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon.
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TEST BANK
31) Agriculture developed:
A) only in the Near East
B) only in Central America
C) in several areas independently
D) only in Palestine
Answer: C
Page Ref: 42-44
32) Agriculture stimulated:
A) population growth
B) permanent settlements
C) warfare
D) none of the above
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 43
33) The enlargement of the human brain is related to:
A) a long period of human infant dependency
B) increasingly complex behavior
C) greater dependence on learning
D) none of the above
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 44
34) Human females are unusual among primates in that they have:
A) estrus
B) continual sexual receptivity
C) less intelligence than human males
D) larger brains than human males
Answer: B
Page Ref: 44
35) Humans are unusual mammals in that :
A) they walk on two feet
B) care for infants
C) eat meat
D) are social
E) all of the above
Answer: A
Page Ref: 44
36) Molecular biologists:
A) have found that we differ substantially from the apes in genetic makeup
B) have shown that we are very close to the apes in genetic makeup
C) state that humans are really kinds of monkeys
D) have made little progress in determining our relationship to apes
Answer: B
Page Ref: 40
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
37) The ancestors of crabs, lobsters, and insects deserve credit for:
A) providing food for the first humans
B) forcing humans to leave the warm waters of the oceans
C) being the first creatures to seek life on dry land
D) forming the first proteins
Answer: C
Page Ref: 27
38) Mammals:
A) made their appearance on earth some 65 to 55 million years ago
B) fed at night to stay out of the way of gigantic reptiles
C) became accustomed to be active in cool temperatures
D) all of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 38
39) Humans, monkeys, and apes are all:
A) mammals
B) primates
C) arthropods
D) BOTH mammals and primates
Answer: D
Page Ref: 38
40) In the evolutionary process:
A) every organism progresses through a number of definite stages
B) random characteristics prove to be successful in adaptation
C) monkeys eventually become human
D) smallbrained animals invariably become large brained
Answer: B
Page Ref: 30
41) All the visible or apparent traits of an individual constitute that individual's:
A) phenotype
B) genotype
C) chromosome
D) nucleus
Answer: A
Page Ref: 34
42) A population whose members are capable of breeding among themselves but are incapable of breeding with
other populations is a:
A) gene pool
B) race
C) hybrid stock
D) species
Answer: D
Page Ref: 34
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon.
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TEST BANK
43) Permanent changes in genetic material are referred to as:
A) speciation
B) races
C) mutations
D) hybridizations
Answer: C
Page Ref: 33-34
44) Protoplasm:
A) is the basic building block of life
B) refers to the first living things, probably microorganisms
C) is found in fossil remains
D) is a kind of complex protein
Answer: B
Page Ref: 27
45) Monkeys, apes, and humans all belong to the same order of:
A) prosimians
B) hominids
C) pithecines
D) primates
Answer: D
Page Ref: 37
46) Agriculture:
A) marks the beginning of permanent settlements
B) was brought to Europe from the New World
C) originated in Africa
D) failed to spread to other areas until communication techniques improved
Answer: A
Page Ref: 42
47) All primates share an important social characteristic:
A) organization into troops with hierarchies of dominance
B) organization into nations and empires
C) reciprocal altruism
D) the incest taboo
Answer: A
Page Ref: 44
48) The discovery of agriculture had one of the following results:
A) the amount of protein in the human diet decreased, leading to a decrease in brain size
B) Homo sapiens became warm blooded
C) humans began to bury their dead
D) surpluses of food emerged, allowing people to concentrate on the development of social structure
Answer: D
Page Ref: 44
49) Gregor Mendel is known for having contributed to the science of:
A) biochemistry
B) evolution
C) genetics
D) mathematics
Answer: C
Page Ref: 30
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon.
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
50) Darwin's view of nature stipulated that:
A) the biggest and strongest species survive
B) successful species annihilate lesser species
C) species compete for living space and resources
D) there is an abundance of resources for all
Answer: C
Page Ref: 29-30
51) The "modern synthesis" refers to:
A) a combination of Karl von Linne's work with that of Charles Darwin
B) Judeo-Christian evolutionism
C) the combining of Darwinian theory with Mendelian genetics
D) the application of Darwin's theory to the evolution of human societies
Answer: C
Page Ref: 30
52) Cytogenetics is concerned with:
A) natural selection
B) the transmission of genes across generations
C) biochemical and cellular events
D) all of the above
Answer: C
Page Ref: 31
53) A group of individuals who breed with one another because they live in the same general territory is called:
A) a sub-species
B) an inbreeding population
C) a hybrid population
D) ramaphithecines
Answer: B
Page Ref: 33
54) Ramapithecus refers to fossil remains of:
A) ground dwelling hominoids
B) tree dwelling hominoids
C) ground dwelling hominids
D) tree dwelling hominids
Answer: A
Page Ref: 37
55) Based on molecular analysis, it appears that the split between hominoid and hominid occurred:
A) 13 million years ago
B) between 7 and 5 million years ago
C) no more than two million years ago
D) 15 million years ago
Answer: B
Page Ref: 39
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon.
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TEST BANK
56) The chances of mutation occurring in a gene are about:
A) five in 1,000,000
B) one in 100,000
C) one in 10,000
D) one in 1,000
Answer: A
Page Ref: 34
57) Gene mutation may occur through:
A) radiation
B) chemical reactions
C) heat
D) all of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 34
58) The family name for human beings and their ancestors, Australopithecus and Homo erectus, is:
A) Anthropoidea
B) Hominoidea
C) Hominidae
D) Homo Sapiens
Answer: C
Page Ref: 38
59) The earliest hard evidence of human presence in the New World goes back:
A) 12,000 years
B) 40,000 years
C) 100,000 years
D) 300,000 years
Answer: A
Page Ref: 40
60) The world's very first farmers are thought to have inhabited:
A) a 2,000 mile arc from the Persian Gulf to what are today Israel and Jordan
B) the central plains of North America
C) Central America, south of the Yucatan peninsula
D) Central Asia, from the Altai Mountains to the Tibetan Plateau
Answer: A
Page Ref: 43
61) At the hominid stage, walking upright:
A) led to the enlargement of the brain
B) facilitated gestation and child bearing
C) made it easier to sight predators and prey
D) made it easier to carry tools
Answer: C
Page Ref: 38
62) The helplessness of the newborn human is used to explain:
A) hunting and gathering societies
B) the loss of estrus in human females
C) a division of labor based on sex
D) the enslavement of women
Answer: C
Page Ref: 44
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
63) Natural selection, when applied to human beings, has tended to favor those individuals who:
A) acted upon impulse
B) were the fiercest fighters
C) learned best and remembered longest
D) accumulated the greatest surplus
Answer: C
Page Ref: 30
64) The two competing theories of the origins of modern humans are called:
A) "Out of Africa" and "Multiregional"
B) "homo erectus" and "Neanderthal"
C) "Homo erectus" and "Homo Sapiens"
D) "unilineal" and "multilineal"
Answer: A
Page Ref: 38
65) "Lucy," a fossilized specimen found in Ethiopia, is thought to be the common ancestor of:
A) Homo habilis and Homo erectus
B) Australopithecus afarensis and Australopithecus boisei
C) Australopithecus and Homo, although the latter's evolution continued in a different direction
D) Homo sapiens and Homo erectus
Answer: C
Page Ref: 39 (box)
66) New dating techniques have estimated the earliest known fossil of the genus Homo to be:
A) 5 million years old
B) 2.4 million years old
C) 8.6 million years old
D) 75,000 years old
Answer: B
Page Ref: 39
67) All modern living human groups are classified as:
A) Homo sapiens
B) Homo sapiens sapiens
C) Homo incipiens
D) Homo erectus
Answer: B
Page Ref: 40
68) The three most general categories of living things, after the classification into kingdom, are:
A) genus, family, and suborder
B) phylum, order, and superfamily
C) phylum, subphylum, and class
D) order, suborder, and superfamily
Answer: C
Page Ref: 38
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TEST BANK
69) Homo sapiens sapiens stands for:
A) order, suborder, and family
B) genus, family, and species
C) genus, species, and variety
D) subclass, suborder, and species
Answer: C
Page Ref: 38
70) Apes and humans are part of the same:
A) superfamily
B) family
C) genus
D) species
Answer: A
Page Ref: 38
71) Scientists at NASA, using the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe, pegged the age of the universe at:
A) 6,000 years
B) 6 billion years
C) 13.7 billion years
D) 10 billion years
Answer: C
Page Ref: 26
72) The contents of the universe include:
A) dark matter
B) atoms
C) dark energy
D) all of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 26
73) As the universe cooled and expanded:
A) planet earth was formed
B) gravity and electromagnetism appeared
C) weak and strong nuclear forces working within atoms appeared
D) only B and C
Answer: D
Page Ref: 26
74) The genes of humans and chimps:
A) differ only in number
B) are 99 percent identical
C) are totally distinct
D) differ in shape
Answer: B
Page Ref: 40
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
75) The fact that a genetic mutation in humans diminished the size of the jaw allowed:
A) the brain to grow larger
B) the growth of teeth
C) humans to chew meat
D) for differentiation from apes
Answer: A
Page Ref: 34
76) Brain growth could not have occurred:
A) without the previous growth of the skull
B) with the initial human diet
C) without the intervention of a superforce
D) if humans had remained in the trees
Answer: A
Page Ref: 34
2.3 Essay Questions
1) Recount the scientific explanation of the creation of the universe. How does it differ from the biblical
explanation? In what ways is it more difficult to comprehend? Is it possible to reconcile the two explanations?
Which explanation do you personally accept? Defend your position.
Answer:
Page Ref:
2) Summarize the theory of evolution and the process of natural selection. How can racial differences be explained
according to natural selection? According to the laws of genetics? Which would produce the most vigorous human
being, genetic drift, gene flow, or gene frequency?
Answer:
Page Ref:
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon.
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TEST BANK
Chapter 3 Culture: Product and Guide to Life in Society
3.1 True/False Questions
1) Cultural relativity requires tolerance and understanding of cultural features as they appear in their societal
settings.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 67-68
2) A jail sentence is a positive unofficial sanction.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 65-66
3) Our biological heritage has enabled us to create culture, just as other animals developed their own cultures.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 52
4) Culture provides people with patterns of organized behavior.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 51
5) Language plays a significant part in the development and transmission of culture.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 56-58
6) The automobile is an example of nonmaterial culture.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 59-60
7) The violation of norms is punished by the society as a whole.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 60-63
8) Folkways regulate significant areas of human life.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 63
9) Folkway violations are severely punished by the society.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 63
10) Baseball is a culture complex in American society.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 66
11) Religion is an institution that emerged to reduce people's fear of the unknown and to add purpose to life.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 67
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
12) Ethnocentrism suggests that there are no universal norms or moral absolutes.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 67-68
13) Differences among human groups derive from the fact that we have a number of different ancestors.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 67-68
14) Each society develops a distinct culture, but all cultures share similarities.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 69-70
15) Folkways, mores, taboos, and laws are all part of material culture.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 60-63
16) Some official negative sanctions may deprive people of life and liberty.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 66
17) The cognitive component of cultures is the most important because it includes rules for behavior.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 61
18) A counterculture is a group in society that adopts a value system and goals that are in basic agreement to those
of the larger culture.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 71-72
19) The goal of cultural relativity is to accept and cherish the cultural values of others.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 67-68
20) It is safe to say that more people practice ethnocentrism than cultural relativity.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 68
21) Many more people conform to social norms than do not.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 62
22) Social control is unnecessary in a free democratic society.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 65-66
23) Positive sanctions are used as methods of social control.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 64-66
24) Ethnocentrism means to analyze a culture on its own terms.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 67-68
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon.
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TEST BANK
3.2 Multiple-Choice Questions
1) Americans are likely to experience culture shock:
A) every time a new administration comes into office
B) when they inadvertently see a pornographic movie
C) when they come in contact with an unfamiliar culture
D) when they witness atrocities committed in wars
Answer: C
Page Ref: 50
2) The double standard in the behavior of people in society is acknowledged by the existence of a(n):
A) overt and covert culture
B) moral and immoral culture
C) legal and illegal culture
D) ethical and unethical culture
Answer: A
Page Ref: 66
3) Some American Indians cannot express the idea of time in their tribal languages. This fact shows that:
A) their culture is still at a primitive stage
B) they have not yet reached the industrial stage of evolution when time is money
C) like all lowerclass persons, they focus on the present
D) time is not an important value in their culture
Answer: D
Page Ref: 61
4) The development of modern culture is CHIEFLY dependent upon:
A) bifocalism
B) upright posture
C) grasping ability of the hand
D) complex brain development
E) complex symbolic communication
Answer: E
Page Ref: 54-55
5) Norms are essentially:
A) what is right
B) what is most feared
C) rules for behavior
D) systems of rewards and punishment
Answer: C
Page Ref: 62-63
6) The most important category of norms for maintaining social order are:
A) folkways
B) mores
C) customs
D) traditions
Answer: B
Page Ref: 63
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
7) Which type of norms is most easily changed or modified?
A) folkways
B) mores
C) laws
D) taboos
Answer: C
Page Ref: 64
8) Which of the following is an example of a culture trait?
A) the family
B) marriage
C) wedding rings
D) exchanging wedding vows
E) BOTH rings and exchanging wedding vows
Answer: E
Page Ref: 66
9) Which of the following is an example of a culture complex?
A) a football
B) goal posts
C) team uniforms
D) playing football
Answer: D
Page Ref: 66
10) Systems of beliefs and behavior designed to meet basic human needs are called:
A) the welfare system
B) religions
C) government
D) institutions
Answer: D
Page Ref: 66
11) Cultural relativity ideally implies:
A) that moral values different from one's own are all wrong
B) everyone's crazy except you and me (and I'm not sure about you!)
C) mindless acceptance of all cultural values of others
D) tolerance and respect for the cultural values of others
Answer: D
Page Ref: 67-68
12) The most important differences among humans are based on:
A) biology
B) species separation
C) culture
D) physical aspect
Answer: C
Page Ref: 51-52
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon.
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TEST BANK
13) Culture is the basis of:
A) human social life
B) not only human, but also ant society
C) all animal groups
D) none of the above
Answer: A
Page Ref: 50-51
14) Culture is based on:
A) instinct
B) simple learning only
C) learning through symbols
D) genetic heredity
Answer: C
Page Ref: 55-56
15) Language:
A) helps humans to cooperate
B) passes on knowledge from generation to generation
C) reflects changes in society
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 56-59
16) Sapir and Whorf believe that:
A) the structure of a language shapes a people's view of the world
B) language has no part in mental attitudes
C) languages are limited to the number of words for any given object
D) preverbal communication is more important than verbal
Answer: A
Page Ref: 59
17) Biological factors, which make the development of culture possible, include:
A) vision in depth
B) opposable thumb
C) erect walking posture
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 52
18) Material culture:
A) has no relation to symbols
B) illustrates the evolution of tools and includes all objects made by humans
C) is of limited importance to humans
D) none of the above
E) all of the above
Answer: B
Page Ref: 59-60
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon.
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
19) Knowing the workings of a car engine represents which kind of knowledge?
A) normative
B) cognitive
C) ruleoriented
D) valueoriented
Answer: B
Page Ref: 62
20) Norms are:
A) internalized in most cases
B) guidelines for human behavior
C) reflections of values
D) none of the above
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 60-63
21) Burning your neighbor's house down is considered a serious offense. It is a violation of:
A) folkways
B) mores
C) table manners
D) taboos
Answer: B
Page Ref: 63
22) Love of money, peace, and God are American:
A) norms
B) folkways
C) values
D) mores
Answer: C
Page Ref: 61-62
23) In the United States:
A) values, norms, and beliefs are always in agreement
B) values, norms, and beliefs are unimportant
C) values, norms, and beliefs are often in conflict
D) people value and believe what they please because it's a free country
Answer: C
Page Ref: 63
24) In the United States, an example of a taboo is:
A) making money
B) marrying a sister
C) gambling
D) climbing Mt. Rushmore
Answer: B
Page Ref: 63
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon.
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TEST BANK
25) Laws are:
A) informal norms
B) formal norms enforced by the state
C) casual folkways
D) less important than folkways
Answer: B
Page Ref: 63
26) People often accept social control based on:
A) positive sanctions
B) negative sanctions
C) harsh rules
D) violence
Answer: A
Page Ref: 65-66
27) There is a tendency for people to:
A) rebel against group norms
B) accept group norms
C) respond only to negative sanctions
D) respond only to violence
Answer: B
Page Ref: 66
28) Americans proclaim the need for honesty, but cheat on their tax returns. This situation indicates that:
A) the overt culture is consistent
B) Americans often follow a covert culture in actual behavior
C) there is no covert culture in the United States
D) people are only human
Answer: B
Page Ref: 66
29) A culture complex is:
A) one cultural trait
B) a psychological condition
C) a cluster of traits centered around a common activity
D) a theater, symphony hall, and museum
Answer: C
Page Ref: 66
30) Institutions are:
A) unimportant
B) found among all animals
C) traditional habits centering around fundamental human needs
D) places like schools and banks
Answer: C
Page Ref: 67
31) Which is an example of a pivotal social institution?
A) A rock band
B) The economy
C) A jail
D) A symphony orchestra
Answer: B
Page Ref: 67
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
32) To say that American music is the best in the world is an example of:
A) ethnocentrism
B) cultural relativity
C) the truth
D) a value
Answer: A
Page Ref: 67-68
33) Cultural universals include:
A) personal adornment
B) music
C) food taboos
D) none of the above
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 64-65
34) Which is an example of a subculture?
A) American culture
B) teenage customs
C) French culture
D) Kiwi culture
Answer: B
Page Ref: 70-71
35) A counterculture:
A) emphasizes math
B) is based in stores
C) opposes values of the mainstream culture
D) none of the above
E) all of the above
Answer: C
Page Ref: 71
36) Most animal behavior is determined by:
A) symbolic interaction
B) a system of symbols
C) biology and instinct
D) animal culture
Answer: C
Page Ref: 56
37) The principal difference between people and other animals is that:
A) animals are larger and stronger
B) people communicate with symbols while animals communicate with signals
C) biology dictates human behavior while instincts direct animal behavior
D) people live in families while animals live in tribes
Answer: B
Page Ref: 56
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon.
38
TEST BANK
38) The most essential element of culture is:
A) cooperation
B) group activities
C) a warning system
D) language
Answer: D
Page Ref: 56
39) When does a society need laws?
A) when people commit too many sins
B) when the court system declares that they are needed
C) when the folkways and mores are not sufficient to control behavior
D) when it is necessary to create folkways and mores
Answer: C
Page Ref: 64
40) The cognitive component of culture:
A) includes knowledge, beliefs, and technology
B) is made up of rules for behavior
C) consists of values and morals
D) is part of material culture
Answer: A
Page Ref: 60
41) Which of the following is an example of material culture?
A) A football game
B) The football itself
C) The NFL rules
D) "competition is good for you"
Answer: B
Page Ref: 59-60
42) "Personal space" is defined differently in different societies. Therefore, we can say that:
A) culture shapes both verbal and nonverbal behavior
B) personal space is controlled genetically
C) many people have no manners
D) nonverbal behavior is not part of culture
Answer: A
Page Ref: 56
43) The evaluation that a certain phenomenon is good, beautiful, moral, right, and therefore desirable is termed a:
A) norm
B) guideline
C) folkway
D) value
Answer: D
Page Ref: 61-62
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon.
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
44) Humans depend on others for full development and generally live in groups. They are:
A) cultural
B) social
C) intelligent
D) symbolic
Answer: B
Page Ref: 50
45) "Head hunting is wrong." This statement is made from the point of view of:
A) ethnocentrism
B) cultural relativity
C) ethnic uniformity
D) cultural pride
Answer: A
Page Ref: 67-68
46) When we refer to how people really behave, we:
A) use statistical norms
B) refer to the ideal norms
C) speak of mores
D) use folkways
Answer: A
Page Ref: 66
47) Ethnocentrism refers to:
A) an attitude with which members of one society judge another society according to their own standards
B) the attitude that cultures be analyzed on their own terms
C) the attitude that certain values and practices are common to all cultures
D) all of the above
Answer: A
Page Ref: 67-68
48) The attitude of some Americans toward the minorities in their midst shows:
A) culture shock
B) the importance of culture
C) cultural superiority
D) cultural relativity
Answer: B
Page Ref: 50
49) Pivotal institutions:
A) arise from fundamental human needs
B) include government, the economy, education, the family, and religion
C) differ in traits and culture complexes from society to society
D) all of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 67
50) If culture is comparable to a script for a play, then:
A) individuals may be compared to playwrights
B) the economy may be compared to the director
C) society may be compared to a troupe of actors
D) social scientists may be compared to stage hands
Answer: C
Page Ref: 52
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TEST BANK
51) Human life is acted out within a triangle of:
A) rules, roles, and norms
B) society, culture, and the individual
C) income, safety, and deference
D) class, status, and power
Answer: B
Page Ref: 52
52) The creation of culture, unlike playwriting:
A) is the work of generations
B) is not always a deliberate act
C) never results in a final authorized script
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 52
53) Society and culture:
A) are interrelated and interdependent
B) are in continual conflict
C) are separate phenomena
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: A
Page Ref: 50
54) Culture:
A) is based on symbols in animals and on signals among humans
B) is a property of all higher animal groups
C) is arguably possessed to some degree by nonhuman primates as well as humans
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: C
Page Ref: 56
55) Symbols differ from signals in that:
A) symbols have universal meaning
B) symbols are intrinsically meaningful
C) symbols are biologically determined
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 55
56) Language, gestures, and music are:
A) symbol systems
B) cultural traits
C) normative systems
D) human values
Answer: A
Page Ref: 55
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
57) All languages encompass and express notions of:
A) shame and guilt
B) past and future
C) love and endearment
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 58
58) The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis:
A) may well be unintelligible as translated in some languages
B) is the product of a distinct world view
C) emphasizes the difficulty of understanding another culture as its participants understand it
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: C
Page Ref: 59
59) Values in any society:
A) dictate conduct in every situation
B) are specifically spelled out
C) are often contradictory
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: C
Page Ref: 61-62
60) Violation of a folkway is considered:
A) a violation striking to the very heart of society
B) a legally punishable offense
C) a slight to one's group, but not a punishable offense
D) an incident of no consequence whatsoever
Answer: C
Page Ref: 64
61) In many societies, cannibalism is:
A) a mos
B) a cultural trait
C) a taboo
D) a cultural complex
Answer: C
Page Ref: 64
62) Official sanctions usually entail:
A) public recognition
B) the threat of force
C) a transgression of the law
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: A
Page Ref: 65-66
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon.
42
TEST BANK
63) Social control through the enforcement of norms works because:
A) everyone fears pain and embarrassment
B) individuals are anxious to be accepted
C) people need to be manipulated
D) independent thought and action are too hard
Answer: B
Page Ref: 65-66
64) The five pivotal institutions are:
A) the economy, medicine, family, religion, and education
B) the military, religion, government, family, and education
C) the family, the economy, government, the military, and education
D) the economy, government, religion, family, and education
Answer: D
Page Ref: 67
65) Ethnocentrism has two meanings. The version, which may alternatively be called ethnochauvinism, refers to the
conviction that:
A) one's own culture, subculture, or society is best, bar none
B) women are subordinate in every culture
C) other cultures can be judged by the standards of one's own
D) the males of a given ethnic group are superior
Answer: A
Page Ref: 67
66) In one sense of the term, everyone is ethnocentric. This is because:
A) it is virtually impossible not to view people and situations in terms of some of the norms and categories derived
from one's own cultural experiences
B) people are intolerant by nature
C) people are afraid and distrustful of strangers
D) it is impossible to understand another culture or subculture without having been raised in it
Answer: A
Page Ref: 67
67) An extreme example of the consequences of ethnocentrism in the sense of ethnochauvinism is:
A) cultural relativity
B) "ethnic cleansing"
C) ethnic pluralism
D) assimilation
Answer: B
Page Ref: 68
68) Similarities common to all cultures are called:
A) pivotal institutions
B) cultural universals
C) culture traits
D) culture complexes
Answer: B
Page Ref: 69
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon.
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
69) Contemporary technologically advanced societies tend to be:
A) hexahedronal
B) hermetic
C) heterogeneous
D) homogeneous
E) homophonic
Answer: C
Page Ref: 69
70) An example of a temporary subculture would be:
A) the MTV generation
B) vegetarians
C) monks in a convent
D) players of chess
Answer: A
Page Ref: 70
71) An example of a permanent or enduring subculture would be:
A) a group of guerrillas
B) the military establishment
C) life in a survivalist enclave
D) a doomsday cult
Answer: B
Page Ref: 70
72) Countercultures are:
A) subcultures that refuse to assimilate
B) groups whose values differ from the mainstream
C) groups whose values are in explicit opposition to those of the wider societal culture
D) the most active subcultures
E) all of the above
Answer: C
Page Ref: 71
73) The research on an isolated Amazon tribe:
A) supports the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
B) shows that perceptions affect reality
C) language affects perceptions of reality
D) only A and C
Answer: D
Page Ref: 59
74) Cultural change is always:
A) fast and dramatic
B) slow and imperceptible
C) neither of the above
D) both of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 50
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon.
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TEST BANK
3.3 Essay Questions
1) Adorning one's body is a cultural universal. In the library or on the Internet, find crosscultural examples of how
different this cultural universal is interpreted in at least five societies.
Answer:
Page Ref:
2) A new family moved in next door to you. The members wear sandals all year round. They throw the garbage out
into the back yard. The children dye their hair green. Describe your new neighbors to your friends. Are you
ethnocentric in your description? Do you allow for cultural relativity? How can their behavior be explained from the
point of view of the culture or subculture in which they were socialized?
Answer:
Page Ref:
3) In the 2004 presidential election, the incumbent president received a majority of the votes because people
understood him to stand for moral values. What do you understand by the term "moral values?" Do you think this
administration represents such values? Why or why not? Are these values universally accepted in the United States?
Answer:
Page Ref:
4) Describe a cultural value to which your parents subscribe, but about which you are not quite sure. Which cultural
values in American society are in the process of change, and how will such change affect social norms? What is the
danger in unstable norms?
Answer:
Page Ref:
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon.
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
Chapter 4 Group Interaction: From Two to Millions
4.1 True/False Questions
1) Continued interaction with others is vital to an infant's survival, and thus to the human race.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 75
2) Groups, aggregates, and categories are the same thing.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 83
3) Symbolic interaction among members is the foremost prerequisite for a group.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 85-86
4) Primary groups differ from secondary groups on the basis of size alone.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 85-86
5) The interactions at a corner gas station are secondary.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 86
6) Small groups form the basis of modern industrial societies.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 85
7) The largest group to which we belong is our family.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 85
8) The concepts of Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft resemble those of primary and secondary group.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 90
9) Individuals and groups interact through social processes.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 90-92
10) Cooperation and competition are social processes, but conflict is not.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 92
11) A social system is an imaginary model of how social relationships work.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 76-77
12) Role conflict and role confusion are common in modern societies.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 81
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon.
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TEST BANK
13) Failure to carry out successfully the roles for which individuals are prepared may result in frustration and even
in mental illness.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 81
14) In American society, the individual has complete freedom of action.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 76
15) Reference groups provide patterns of behavior for individuals.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 87
16) A number of people make up a group if there is some kind of communication among them that results in mutual
adjustment of behavior.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 83-84
17) The smallest of groups consists of two members and is called a triad.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 84
18) Achieved status is more prevalent than ascribed status in industrial societies.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 78-79
19) Gemeinschaft societies are large and heterogeneous, just as modern industrial societies.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 90
20) Social organization may be defined as the network of patterned behavior that is the product of interaction.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 76
21) People usually experience consistency in their statuses because all statuses are equally important in a person's
life.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 78-79
22) Generally, one performs some social roles better than others because some roles are considered more important
than others.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 80
23) The patterned and recurring ways in which individuals and groups interact make up the social structure.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 76
24) Ingroups are those that confer upon their members a social identity.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 87
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
25) Groups such as fraternities, clubs, and occupational cliques are involuntary organizations.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 87
4.2 Multiple-Choice Questions
1) The family is the prime example of a(n):
A) Gesellschaft
B) secondary group
C) voluntary group
D) primary group
Answer: D
Page Ref: 86
2) If the daughter of a factory worker wants to become the president of the company for which her father works, we
may assume that:
A) she has a different reference group than her social class would indicate
B) her father has special connections to the boss
C) the daughter likes to daydream
D) she has been reading too many yuppie biographies
Answer: A
Page Ref: 87
3) Which is false of reference groups? They:
A) provide standards against which we measure ourselves
B) are important during socialization
C) affect our values, goals, attitudes, and behavior
D) are groups to which we belong from birth on
Answer: D
Page Ref: 87
4) Faulty role performance:
A) may create much stress
B) sometimes occurs by chance
C) could mean that another role is being performed well
D) all of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 81
5) Which of the following is likely to be an involuntary group? The:
A) Boston Bruins
B) Ku Klux Klan
C) campaign staff working for presidential candidate
D) the Smith family
Answer: D
Page Ref: 87
6) A reference group is a(n):
A) group of which one is a member without having asked to be
B) formal or informal organization to which one belongs
C) hierarchical system in an organization
D) group to which an individual aspires to belong
Answer: D
Page Ref: 87
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon.
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TEST BANK
7) When interaction is guided by shared and patterned expectations of behavior, the social system has acquired a(n):
A) social process
B) social structure
C) social stability
D) social value system
Answer: B
Page Ref: 76
8) Which is NOT an element of social structure?
A) Norms
B) Concepts
C) Statuses
D) Roles
Answer: B
Page Ref: 76-77
9) Which is an ascribed status?
A) Black female
B) President of the U.S.
C) Exotic dancer
D) Thief
Answer: A
Page Ref: 78-79
10) Role conflicts tend to occur:
A) over scarce resources
B) within aggregates
C) because we must fulfill several demanding roles simultaneously
D) all of the above
Answer: C
Page Ref: 81
11) Emotional stress and maladjustment may occur as a result of:
A) faulty role performance
B) status inconsistency
C) improperly learned roles
D) all of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 81
12) Which of the following is a group?
A) commuters riding a train
B) spectators watching the construction of a building
C) lines of people at a supermarket checkout counter
D) softball players performing in a playoff tournament
Answer: D
Page Ref: 83
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
13) Which of the following would fit Charles Horton Cooley's classification of a primary group?
A) Redheads
B) Tourists visiting a resort
C) A married couple
D) A sales clerk and a customer
Answer: C
Page Ref: 85-87
14) The allocation of tasks to particular individuals who specialize in performing them is referred to as:
A) division of labor
B) status fulfillment
C) ascribed status
D) status specialization
Answer: A
Page Ref: 89
15) Studying interaction within a human family would occur on a:
A) microsocial level
B) macrosocial level
C) macroscopic level
D) microscopic level
Answer: A
Page Ref: 76
16) Studying the interaction between government and the economy would occur on a:
A) microsocial level
B) macrosocial level
C) secondhand level
D) macroscopic level
Answer: B
Page Ref: 76
17) Social systems are based on:
A) expectations as to the behavior of others
B) chaos
C) haphazard behavior
D) disorganization
Answer: A
Page Ref: 76
18) Social structure refers to:
A) biological cell patterns
B) norms, roles, and groups in a social system
C) patterns of individual behavior
D) what the individual becomes in society
Answer: B
Page Ref: 76-77
19) Norms are:
A) social rules of behavior
B) important institutions
C) specific roles
D) name given to certain kinds of laws
Answer: A
Page Ref: 94
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TEST BANK
20) A mother preparing lunch for her child is an example of a (n):
A) status
B) role
C) macrolevel behavior
D) unliberated woman
Answer: B
Page Ref: 80
21) A general in an army chart of command positions would constitute a:
A) status
B) role
C) norm
D) institution
Answer: A
Page Ref: 94
22) Statuses are based on:
A) division of labor
B) age
C) gender
D) all of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 77-78
23) In the United States, a college degree is generally associated with:
A) achieved status
B) ascribed status
C) no status
D) castes
Answer: A
Page Ref: 77-78
24) Achieved status would be especially important in:
A) ancient Egypt
B) 19th century India
C) feudal Europe
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 77-78
25) The master status of George W. Bush was:
A) husband
B) president
C) dog owner
D) jogger
Answer: B
Page Ref: 79
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
26) A police officer follows a speeding car and when the car finally stops, she is horrified to discover her husband
at the wheel. In giving him a ticket, she experiences:
A) fear of a divorce
B) role conflict
C) no role involvement
D) a master status
Answer: B
Page Ref: 81
27) A working wife and mother is likely to encounter:
A) no role involvement
B) role happiness
C) role strain
D) the best of both roles
Answer: C
Page Ref: 81
28) The smallest group is constituted by the:
A) triad
B) quadrad
C) dyad
D) monad
Answer: C
Page Ref: 84
29) The largest group to which a person belongs is:
A) triad
B) family
C) primary group
D) society
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 85
30) A secondary group is characterized by:
A) small size
B) daily contact
C) intimacy
D) formal interaction
Answer: D
Page Ref: 86
31) A good example of a primary group is:
A) the U.S. Army
B) a family
C) AT&T Corp.
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: B
Page Ref: 86
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52
TEST BANK
32) One British psychologist believes that the Western family causes most of the mental illness in individuals. This
theory implies that:
A) the primary group is always helpful to the individual
B) primary group relations can be harmful to the individual
C) secondary relations are more important than primary ones
D) none of the above are relevant
Answer: B
Page Ref: 86
33) For a young guitar player, a rock band seen on TV would represent a(n):
A) reference group
B) membership group
C) involuntary group
D) all of the above
Answer: A
Page Ref: 85
34) To a person who belongs to it, a beer can collectors' club is a(n):
A) reference group
B) membership group
C) voluntary group
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: B
Page Ref: 85
35) Agrarian societies are based on:
A) the use of the plow
B) hunting animals
C) factories
D) farm animals
Answer: A
Page Ref: 87
36) Industrial societies are based on:
A) kinship
B) primary ties
C) machines for production
D) smokestacks
Answer: C
Page Ref: 88
37) A society based on close, personal ties is a:
A) Gemeinschaft
B) Gesellschaft
C) Mineshaft
D) family
Answer: A
Page Ref: 88
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
38) The microelements of societies are made up of:
A) processes of social interaction
B) diseases that harm societies
C) problems of cement roads
D) none of the above
Answer: A
Page Ref: 87
39) The situation in the Middle East is an example of:
A) competition
B) cooperation
C) conflict
D) all of the above
Answer: C
Page Ref: 92
40) The human social process most important for social interaction is:
A) conflict
B) competition
C) cooperation
D) none of the above
Answer: C
Page Ref: 91
41) The group way of life characteristic of humans may be traced to:
A) our human ancestors' way of life in trees
B) the fact that human infants are helpless for a long period of time
C) a faulty genetic development
D) the small size of humans relative to other animals
Answer: B
Page Ref: 76
42) Symbolic interaction:
A) excludes written language
B) is entirely nonverbal
C) includes gestures, speech, and music
D) none of the above
Answer: C
Page Ref: 83
43) A social system:
A) is a model
B) is a concept
C) illustrates how social relationships work in a group
D) all of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 76
44) Social organization:
A) may be analyzed at the microsocial and the macrosocial levels
B) is a fixed set of rules
C) is sometimes used interchangeably with social structure
D) is microsocial, macrosocial, and interchangeable with social structure
Answer: D
Page Ref: 76
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TEST BANK
45) The form of interaction that occurs when two or more individuals try to possess a scarce object or value is:
A) violence
B) coercion
C) contest
D) competition
Answer: D
Page Ref: 91-92
46) The earliest and least complex society was:
A) agrarian
B) pastoral
C) hunting and gathering
D) horticultural
Answer: C
Page Ref: 87-90
47) "The largest group of people inhabiting a specific territory and sharing a common culture" is a definition of a:
A) nation
B) state
C) government
D) society
Answer: D
Page Ref: 87
48) Utilitarian organizations include:
A) the military, prisons, and mental hospitals
B) businesses and industries of all types
C) professional and religious organizations
D) all of the above
Answer: B
Page Ref: 96
49) Weber's abstract model of bureaucracy entails:
A) task specialization, governed by explicit rules
B) a pyramid of authority based on inherited privilege
C) leadership by a self-appointed elite
D) systematic discrimination against minorities
Answer: A
Page Ref: 96
50) Critiques of bureaucratic forms of business administration argue that:
A) explicit standards of quality control must be imposed by management
B) employees are given too much discretion
C) small organizations inevitably become bureaucracies
D) vertical hierarchies of power are too sluggish
Answer: D
Page Ref: 96
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
51) A group way of life lends itself to disorder because:
A) individuals differ in temperament, goals, and desires
B) the world is based on randomness
C) humans are solitary creatures
D) human behavior is unpredictable
Answer: D
Page Ref: 86
52) Social life is organized and structured through:
A) rules and regulations
B) group situations and the positions of individuals
C) patterns of actions
D) all of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 76-77
53) Tolerance of conflicting ideas has been:
A) the downfall of industrialized societies
B) one of the great contributions of democracy
C) a major obstacle to establishing social order
D) none of the above
Answer: B
Page Ref: 90
54) Another way of saying that positions in a group are value-rated by group members is:
A) statuses are ascribed
B) authority is hierarchical
C) statuses are ranked
D) roles are scripted
Answer: C
Page Ref: 76
55) The norm of reciprocity entails:
A) doing things in an institutionalized way
B) working jointly in a common enterprise for a shared goal
C) doing something in return for what someone has done for you
D) all of the above
Answer: C
Page Ref: 91
56) Societies in which ascribed statuses have been prevalent include:
A) estate systems in feudal Europe
B) industrial societies like the United States
C) occupationally-based caste systems, as in pre-modern India
D) A and C only
E) all of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 79
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TEST BANK
57) Master status refers to:
A) the attainment of recognized excellence
B) a dominant position in a relationship
C) the most widely recognized among several positions
D) the position from which all other positions are derived
Answer: C
Page Ref: 80
58) Role strain:
A) may occur within the confines of a single role
B) may result from faulty role performance
C) may occur when entrenched statuses become altered
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 81
59) The struggle of women and ethnic minorities to change certain discriminatory practices concerns:
A) role strain
B) ascribed statuses
C) master statuses
D) role conflict
Answer: B
Page Ref: 80
60) An example of a category would be:
A) the N.A.A.C.P.
B) the N.R.A.
C) sharpshooters at a pistol range
D) all the redheads currently imprisoned in the U.S.
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 83
61) "Humanity" is:
A) an aggregate
B) a group
C) a category
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: C
Page Ref: 83
62) Primary groups are basic to the development of:
A) politics
B) law
C) personality
D) social change
Answer: C
Page Ref: 85-86
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
63) Which of the following is NOT true of primary relations?
A) they cannot exist in secondary groups
B) they are always harmonious
C) the family is the only source of primary relations
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 86
64) A person's family, in addition to being a primary group, is also a:
A) voluntary group
B) reference group
C) membership
D) Gesellschaft
Answer: C
Page Ref: 86
65) The most self-sufficient group is:
A) the family
B) the military
C) one's in-group
D) society
Answer: D
Page Ref: 87
66) Bureaucracy and extensive social differentiation initially occur in the historical transition from:
A) hunting and gathering to pastoral society
B) pastoral to horticultural society
C) horticultural to agricultural society
D) agricultural to industrial society
Answer: C
Page Ref: 96
67) A separation of institutional forms is most characteristic of:
A) industrial societies
B) agricultural societies
C) pastoral societies
D) horticultural societies
Answer: A
Page Ref: 94
68) Daniel Bell has called the newly emerging form of society:
A) technological
B) informational
C) post-subsistence
D) postindustrial
Answer: D
Page Ref: 90
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TEST BANK
69) According to Daniel Bell, the first technological revolution:
A) was the first of three such revolutions
B) entailed the harnessing of electricity
C) involved a change in farming techniques
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: A
Page Ref: 90
70) Four primary social processes are:
A) differentiation, stratification, conflict, and coercion
B) accommodation, assimilation, conflict, and coercion
C) exchange, reciprocity, competition, and conflict
D) conflict, exchange, cooperation, and competition
Answer: D
Page Ref: 91
71) Conflict:
A) underlies both competition and coercion
B) is diametrically opposed to competition
C) is a hostile form of struggle
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: C
Page Ref: 91
72) Organizations differ from institutions in that:
A) one cannot join an institution
B) only a few organizations last long enough to become institutions
C) institutions are organizations in which people no longer discuss the basis of the rules
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: A
Page Ref: 94
73) A formal structure of an organization is its:
A) leadership structure
B) full-time employees
C) bylaws and body of officers
D) appearance to its general public
Answer: C
Page Ref: 94
74) Organizations open to all who feel their goals are worthwhile are called:
A) public organizations
B) voluntary associations
C) utilitarian organizations
D) formal organizations
Answer: B
Page Ref: 96
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
75) Utilitarian organizations are so named because they:
A) produce useful things
B) serve the practical purposes of their owners
C) provide useful services to the community
D) provide material benefits in exchange for work
Answer: D
Page Ref: 96
76) Max Weber intended his "ideal type" of bureaucracy as an:
A) accurate description of existing bureaucracies
B) idealized or exaggerated model of rational administration
C) explanation of elite domination
D) obviously false portrait of democratic administration
Answer: B
Page Ref: 96
77) An extreme type of coercive organization is called a(n):
A) oligarchy
B) economic institution
C) public institution
D) total institution
E) bureaucratic institution
Answer: D
Page Ref: 96
78) A makeshift organizational network which often parallels bureaucratic administration is called:
A) oligarchy
B) humanized bureaucracy
C) informal bureaucracy
D) scientific management
Answer: C
Page Ref: 98
79) It is true that:
A) formal organizations are the same as institutions
B) formal organizations are based on groups of people
C) institutions are groups of people
D) institutions are voluntary
Answer: B
Page Ref: 94
80) Formal organizations have:
A) clearly stated goals and policies
B) no ranking of their members
C) little durability
D) no people in them
Answer: A
Page Ref: 94
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TEST BANK
81) Americans who join voluntary associations are generally:
A) poor
B) black
C) Catholic
D) urban
Answer: D
Page Ref: 94
82) Bureaucracy is based on:
A) ad hoc rules
B) specialization
C) unpredictability
D) lack of authority
Answer: B
Page Ref: 96
4.3 Essay Questions
1) A young woman in the United States today is faced with a large number of options. If she is so inclined, she can
follow a career path as far and as high as her hard work and intellect will allow. On the other hand, our society still
values the roles of wife and mother, and as an individual, the young woman feels the need of forming a close
relationship and eventually of creating a family of her own. What stresses and strains do you foresee for the young
woman? Research how a majority of women in their child-bearing years manage to reconcile the forces pulling them
in opposite directions.
Answer:
Page Ref:
2) We all experience life in primary groups. Describe the most important primary groups in which you are a
member, and how they help or hinder your existence.
Answer:
Page Ref:
3) Bureaucracy in the form in which it has been practiced up to now has become counterproductive, in the opinion
of most experts. Tell of some of your personal experiences with bureaucracies in which the system managed to make
your life miserable. On the other hand, speculate how large organizations - and societies -can be administered more
efficiently yet more humanely with another type of system.
Answer:
Page Ref:
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
Chapter 5 Becoming a Person: The Birth of Personality
5.1 True/False Questions
1) All personalities in a given culture develop in the same way.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 102
2) Personality is an abstract but dynamic configuration of a person's behavior and emotional traits that remain more
or less consistent.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 104
3) Socialization is a learning process in which the new individual learns how to be human from those around him.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 107
4) Human infants are well disposed to accept socialization because they are dependent for such a long time.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 107
5) Symbolic interactionism is a school of philosophy developed by Charles Horton Cooley.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 110
6) Symbolic interaction precedes the acquisition of language, and the consciousness of self.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 110
7) According to Charles Horton Cooley, the human self must have other people who react toward it in order to
emerge and develop.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 109
8) Socialization is an innate process through which an individual acquires the social and cultural heritage of the
group.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 108
9) Psychodynamic theories are based on the view that biological drives are of central importance to human
behavior.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 110-111
10) The psychodynamic theory of Sigmund Freud postulates that fear of death gives rise to unconscious processes.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 110-111
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TEST BANK
11) Defense mechanisms are frequently unconscious feelings of hostility toward other people.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 111
12) The libido is the pleasure drive, represented by the id.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 110
13) Erik Erikson developed a number of psychosocial stages that parallel Freud's psychosexual stages of
development, but encompass all of a person's life.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 111-113
14) Piaget was responsible for developing the oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital stages of human development.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 113
15) Developmentalists like Jean Piaget stress that learning occurs through conditioning and is strongly affected by
external factors.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 113
16) Rhesus monkeys - as well as human infants - show a need for close contact with others of their species, or a
reasonable facsimile.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 105
17) The same environment is perceived differently by different individuals - even siblings - because of their unique
genetic inheritance.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 105
18) Each society develops its own personality type: the modal personality is representative of all members of a
specific society.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 107
19) Three fundamental human emotions are hunger, sex, and anger.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 108
20) The existence of the unconscious is a part of the socialization theory of George Herbert Mead.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 110
21) An infant's parents are most probably his or her first significant others.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 108
22) According to Erik Erikson, the reason young people overidentify with heroes and fall in love often is that they
suffer from role confusion and are unsure of their identity.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 112
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
23) Police officers are important agents of socialization in our society.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 114-118
24) Socialization is a one-time occurrence - once you are socialized, you never have to be socialized again.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 120
25) The media have an insignificant role in the process of socialization.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 119
26) Sigmund Freud assumed that people were born with strong aggressive and libidinal tendencies which needed to
be controlled by a well developed superego.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 110-111
5.2 Multiple-Choice Questions
1) Specialized socialization occurs most frequently in:
A) the family
B) the peer group
C) church
D) occupational groups or organizations
Answer: D
Page Ref: 120
2) Individuals who become inmates of a total institution undergo the process of:
A) anomie
B) socialization
C) desocialization
D) resocialization
Answer: D
Page Ref: 120
3) The theory of symbolic interactionism in personality formation is associated with:
A) William Sheldon
B) Abraham Maslow
C) Charles Horton Cooley
D) George Herbert Mead
Answer: D
Page Ref: 110
4) A person who is suddenly set down on a commune in rural China would most likely undergo:
A) change to conform to the Chinese modal personality
B) the process of the lookingglass self
C) the process of resocialization
D) a severe anxiety attack
Answer: C
Page Ref: 120
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TEST BANK
5) The emergence of the self as a result of interaction with others is a common thread in ALL BUT ONE of the
following theories:
A) lookingglass self
B) symbolic interactionism
C) behaviorism
D) developmental theory
Answer: C
Page Ref: 110
6) Maturation is a term used by developmental psychologists to refer to:
A) the development of personality
B) physical (biological) development
C) the development of natural resources
D) the aging process, or senescence
Answer: B
Page Ref: 108
7) Which of the following refers to Piaget's developmental theory?
A) Personality development acts independently of physical development
B) Personality development proceeds in stages related to sensorymotor maturation
C) Behavior is the product of genetic predispositions
D) The most important influence on personality development is social class
Answer: B
Page Ref: 113
8) What is one difference between Freud's developmental stages and Erikson's?
A) Freud stopped at adolescence
B) Freud thought all conflicts were conscious
C) Freud saw conflicts with parents as predominant
D) Freud only worked with males
Answer: A
Page Ref: 110-113
9) According to George Herbert Mead, the self is:
A) the subconscious mind
B) an individual's selfconcept or selfawareness
C) a person's conscience
D) the equivalent of the libido in Freud's theory
Answer: B
Page Ref: 110
10) The "significant others" of Mead's theory are:
A) important because they provide the initial role models
B) unimportant because models do not influence personality
C) constituted by governmental authorities who must be obeyed
D) similar to the ego of Freud's theory
Answer: A
Page Ref: 110
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
11) An individual learns to be a human being by:
A) instincts
B) socialization
C) cosmic influences
D) in our society, watching television
Answer: B
Page Ref: 108
12) Socialization involves the use of which process to turn a "horde of barbarians" into productive human beings?
A) trial and error
B) reinforcement
C) symbolic and physical interaction
D) prohibition
Answer: C
Page Ref: 108
13) Maturation for humans involves:
A) socialization
B) the development of instincts
C) physical development
D) learning to be responsible
Answer: C
Page Ref: 104
14) Successful socialization for humans requires:
A) the absence of others
B) genes alone
C) contact with other humans
D) the existence of schools or the media
Answer: C
Page Ref: 106
15) A personality refers to:
A) behavioral traits of a person
B) emotions of a person
C) attitudes of a person
D) none of the above
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 104
16) When one knows the roles that one is expected to play and is willing and able to do so, one is:
A) successfully socialized
B) brainwashed
C) conditioned
D) a significant other
Answer: A
Page Ref: 104
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TEST BANK
17) Personality must be considered as:
A) interplay between environment and learned behavior
B) a result of biology alone
C) role demands
D) more a function of heredity than anything else
Answer: A
Page Ref: 104-106
18) Humans exhibit:
A) no biological needs
B) strong instincts
C) biological drives
D) natural conditioning
Answer: C
Page Ref: 106
19) Human infants, in order to become successful adults, need:
A) learning
B) social interaction
C) body contact
D) none of the above
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 104-107
20) The human infant's first step in socialization is:
A) awareness of self
B) walking
C) speaking
D) crying
Answer: A
Page Ref: 107
21) Telling a child "You should always say thank you when someone gives you something" is an example of:
A) conscious socialization
B) unconscious socialization
C) subconscious socialization
D) conscience socialization
Answer: A
Page Ref: 108
22) Socialization happens in:
A) children
B) adults
C) persons of all ages
D) infants
Answer: C
Page Ref: 108
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
23) People who are important in shaping your self-concept and whose approval you wish to have are:
A) significant others
B) generalized others
C) the I and the me
D) the ego and the superego
Answer: A
Page Ref: 110
24) An example of unconscious socialization would be:
A) child taught to read
B) child absorbing parents' attitudes toward race
C) correcting a child's use of words
D) child taught to use knife and fork
Answer: B
Page Ref: 108
25) Our type of society fosters:
A) a sense of calm
B) love of all humans
C) anxiety
D) none of the above
E) all of the above
Answer: C
Page Ref: 108
26) Cooley's lookingglass self refers to:
A) self regard based on instinct
B) a person's perception as to what others think of him/her
C) negative self image
D) positive self image
Answer: B
Page Ref: 109
27) Children have taken on the role of the generalized other when:
A) most of the important norms have been internalized
B) they start school
C) they have learned to speak
D) they are consciously socialized
Answer: A
Page Ref: 110
28) Agents of socialization consist of:
A) instincts
B) genes
C) drives
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 114
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TEST BANK
29) The primary agent of socialization is the:
A) peer group
B) school
C) family
D) mass media
Answer: C
Page Ref: 114
30) Recent studies related to daycare centers indicate that:
A) children are generally emotionally impaired by them
B) children lose intellectual progress
C) there is no important loss or gain in intellectual development in well managed centers
D) they are a breeding ground of child abuse
Answer: C
Page Ref: 115-117
31) The mass media, especially TV, have been:
A) definitely proven to increase the crime rate
B) definitely proven to improve school learning
C) providing a realistic view of the world
D) none of the above
E) all of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 119
32) A child shows her parents how to operate a computer. This situation reflects:
A) primary socialization
B) secondary socialization
C) reverse socialization
D) tertiary socialization
Answer: C
Page Ref: 119-120
33) A prison is a:
A) primary institution
B) secondary institution
C) total institution
D) reverse institution
Answer: C
Page Ref: 120
34) Freudian psychoanalytic theory emphasizes the importance of the:
A) unconscious level of personality
B) conscious level of personality
C) the absence of the unconscious level
D) empirical level of personality
Answer: A
Page Ref: 110
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
35) The superego of Freud's theory is similar to Mead's:
A) I
B) me
C) generalized other
D) libido
Answer: C
Page Ref: 111
36) A major criticism of Freud's theory is:
A) his overemphasis on early childhood
B) his overemphasis on adulthood
C) nonehis theory is widely accepted
D) his stress on the spiritual facet of personality
Answer: A
Page Ref: 111
37) According to Freud, certain mental problems are caused by an adult being fixed in a stage of development.
From that perspective, an adult who constantly licks lollipops is stuck in which stage?
A) anal stage
B) genital stage
C) oral stage
D) Oedipal stage
Answer: C
Page Ref: 111
38) According Piaget's developmental theory:
A) a child of five can learn philosophy
B) a child of one can understand social rules
C) a child of eight can master addition
D) none of the above
E) all of the above
Answer: C
Page Ref: 113
39) Gestalt psychology looks at:
A) separate items of personality
B) behavior as a whole
C) instincts
D) physical appearance
Answer: B
Page Ref: 124
40) The biological basis of human personality derives from:
A) the absence of instincts
B) the need for love
C) the need for body contact
D) all of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 104-106
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TEST BANK
41) Which is NOT an aim of the process of socialization?
A) To teach infants to sit, stand, walk, and run in that order
B) To teach infants the fundamentals of life in society
C) To instill societal aspirations
D) To transmit skills important in the society
Answer: A
Page Ref: 108
42) The psychodynamic theories of personality are associated with:
A) Charles Horton Cooley
B) Sigmund Freud
C) George Herbert Mead
D) Jean Piaget
Answer: B
Page Ref: 110-112
43) Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers are associated with the following theories of personality:
A) developmental
B) stressing selfconcept and selfactualization
C) psychoanalytic
D) environmental determinism
Answer: B
Page Ref: 124
44) Studies of siblings who shared parents, social class, and everyday experiences have shown that they:
A) view the same experiences differently
B) arrive at a common view point through discussion
C) perceive the same events in the same way
D) pretend to disagree when they really agree
Answer: A
Page Ref: 106
45) When the Ik of Uganda lost their traditional hunting grounds, they:
A) rapidly became shepherds
B) their formerly outgoing personalities changed
C) became savage warriors
D) became outgoing, accomplished entrepreneurs
Answer: B
Page Ref: 107
46) A sense of one's distinctiveness is a first step toward:
A) successful conditioning
B) successful socialization
C) personality
D) the emergence of self
Answer: D
Page Ref: 107
47) According to Mead, the generalized other is:
A) one's mother
B) shame
C) societal norms
D) analytic internalization
Answer: C
Page Ref: 109
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
48) Personality may be seen as a circular system in that:
A) every adult experience cycles back to childhood
B) personality affects roles and vice-versa
C) all feelings revolve around the self
D) all experience is based on preconceptions
Answer: B
Page Ref: 104
49) Hunger, thirst, and the need for sex are:
A) instincts
B) conditioned responses
C) biological drives
D) stimuli
Answer: C
Page Ref: 105
50) Absence of body contact and stimulation in infants inhibits:
A) instinctual development
B) development of higher learning functions
C) biological drives
D) aggressive behavior
Answer: B
Page Ref: 105-106
51) Adult socialization typically:
A) occurs incidentally and unconsciously
B) involves acquiring a self-image
C) is less effective and easier to resist than childhood socialization
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: C
Page Ref: 108
52) Anger is:
A) an innate human response to deprivation and frustration
B) a definite, sharply defined emotion
C) subject to manipulation
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 108
53) In the metaphor of the "looking-glass self,": the looking glass represents:
A) the expressed judgment of one's peers
B) the imagined judgments of others
C) the person's self-feeling, such as pride
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: B
Page Ref: 109
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TEST BANK
54) According to George H. Mead, mind is:
A) the acting subject, as opposed to "object"
B) the source of experience
C) an emergent outcome of social acts
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 110
55) Mead's "I":
A) corresponds to Freud's "ego"
B) emerged before the "me"
C) eventually completely merges with the "me"
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: B
Page Ref: 110
56) According to Freud, the crucial institution for the development of personality is:
A) religion
B) the family
C) the economy
D) education
Answer: B
Page Ref: 110-111
57) Psychodynamic approaches to personality are so named because:
A) they are based on a sophisticated definition of instinct
B) they emphasize sexual dysfunction
C) they stress the irrational
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: A
Page Ref: 110
58) Freud located the "libido:"
A) within the Id
B) within family relations
C) in the genital stage
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: A
Page Ref: 110
59) The sequence of Freud's psychosexual stages is:
A) anal, genital, oral, phallic, and Oedipal
B) oral, anal, phallic, Oedipal, and latency
C) oral, Oedipal, phallic, latency, and genital
D) oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 111
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
60) Defense mechanisms function to:
A) protect the superego
B) deceive sexual targets
C) ward off sexual advances
D) deflect anxiety
Answer: D
Page Ref: 111
61) The term "neo-Freudian" refers to:
A) behavior based on sexual drives
B) thinkers prior to Freud who anticipated his ideas
C) thinkers opposed to psychoanalysis
D) thinkers influenced by Freud who have modified his ideas
Answer: D
Page Ref: 111
62) Like Freud, Erik Erikson maintains that:
A) there are five psychosexual stages
B) the personality is fixed by age five
C) psychoanalysis, including dream analysis, is the only way to overcome personality problems
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 111-112
63) In Erikson's system, each of the stages present the individual with:
A) ethical dilemmas
B) opportunities for self-transcendence
C) crises of self-definition
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: C
Page Ref: 112
64) The succession of stages in Jean Piaget's model of cognitive development is:
A) infancy, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood
B) early childhood, play, concrete operational, and formal operational
C) sensimotor, pre-operational, intuitive operational, and concrete operational
D) sensorimotor, intuitive operational, concrete operational, and formal operational
E) none of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 113
65) Lawrence Kohlberg's theory of moral development claims:
A) universal validity
B) limited applicability to technologically-advanced societies
C) the desire for equality is peculiar to democratic nations
D) postconventional morality is a luxury few cultures and societies can afford
Answer: A
Page Ref: 113-114
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TEST BANK
66) Kohlberg's three stages of moral development are:
A) conventional, postconventional, and legal-rational
B) pre-conventional, authoritarian, and post-conventional
C) pre-conventional, conventional, and post-conventional
D) charismatic, traditional, and legal-rational
E) none of the above
Answer: C
Page Ref: 114
67) The newest challenge to the family's formerly exclusive claim to the socialization of its children has come from:
A) the peer group
B) the mass media
C) the day-care center
D) child psychotherapy
Answer: C
Page Ref: 116
68) Recent research supports the notion that mother-infant bonding:
A) has a cultural basis
B) has a biological basis
C) depends on how wanted the infant is
D) none of the above
Answer: B
Page Ref: 105
69) An infant's cries for help:
A) signify a weakness in its development
B) are instrumental in cementing the mother-infant bonding
C) should be ignored or the infant will be spoiled
D) are natural in all mammals
Answer: B
Page Ref: 106
5.3 Essay Questions
1) Describe your socialization experiences. Who were your significant others, during childhood, during
adolescence? Who are your significant others now? Would you say that you successfully tamed the "id" or the "I,"
and are you aware of having passed through a number of stages in your life so far?
Answer:
Page Ref:
2) Knowing what you now know about socialization and the formation of personality, how will you raise your
children?
Answer:
Page Ref:
3) Societies must socialize each new generation to conform to certain norms, else the society would disintegrate in
chaos. Yet, one of our strong cultural values is individualism, which militates against conformity. How do most
individuals reconcile the need for conformity with the need to express their individuality? Do we dance to society's
tune? If we do not, what are the consequences? Give examples.
Answer:
Page Ref:
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
Chapter 6 Deviance and Criminality: The Need for Social Control
6.1 True/False Questions
1) Both psychologists and sociologists view deviant behavior as pathological.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 130
2) The treatment of deviants depends on how deviance is viewed and explained by society.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 129
3) Biological explanations of deviance attribute it to inborn, genetically-transmitted traits.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 131-132
4) Deviance is more common in heterogeneous societies.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 128
5) Deviance is dangerous to societies because it threatens order.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 130
6) Deviance is always destructive to societies.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 130
7) Mental illness is never a cause of deviant behavior because the mentally ill are not responsible for their behavior.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 133-134
8) Criminals constitute a large percentage of the total population.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 128
9) "Departure from social norms" is an adequate definition of deviance.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 129
10) It is correct to say that deviance is relative.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 129
11) One of the functions of deviance is as a model for how not to behave.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 130
12) The existence of deviance enhances group cohesion in non-deviants.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 130
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TEST BANK
13) Researchers believe that deviance has a destabilizing effect on society.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 130
14) Deviance never leads to social change.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 130
15) Psychologists search for the reasons for deviance in the interactions of people.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 135-36
16) The Italian criminologist Cesare Lombroso believed that criminal types were born, not made, and that they
could be recognized by certain physical traits.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 131-132
17) According to William Sheldon, mesomorphs are disproportionately represented among delinquent boys.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 131
18) The Gluecks maintained that body type predisposes individuals toward deviant behavior.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 131
19) Scientists have concluded that deviance has a single, biological cause: some people cannot control their
impulses nor defer gratification.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 131-132
20) Sigmund Freud believed that deviance results when the superego is insufficiently developed and cannot control
the other components of the personality.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 135
21) An overdeveloped superego can also lead to deviance, according to Freud.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 135
22) Psychological theories follow a medical model, but are more sophisticated.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 135
23) Psychosomatic disorders are not expressed in any physical disease.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 133
24) People afflicted with neuroses cannot function in society and are considered disabled.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 134
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
25) Serial killers are usually neurotic.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 134
26) Schizophrenia is a psychosis which generally requires the affected person to be institutionalized.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 134
27) A person who believes that the CIA is trying to kill him is probably suffering from paranoia.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 134
28) Frontal lobotomies are a successful method of treating mental disorders.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 135
29) An early attempt to see deviance from a sociological perspective was made by Emile Durkheim.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 136
30) The concept of anomie is associated with Sigmund Freud.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 136-138
31) Robert Merton sees deviance as the result of the lack of balance between what society puts up as its goals and
the means at the disposal of people to reach those goals.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 138
32) Anomie theory does not lend itself to the explanation of gang membership.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 137-138
33) Anomie theory focuses on society, rather than on the individual, as the source of deviance.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 138
34) The proposition that deviance is learned through symbolic interaction is the basis of the anomie theory.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 137
35) Edwin Sutherland is associated with the cultural transmission theory.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 138
36) Howard Becker was instrumental in developing the labeling theory.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 139
37) Everyone engages in secondary deviance, but not everyone engages in primary deviance.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 139
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TEST BANK
38) Crime and deviance are basically the same thing.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 140
39) Index crimes are the most serious because they consist in violations of mores and taboos.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 141
40) The highest number of index crimes is committed by individuals in the age group of 18 to 24 years.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 144-146
6.2 Multiple-Choice Questions
1) The concept of deviance refers to:
A) going in the wrong direction
B) bad manners
C) departure from social norms
D) reversing one's opinion
Answer: C
Page Ref: 129
2) According to the text, the following people were/are deviant:
A) Joan of Arc
B) Mozart
C) The Hell's Angels
D) People with high IQs
Answer: C
Page Ref: 129
3) Deviance is defined:
A) in the same way everywhere
B) in some cultures, as nonexistent
C) in the context of time and place
D) as another world for crime
Answer: C
Page Ref: 129
4) Deviance:
A) shows what is proper behavior
B) helps group cohesiveness
C) promotes social change
D) all of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 130
5) The biological explanations of deviance include:
A) Lombroso's criminal types
B) Sheldon's mesomorphs
C) the extra Y chromosome
D) all of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 131-132
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
6) An emotional disorder that still allows one to work in society is called a(n):
A) neurosis
B) psychosis
C) halitosis
D) prognosis
Answer: A
Page Ref: 134
7) Schizophrenia is:
A) another name for split personality
B) a term meaning "to hallucinate"
C) applied to a number of disturbances for lack of any other label
D) a psychosomatic disorder
Answer: C
Page Ref: 134
8) Merton attributed deviance to "anomie," meaning:
A) lack of legitimate means to attain group goals
B) mental retardation
C) neurosis
D) wild mood swings
Answer: A
Page Ref: 137
9) Index crimes include all but one of the following:
A) manslaughter
B) robbery
C) moving traffic violation
D) aggravated assault
Answer: C
Page Ref: 141
10) The treatment of mental illness based on rewards and punishment is referred to as:
A) chemotherapy
B) hypnotherapy
C) shock therapy
D) behavior therapy
Answer: D
Page Ref: 135
11) Studies of delinquent gangs indicate that:
A) gang norms are substituted for society's norms in some cases
B) gangs are useful for society
C) gangs have no norms
D) none of the above
E) all of the above
Answer: A
Page Ref: 138
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TEST BANK
12) A mother who says "If you hang out with bums, you will become a bum" favors which theory of deviance?
A) Differential association
B) Anomie
C) Labeling theory
D) Gang imitation theory
Answer: A
Page Ref: 138
13) According to the cultural transmission theory, deviance is learned through:
A) genetic inheritance
B) being labeled as deviant
C) close association with deviants
D) all of the above
Answer: C
Page Ref: 138
14) According to the differential association theory, deviant acts are:
A) considered normal by some antisocial individuals
B) caused by abnormal chromosomes
C) learned through interaction with others
D) the result of social deprivation
Answer: C
Page Ref: 138
15) To some degree, according to some research, heredity determines:
A) the ability to control impulses
B) leadership abilities
C) sociability
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 132
16) Deviance is defined as:
A) breaking legal codes
B) behavior forbidden by religion
C) behavior that passes the limits of what the social group tolerates
D) any violation of societal norms
Answer: C
Page Ref: 129
17) Deviant individuals:
A) set examples for others, thus reaffirming existing norms
B) are invented by society to promote group cohesion
C) hinder group cohesion by disrupting stability
D) prevent social change from occurring
Answer: A
Page Ref: 130
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
18) According to the labeling theory, which of the following concepts explains why a labeled individual becomes
deviant?
A) Resocialization
B) Ethnocentrism
C) Selffulfilling prophecy
D) Rebellion
Answer: C
Page Ref: 139
19) The theory speculating that every society develops a number of cultural goals for members to attain, but that
attainment is not possible for all, is called the:
A) anomie theory
B) differential association theory
C) deviant personality theory
D) focal concerns theory
Answer: A
Page Ref: 136-138
20) Deviance is relative because:
A) psychologists prefer the term "abnormality"
B) moralists prefer the term "immorality"
C) the definition of social norms varies by culture and subculture
D) no two people agree what deviance is
Answer: C
Page Ref: 129
21) Determining that a particular act is deviant may depend on:
A) the place, time, and circumstances
B) the social status of the person committing the act
C) the social status of those judging the act
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 129
22) From a sociological viewpoint, to say that deviance has functions means that:
A) deviant acts serve the individual's purpose
B) deviant acts are escape valves for anxiety
C) deviance may contribute to group cohesion
D) successful deviants become stronger people
Answer: C
Page Ref: 129
23) Deviance contributes to social change in that:
A) today's deviant is tomorrow's leader
B) deviant acts invariably point to outdated rules
C) deviance is a fad
D) some actions initially defined as deviant eventually become generally accepted
Answer: D
Page Ref: 130
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TEST BANK
24) Deviance that has not been discovered is called:
A) secondary deviance
B) final deviance
C) primary deviance
D) sinful deviance
Answer: C
Page Ref: 139
25) Deviance that has been exposed leads to:
A) anomie
B) labeling
C) transmission
D) forgiveness
Answer: B
Page Ref: 139
26) Labeling theory has been criticized because:
A) an undiscovered teller who steals from his bank is still a deviant
B) it does not take biology into consideration
C) it discounts the power of anomie
D) it is necessary to be realistic about people's behavior
Answer: A
Page Ref: 139
27) Deviance that is covered by the laws of a society is called:
A) anomie
B) alienation
C) crime
D) differentiation
Answer: C
Page Ref: 140-141
28) Which of the following is an index crime?
A) being in a football pool
B) speeding
C) robbery
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: C
Page Ref: 141
29) White-collar crime:
A) is based on violence
B) gains small amounts of money for its perpetrators
C) is very costly to society
D) is punished more severely than blue-collar crime
Answer: C
Page Ref: 143
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30) Which is true of crimes against persons in the United States?
A) The homicide rate is one of the lowest in the industrial world.
B) The homicide rate had been decreasing in the past several years, but is rising again..
C) Rape is an unknown crime in the U.S.
D) Most homicides are committed with knives.
Answer: B
Page Ref: 145
31) The Uniform Crime Reports:
A) are an accurate reflection of the crime rate in the U.S.
B) focus mainly on "index crimes"
C) indicate that most crimes are solved
D) deal with the number of crimes actually committed
Answer: B
Page Ref: 144
32) The criminal justice system of the United States:
A) has a high rate of apprehension
B) is engaged in vigorously prosecuting white-collar criminals
C) punishes only 5% of serious criminals with incarceration
D) handles whites and minorities in the same proportion as they are found in the population
Answer: C
Page Ref: 148
33) Compared to other democratic nations, the U.S. has:
A) more crowded jails
B) longer prison terms
C) the death penalty for murder
D) none of the above
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 149
34) American prisons are:
A) effective in reducing recidivism
B) effective in deterring crime
C) effective as schools of crime
D) effective in reducing crime
Answer: C
Page Ref: 152
35) The U.S. has:
A) an unusually high imprisonment rate
B) milder penalties than most other Western countries
C) a large number of imprisoned white-collar criminals
D) fewer jails than other industrialized countries
Answer: A
Page Ref: 149
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TEST BANK
36) A condition of normlessness and separation from legitimate modes of behavior is termed:
A) trauma
B) anomie
C) alienation
D) anomaly
Answer: B
Page Ref: 136
37) Which of the following acts does NOT constitute a crime if committed by an adult?
A) Illegal drug use
B) Copyright infringement
C) Prostitution
D) Homicide
E) Truancy
Answer: E
Page Ref: 143
38) Which of the following is a social order crime?
A) Premeditated murder
B) Rape
C) Public drunkenness
D) Burglary
E) Arson
Answer: C
Page Ref: 143
39) According to the differential association theory, deviant acts are:
A) considered normal by some antisocial individuals
B) caused by abnormal chromosomes
C) learned through interaction with others
D) the result of social deprivation
Answer: C
Page Ref: 138
40) Which of the following is an example of a sociological theory of deviant behavior?
A) Freud's theory that anatomy is destiny
B) Mead's theory of inherited criminality
C) Cooley's theory of original sin
D) None of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 136-140
41) Biological explanations of deviance:
A) were popular during the first half of the 20th century
B) agree on the causes of deviance
C) are strongly supported scientifically
D) explain all types of deviance
Answer: A
Page Ref: 131
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42) Primary deviance:
A) is deviance of which we are all guilty, at one time or another
B) occurs when deviants accept the label
C) is a more serious offense than secondary deviance
D) is the first deviant act ever discovered
Answer: A
Page Ref: 139
43) Serious mental disorders that often require periods of hospitalization or institutionalization are called:
A) neuroses
B) sociopathologies
C) psychoses
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: C
Page Ref: 134
44) Psychosomatic illness entails:
A) anxiety or emotional tension producing physical symptoms
B) purely imaginary physical problems
C) bodily ailments creating mental disorder
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: A
Page Ref: 133
45) A medical model of deviance assumes that it is caused by:
A) illness
B) abnormality
C) mental defects
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 133
46) A form of treatment for severe mental disorders that has been largely abandoned is:
A) psychotherapy
B) psychosurgery
C) hypnotherapy
D) electroconvulsive shock therapy
Answer: B
Page Ref: 135
47) Criminologists Cloward and Ohlin classified delinquent gangs into which of the following categories?
A) Ritualistic, territorial, rebel
B) Realist, drug and alcohol, territorial
C) Conflict, subcultural, criminal
D) Criminal, realist, conflict
Answer: D
Page Ref: 138
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TEST BANK
48) Another name for cultural transmission theory is:
A) anomie
B) labeling theory
C) innovation
D) differential association theory
Answer: D
Page Ref: 138
49) According to Edwin Sutherland, becoming deviant is a matter of:
A) inventing or creating new ways of seeing
B) modeling oneself on mass media characters
C) learning in small groups
D) learning a society's traditions
Answer: C
Page Ref: 138
50) Howard Becker's term for the process whereby individuals are accused, sermonized, and punished is:
A) primary deviance
B) secondary deviance
C) tertiary deviance
D) labeling
Answer: D
Page Ref: 139
51) Secondary deviance does not occur unless people:
A) reject deviant labels
B) accept deviant labels and eliminate the behavior in question
C) reject the deviant labels but maintain the behavior in question
D) accept the deviant labels and maintain the behavior in question
Answer: D
Page Ref: 140
52) Gambling and prostitution are included in the category of:
A) organized crime
B) crimes against persons
C) social order crimes
D) sins against religious teaching
Answer: C
Page Ref: 143
53) Embezzlement and fraud are two examples of:
A) white collar crime
B) crimes against persons
C) organized crime
D) property crimes
Answer: A
Page Ref: 143
54) Drug addiction has been characterized as a victimless crime, meaning:
A) drug addiction is a sustainable life style
B) drug users are not responsible for their actions
C) addicts choose to be addicted, and hurt no one but themselves
D) society does not care what happens to addicts
Answer: C
Page Ref: 143
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55) Our justice system cannot work as decisively as it might because: a. constitutional safeguards of individual
rights are observed
A) American judges tend to impose more lenient sentences than their European counterparts
B) our rate of incarceration is lower than that of Japan or Europe
C) all of the above
D) none of the above
Answer: A
Page Ref: 145
56) Among the causes of violence, the most probable is/are:
A) a shocking decline in moral standards
B) a street ethic that requires young men to commit murder to prove their manhood
C) violence presented as entertainment by the media
D) poverty, drugs, and hopelessness
Answer: D
Page Ref: 141
57) A low incidence of crime is more characteristic of:
A) homogeneous societies
B) societies that value the social group over the individual
C) societies with a ruthless police force
D) only A and B
Answer: D
Page Ref: 143
58) Two nations with a low street-crime rate are:
A) Honduras and Mexico
B) Japan and Finland
C) Switzerland and France
D) Germany and Austria
Answer: B
Page Ref: 128
59) Illegal acts that are characterized by deceit, concealment, or violation of trust is the FBI's definition of:
A) arson
B) robbery
C) white-collar crime
D) organized crime
Answer: C
Page Ref: 143
60) Crimes that are tolerated more than others because they seldom include violence include:
A) copyright infringement
B) date rape
C) price fixing
D) all but B
Answer: D
Page Ref: 143
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TEST BANK
61) The high cost of fighting crime is due in large part to:
A) the increase in organized crime
B) high unemployment rates
C) tax cuts instituted by the present administration
D) an increase in prison inmates
Answer: D
Page Ref: 152
62) The price of fighting crime in the U.S.:
A) has been radically lowered in the last decade
B) has remained the same as in earlier years
C) has increased dramatically, by billions of dollars
D) is negligible in comparison to societies such as Japan
Answer: C
Page Ref: 152
63) The death penalty:
A) has been reinstated by the United States in 1976
B) is in effect in 38 states
C) is illegal in the United States
D) only A and B
Answer: D
Page Ref: 153-154
64) Americans:
A) support the death penalty, but prefer life imprisonment without possibility for parole
B) are against the death penalty in large numbers
C) are for the death penalty in large numbers
D) believe in the "eye for an eye" biblical revenge system
Answer: A
Page Ref: 154
65) The rationalization for having capital punishment is that:
A) it prevents capital crime
B) it acts as a deterrent
C) societies need to threaten prospective criminals
D) it protects the Biblical commandment against killing
Answer: B
Page Ref: 154
66) According to criminologists:
A) the death penalty does act as a deterrent
B) the death penalty does not act as a deterrent
C) the death penalty is a sign of an uncivilized society
D) it is preferable to judge each criminal case individually
Answer: B
Page Ref: 154
67) The greatest problem with capital punishment is that:
A) many witnesses lie
B) it is a cruel way to end someone's life
C) sometimes an innocent person is put to death
D) only God has the right to kill
Answer: C
Page Ref: 154
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
68) Between 1973 and 1995:
A) no death penalty cases were overturned
B) two-thirds of death penalty verdicts were overturned
C) the number on death row diminished to a few
D) none of the above
Answer: B
Page Ref: 154
69) Among the reasons for overturning death penalty verdicts on appeal are:
A) improved DNA technology
B) findings of incompetent counsel
C) indications that prosecutors or police withheld information
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 154
6.3 Essay Questions
1) Most people know how they should behave and agree about the value of the golden rule: do unto others as you
would have them do onto you. Yet, most people violate the golden rule, in big ways or small, every day. Why? Is
violence part of the human makeup?: Through the thousands of years of evolution, why did people retain such
emotions as anger, or such feelings as frustration and anxiety, or hatred and distrust of strangers? Are these traits
necessary to our survival?
Answer:
Page Ref:
2) In your opinion, what is most responsible for people's behavior, nature or nurture? Consider the grim activities of
people like the young man who not only killed his victims, but dismembered them, keeping some in his refrigerator
to eat. This individual not only violated many important mores (kidnapping, torture, murder), but also broke wellentrenched taboos (eating human flesh). What made him do it? Was he born with some mental abnormality? Was his
socialization at fault (he came from a family of educated, middle-class parents)? What should society do with such
an individual?
Answer:
Page Ref:
3) Why is the breaking of social norms so much more prevalent in a free, democratic, heterogeneous society?
Should our society adopt stricter rules in order to apprehend and punish more lawbreakers? Should the death penalty
be adopted nationally and for lesser crimes than murder? What are the dangers of a harsh, punitive society?
Answer:
Page Ref:
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TEST BANK
Chapter 7 The Great Divide: Ranking and Stratification
7.1 True/False Questions
1) Social scientists assume that stratification is a consequence of the way resources are distributed in a society.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 158
2) In the classical liberal view inequality is considered part of the law of nature.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 159-160
3) The view that humans are basically selfish and greedy is at the bottom of conflict theory.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 161
4) Functionalist theorists view stratification systems as mechanisms of coercion.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 160-161
5) Max Weber agreed with Karl Marx that stratification included the dimensions of life chances, status, and power.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 162
6) In American society, positions of high status are awarded on merit alone.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 163164
7) The desire to obtain a high status is universal, at least in our society.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 163-164
8) Stratification disappears in societies that are able to produce a surplus.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 158
9) Social mobility refers to the society's willingness to change the system of stratification.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 184
10) Education is the most important variable in upward mobility.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 185-186
11) At the two extremes of the stratification system, vertical mobility is common.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 184
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
12) Part of the reason for greater mobility in industrial societies is the effect of the upgrading of the work force.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 185
13) All human social systems are characterized by inequalities stemming from social differentiation.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 158
14) Functionalists stress the needs of the society over those of the individual because individual needs can only be
satisfied within a society.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 160-161
15) Everyone agrees about what are the essential functions in a society.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 161
16) Marx pointed out that the existence of inequality was a motivating force for people, making them work harder
to acquire wealth, status, and power.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 161
17) The President of the United States possesses social power which, since it is exercised legitimately, is called
authority.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 165
18) The estate system permitted more social mobility than the caste system.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 166-167
19) To determine social class, researchers use either the occupational prestige approach, or such measures as the
SES.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 168
20) Child-rearing practices differ according to religion rather than according to social class.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 179
21) Members of the upper classes believe that luck and forces beyond their control govern their lives, whereas
middle-class people tend to think that they are in control of their lives.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 181
22) The "New Class" is a term that describes a professional middle class consisting of journalists, academics,
writers, media commentators, and others who have skills important in an information society.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 171
23) Vertical mobility means that a person obtains a better or worse job than the previous one, whereas horizontal
mobility means that the person changes jobs, but at no greater salary and with no greater status.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 181
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TEST BANK
24) It has been suggested that in the 1990s, the restraints of class that had eased following World War II began to
emerge again.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 183
25) In the United States, poverty does not mean absolute deprivation, as it does in the Third World, but rather
relative deprivation, or a comparison to others in the society.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 172
7.2 Multiple-Choice Questions
1) According to Karl Marx:
A) classes are the result of different life styles
B) status is also a phenomenon of stratification
C) classes are determined by the relationship of a group in society to the means of production
D) classes are composed of the have-nots who eventually revolt against the haves
Answer: C
Page Ref: 162
2) All systems of stratification display the following characteristics except:
A) differentiation
B) segmentation
C) ranking
D) institutionalization
Answer: B
Page Ref: 158
3) Negative life chances correspond to:
A) a high position in the stratification system
B) a low position in the stratification system
C) lack of talent
D) lack of desire for an education
Answer: B
Page Ref: 162
4) "The ability of one individual or group to control the actions of another individual or group without the latter's
consent" is a definition of:
A) coercion
B) violence
C) power
D) force
Answer: C
Page Ref: 164
5) If a janitor got a job as a security guard because it was closer to home, he would be experiencing:
A) horizontal mobility
B) vertical mobility
C) intragenerational mobility
D) interstructural mobility
Answer: A
Page Ref: 181
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
6) Social ranking is based on:
A) age
B) sex
C) wealth
D) none of the above
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 158
7) Among preliterate peoples:
A) food is hoarded by a few
B) food is shared by all
C) hunting lacks prestige
D) none of the above
Answer: B
Page Ref: 159
8) In stratified societies, categories of people are ranked by:
A) wealth
B) power
C) prestige
D) none of the above
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 159
9) Stratification occurs in societies that have a:
A) surplus
B) shortage of everything
C) equality
D) capitalistic system
Answer: A
Page Ref: 159
10) Social Darwinists believed that:
A) resources belong to all the people
B) only the strongest persons should control the resources of a society
C) the weak shall inherit the earth
D) natural selection was a hoax
Answer: B
Page Ref: 159
11) The classical conservative approach to stratification is that:
A) inequality is the law of nature
B) stratification must be legislated
C) inequality results from exploitation
D) none of the above
Answer: A
Page Ref: 159
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TEST BANK
12) The structuralfunctionalist explanation of social stratification asserts that:
A) nature demands the existence of social classes
B) there is a limited number of skilled, talented people; thus, they should be rewarded
C) resources are plentiful, so there is enough for all
D) people were not meant to work
Answer: B
Page Ref: 160-161
13) Criticisms of structuralfunctionalism include:
A) who says that a football player is more important than a college professor?
B) sons of talented persons are privileged even if they themselves lack talent
C) is a stable society better than an unequal society?
D) none of the above
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 161
14) Marx's view of social class is that:
A) private ownership of the means of production perpetuates class divisions
B) talented people will always rise to the top
C) religion helps fight social inequality
D) the bourgeoisie will eventually triumph
Answer: A
Page Ref: 161
15) Which of the following is a criticism of Marxist theory?
A) Inequality is a motivating force for people to rise in the stratification system
B) Everyone is talented equally
C) Marxism tries to explain all social problems
D) Democracy delivers equality better than Marxism does
Answer: A
Page Ref: 161
16) Max Weber believed that:
A) property was the only determinant of class
B) class was based on exploitation of the masses
C) class is closely related to life chances
D) societies should have at least three classes
Answer: C
Page Ref: 162
17) A modern definition of class maintains that social class is constituted by:
A) the owners of the means of production
B) persons who have similar forms of power, prestige, or wealth
C) categories of people set up by governments
D) people especially endowed by nature
Answer: B
Page Ref: 162-163
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
18) Martin Luther King's status was based on his:
A) wealth
B) property
C) social influence
D) color
Answer: C
Page Ref: 163-164
19) The following people enjoy both status and wealth in our society:
A) professors
B) physicians
C) ministers
D) research scientists
Answer: B
Page Ref: 164
20) In the Soviet Union, most physicians are women; however, they earn less than skilled male machinists. This
situation is an example of:
A) status attainment
B) status inconsistency
C) status equality
D) status mastery
Answer: B
Page Ref: 164
21) Power is:
A) the most important feature of stratification
B) restricted to a small elite in traditional societies
C) widely distributed and diffused in industrial societies
D) none of the above
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 165
22) Which is characteristic of a strictly closed society?
A) Estate
B) Class
C) Caste
D) Strata
Answer: C
Page Ref: 166
23) In an open, or class, society:
A) status is always achieved
B) status is always ascribed
C) status is both achieved and ascribed
D) status has no importance
Answer: C
Page Ref: 167-168
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24) Which society lacks social classes totally?
A) The Soviet Union
B) China
C) The United States
D) none of the above
E) all of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 167-168
25) An upwardly-mobile American is apt to:
A) marry late
B) be born into a high class family
C) have less schooling as his/her parents
D) have little ambition
Answer: A
Page Ref: 185
26) The concentration of wealth in the United States:
A) increased greatly between 1932 and 1968, due to Democratic policies
B) decreased during the Reagan Administration
C) greatly increased during the 1990s
D) has steadily increased since WWII as a result of massive technological changes
Answer: C
Page Ref: 178
27) The objective approach to determine social class membership is based on:
A) income
B) years of education
C) prestigious position
D) none of the above
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 168
28) The American trend toward the concentration of wealth and structural changes in the occupational sector:
A) are unique to the United States
B) are closely matched in Third World countries
C) reflect a global restructuring of trade, technology, and finance
D) will eliminate the underclass by the year 2010
Answer: C
Page Ref: 178
29) The modern approach to studying social classes, based on several dimensions of the stratification system, is the:
A) SES
B) BES
C) CES
D) TES
Answer: A
Page Ref: 168
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30) Discipline by middleclass parents generally consists of:
A) slapping or paddling the disobedient child
B) saying "Mother doesn't love a nasty boy"
C) loss of food
D) making the child sleep outdoors in foul weather
Answer: B
Page Ref: 181
31) In the United States, the upper classes tend to be:
A) Protestant (Episcopalian, Presbyterian, Anglican)
B) Roman Catholics
C) Jewish
D) Southern Baptists
Answer: A
Page Ref: 181
32) Divorce is more common among Americans belonging to the:
A) upper class
B) professional class
C) lower class
D) college-educated group
Answer: C
Page Ref: 181
33) When a bricklayer gets a job as a carpenter, the job switch exemplifies:
A) vertical mobility
B) horizontal mobility
C) intragenerational mobility
D) upward mobility
Answer: B
Page Ref: 184
34) Among the factors that favor individual mobility are:
A) late marriage
B) rural residence
C) one of many children
D) none of the above
E) all of the above
Answer: A
Page Ref: 184-186
35) Joe is president of United Airlines. His father was an aircraft mechanic. Joe's position represents:
A) horizontal mobility
B) intragenerational mobility
C) intergenerational mobility
D) immobility
Answer: C
Page Ref: 184
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TEST BANK
36) The similarity in patterns of mobility of the U.S., Britain, and Germany, are based on:
A) structural mobility
B) biological factors
C) closed systems
D) economic alliances
Answer: A
Page Ref: 185
37) The son of a bluecollar worker is more likely to become a top manager in:
A) Italy
B) Sweden
C) the U.S.
D) Denmark
Answer: C
Page Ref: 185
38) The most likely factor to overcome the low status of a father's occupation is:
A) education
B) religion
C) hard work
D) belonging to organized crime
Answer: A
Page Ref: 185
39) Open stratification systems are associated with:
A) industrialization
B) agriculture
C) pastoralism
D) hunter-gatherers
Answer: A
Page Ref: 167-168
40) Poverty in the United States tends to be based on:
A) absolute deprivation
B) relative deprivation
C) lack of motivation
D) ignorance
Answer: B
Page Ref: 173
41) Rates of poverty tend to be highest among:
A) femaleheaded households
B) children
C) minorities
D) none of the above
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 173
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
42) The most fundamental factor(s) in stratification is (are):
A) the ability to make someone do what you want
B) education and income
C) access to economic resources
D) an ambitious mother and later marriage
Answer: B
Page Ref: 168
43) Poverty is related to:
A) technological changes only
B) lack of work ethic
C) patterns of prejudice and technological change
D) discrimination only
Answer: C
Page Ref: 173-176
44) The overall poverty rate is highest among:
A) women
B) children under 6
C) the elderly
D) black males
Answer: B
Page Ref: 175
45) Modern industrial societies such as the United States most nearly approximate the model of:
A) an open or class society
B) a closed or caste society
C) an estate system
D) a masterslave system
Answer: A
Page Ref: 167-168
46) Most researchers today use only two approaches to determine social class. They are the:
A) life style approach
B) reputational approach
C) subjective approach
D) objective approach
E) occupational prestige and socioeconomic status (SES)
Answer: E
Page Ref: 168
47) Power is exercised in:
A) complex industrial societies
B) simple farming societies
C) hunting and gathering societies
D) all social systems
Answer: D
Page Ref: 165
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TEST BANK
48) Power is defined by Max Weber as the ability to:
A) be the strongest in mind and body
B) carry out one's wishes in spite of resistance
C) gain consent
D) do as one pleases
Answer: B
Page Ref: 165
49) The highest status in American society is held by persons:
A) with the highestpaid occupations
B) with high morals and reputation
C) who are aged and wise
D) who have good taste
Answer: A
Page Ref: 164
50) Status inconsistency is defined as:
A) the condition of persons who are ranked higher in one variable of status than another
B) the order of importance given to status variables
C) the mechanism high status persons use to protect themselves from competition
D) the least important dimension of stratification
Answer: A
Page Ref: 165
51) People who suffer from status inconsistency:
A) usually do not worry about it
B) tend to suffer more frustration and dissatisfaction than those whose status is consistent
C) work hard to accumulate wealth to make up for it
D) willingly accept a lower status in return for social recognition
Answer: B
Page Ref: 165
52) Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of an upwardly mobile individual?
A) Urban resident
B) More educated than parents
C) Comes from a large family of several brothers and sisters
D) Marries later and limits family to no more than two children
Answer: C
Page Ref: 184-186
53) Which are the dimensions of stratification?
A) Class, status, and power
B) Family background, attractiveness, wealth
C) Talent, service, goodness
D) Caste, estate, feudalism
Answer: A
Page Ref: 159
54) The ultimate effect of stratification systems is to:
A) create inequality
B) help people decide whom they should marry
C) provide a work force for society
D) fulfill the laws of nature
Answer: A
Page Ref: 159
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55) Conflict theorists view stratification systems as:
A) resulting from class struggles
B) effects of the law of nature
C) mechanisms of coercion
D) none of the above
E) BOTH coercive and resulting from class struggles
Answer: E
Page Ref: 161
56) Functionalist theorists view stratification systems as:
A) resulting from a need for order
B) providing a stabilizing influence on society
C) preventing conflicts among individuals
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 160-161
57) Present theories of stratification:
A) offer ways to end inequality
B) answer the question of what causes inequality
C) agree that inequality is an evil
D) offer two different ways of looking at inequality
Answer: D
Page Ref: 161
58) The important point about biological and cultural differences among people is:
A) the social meanings people give these differences
B) the evidence that some traits are more desirable than others
C) the fact that to have more is better than to have less in all circumstances
D) those with most power can determine cultural values
Answer: A
Page Ref: 158
59) Which is NOT a type of social differentiation?
A) Stratification
B) Ethnicity and race
C) Head shape and eye color
D) Sex and age
Answer: C
Page Ref: 158
60) Which statement is FALSE?
A) In simple societies, social differences among individuals are nonexistent.
B) Slavery, serfdom, and caste are all instances of inequalities that are social in nature
C) People rank themselves according to wealth, prestige, and power.
D) Stratification occurs in every society that has produced a surplus.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 159
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TEST BANK
61) Inequality has been explained as:
A) being part of the law of nature
B) resulting from the struggle for goods and services in a society
C) serving the needs of society
D) all of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 159-161
62) The conflict theory of inequality is based on the work of:
A) Charles Darwin
B) Karl Marx
C) Talcott Parsons
D) Kingsley Davis
Answer: B
Page Ref: 161
63) According to Gerhard Lenski, what is ". . . one of the few motives that can make men lay down their lives on
the field of battle"?
A) The love of a woman
B) The loss of social status
C) Patriotism
D) One's social class
Answer: B
Page Ref: 163-164
64) According to Blau and Duncan, occupational upward mobility is greatly influenced by:
A) the amount of education
B) occupation of the father
C) the nature of the first job
D) all of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 185
65) While there is more upward mobility than downward mobility in the U.S.:
A) most Americans experience little mobility
B) real earnings have declined in some sectors
C) it has become harder to climb out of poverty
D) all of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 185
66) There is inequality among the Siriono of Bolivia in that:
A) the families of the best hunters are permitted to hoard food
B) the elder females make all the group's rules
C) there is a priestly caste
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 158
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
67) The Siriono make no provision for inequality in:
A) wealth
B) prestige
C) power
D) wealth or prestige
E) prestige or power
Answer: A
Page Ref: 158
68) The view that inequality is based on the corrupting and divisive actions of institutions is part of the ideology of:
A) social Darwinism
B) classical conservatism
C) structural functionalism
D) classical liberalism
Answer: D
Page Ref: 159
69) Structural functionalism is the intellectual descendent of:
A) Marxism
B) b social Darwinism
C) classical liberalism
D) classical conservatism
Answer: D
Page Ref: 160
70) The notion that social institutions reinforce and legitimize class divisions is derived from:
A) Karl Marx
B) Emile Durkheim
C) Adam Smith
D) Max Weber
Answer: A
Page Ref: 161
71) The text primarily applied Weber's notion of status to:
A) positions in the social system
B) ranked occupational positions
C) spending and consumption patterns
D) prestige derived from ancestry
Answer: B
Page Ref: 163
72) Max Weber's notion of life chances closely resembles the concept of:
A) social status
B) personal power
C) social power
D) occupational prestige
Answer: B
Page Ref: 162
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TEST BANK
73) Societies with landed gentry and inherited titles resemble:
A) caste systems
B) estate systems
C) class systems
D) status systems
Answer: B
Page Ref: 167
74) The victims of crime tend to be:
A) members of the middle class
B) members of minority groups
C) poor
D) B and C
E) young and affluent
Answer: D
Page Ref: 182-183
75) The rise of social classes is almost always associated with the development of:
A) the state
B) democracy
C) totalitarianism
D) international trade
Answer: A
Page Ref: 162
76) The categories used by researchers to pigeonhole people into social classes:
A) reflect the common-sense, self-ratings of individuals
B) indicate that there are two classes: the working class and the middle class
C) tend to be arbitrary and artificial
D) adequately reflect the complexity of the American class system
Answer: C
Page Ref: 168
77) Subdued religious rituals, which appeal to upper-middle-class Protestants, are the hallmark of which of the
following denominations?
A) Episcopalians
B) Presbyterians
C) Congregationalists
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 181
78) Life expectancy is:
A) about the same across social classes
B) lower for the upper-middle class
C) lower for the lower classes
D) lower for the middle class
Answer: C
Page Ref: 181
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
79) The "New Class" is characterized as consisting of:
A) apolitical bureaucrats
B) the working poor
C) former members of the middle class
D) professionals with skills important in the information society
Answer: D
Page Ref: 172
80) Members of the "New Class" occupy which of the following occupations:
A) Computer programmers
B) MBAs starting their own firms
C) Out of work middle managers
D) journalists, academics, media commentators
Answer: D
Page Ref: 172
81) Individuals who hold lesser positions and make less money than their parents are displaying:
A) status inconsistency
B) horizontal mobility
C) intragenerational mobility
D) intergenerational mobility
Answer: D
Page Ref: 185
82) The loss of entire categories of jobs without the creation of new occupations would be:
A) structural mobility of a negative sort
B) horizontal mobility
C) intragenerational mobility
D) status ambiguity
Answer: A
Page Ref: 185
83) Blau and Duncan's 1967 research may be summarized as follows:
A) two-thirds of the people who start at the bottom end up in the bottom half
B) education means everything in America
C) inherited social class means nothing in the U.S.
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 185
84) The importance of status is supported by:
A) statistics on cancer deaths
B) a recent study by an epidemiologist
C) the fact that people revere academics
D) none of the above
Answer: B
Page Ref: 164
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TEST BANK
85) Where one stands in the social hierarchy is intimately related to:
A) how one performs one's job
B) how long one lives
C) how much stress one experiences
D) only B and C
Answer: D
Page Ref: 164
86) The Marxian model of class structure divided the population into:
A) quintiles
B) six or seven layers
C) the bourgeoisie and the proletariat
D) the haves and the have nots
Answer: C
Page Ref: 161
87) The majority of Americans belong to the:
A) working class
B) middle class
C) underclass
D) upper middle class
Answer: B
Page Ref: 169
88) The middle quintile, or 20 percent, of the population:
A) earns about $56,000 a year
B) earns about $75,000 a year
C) is made up mainly of professionals
D) consists of the chronically unemployed
Answer: A
Page Ref: 169
89) Craftsmen, foremen, secretaries, office workers, belong to the:
A) upper-middle class
B) middle-middle class
C) working class
D) "new class"
Answer: C
Page Ref: 171
90) In 2006, the percentage of Americans living below the poverty line was:
A) 34 percent
B) 5 percent
C) 12.3 percent
D) 25 percent
Answer: C
Page Ref: 174
91) Poverty, in the United States, means that people live in:
A) absolute deprivation
B) relative deprivation
C) homeless shelters
D) the same conditions as people in undeveloped nations
Answer: B
Page Ref: 173
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
92) The smallest percentage of the poor consists of:
A) the elderly
B) women
C) minorities
D) children
Answer: A
Page Ref: 174
93) Global inequality is evident in:
A) the size of families
B) per capita consumption
C) the items rich countries throw out
D) all of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 186-188
94) By 2050, 8 billion of the projected 9.5 billion people will be:
A) as wealthy as the developed nations
B) living in poor countries
C) living in industrial nations
D) living in predominantly agricultural nations
Answer: B
Page Ref: 186
7.3 Essay Questions
1) Stratification is a way or organizing society based on a ranking system that measures money, occupation,
education, family background, and life style. It is designed to make society run smoothly and with a minimum of
stress and disintegration. As we know, it does not achieve this goal. If you could, what kind of system would you
design that would reach the goal of a smoothly-running society, yet avoid the gross inequalities that the present
ranking system carries.
Answer:
Page Ref:
2) Rank yourself, as objectively as you can. In what social class do you think you belong? What privileges or
shortcomings does your rank provide? Are you upwardly mobile? How do you intend to attain upward mobility?
Was your father upwardly mobile? For how many generations did your family remain in the same social class? Or
was social class membership changed at some point?
Answer:
Page Ref:
3) If you were a member of the upper class - one of the "haves" - you too would want to retain your position in
society and pass it on to your heirs. But in so doing you are helping to institutionalize inequality. How do you
reconcile a natural desire to keep what you have worked for - or what you possess - with the desire to contribute to a
just society.
Answer:
Page Ref:
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TEST BANK
Chapter 8 Minority Status: Race and Ethnicity
8.1 True/False Questions
1) The word "minority" refers to a group in society that is dominated by another group because of its superior size.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 193
2) For some ethnic minorities, religion has been the primary factor in determining low status.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 194
3) The problems encountered by minorities stem from their own inadequacies and deviations from the standards of
American society.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 193
4) Minorities are categories of people that possess imperfect access to positions of equal power, prestige, and
privilege.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 193
5) The melting pot theory assumed that it would be possible to fuse, biologically and culturally, all the various
groups that had come to America.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 195
6) Historically, Angloconformity had the greatest following in the United States.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 195
7) Racism as an ideology has declined markedly among Americans in recent years.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 201-202
8) In general, prejudice and discrimination are mutually reinforcing.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 198-201
9) Prejudice is action taken against minorities based on discrimination.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 198-202
10) The concept of race has been misunderstood in that people tend to believe that behavior and customs are
genetically inherited.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 202
11) Scientists have agreed on the precise number of races in existence in the world.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 202
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
12) Stereotyping is a process in which common, uniform characteristics are assigned to an entire group of people
without allowances for individual differences.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 199
13) Prejudice is inborn behavior and seems to be largely unconscious.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 198-199
14) Institutional discrimination refers to the system of inequalities existing in a society even apart from personal
prejudices.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 201
15) The meltingpot ideology is the one preferred by minorities today.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 195-196
16) The various minorities in the United States live in a situation of perfect cultural pluralism achieved after great
conflict.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 196
17) Native Americans have become well assimilated into the mainstream culture and consequently are no longer a
minority.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 203
18) The success of Asian Americans is due to their culture's difference from the dominant culture.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 205-206
19) White ethnics have become almost totally absorbed into mainstream culture.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 219
20) The minority in any society is always numerically inferior to the majority.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 193
21) Human populations are clearly demarcated, distinct groups, according to the American Anthropological
Association.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 202
22) Social traits have a definite connection to inherited racial traits.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 194
23) In accommodation, a minority chooses to retain its own norms and values, although accepting and adapting to
those of the majority.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 197
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TEST BANK
24) The process of amalgamation has taken place in the United States.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 197
25) "Ethnic cleansing" is a new idea invented in the Balkans at the end of the twentieth century.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 197
8.2 Multiple-Choice Questions
1) Membership in specific racial, ethnic, and religious groupings is:
A) characteristic only of industrial societies
B) a variable of the stratification system
C) a biological rather than a social product
D) the cross every individual must bear
Answer: B
Page Ref: 193
2) The term "minority" may be defined as:
A) a small group of people living within a large nation
B) a group of people who possess the same access to prestige, privilege, and power but who differ in looks
C) any group in society that is socially dominated by another group through discrimination because of race, culture,
religion, or sex
D) any small group in society which is disliked and abused
Answer: C
Page Ref: 193
3) The difference between racial minorities and ethnic minorities is:
A) in the size of each group
B) ethnic minorities do not suffer from discrimination, but only from prejudice
C) racial minorities differ biologically, ethnic minorities differ culturally from the dominant group
D) racial minorities have been here longer than ethnic minorities
Answer: C
Page Ref: 194
4) Minorities have reacted to domination by developing goals that may be called:
A) pluralistic
B) assimilationist
C) secessionist
D) all of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 197
5) Conflicts between the dominant group and minorities develop because:
A) minorities are perceived as different
B) minorities perceive themselves as different
C) the dominant group has coercive power
D) all of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 198-202
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6) Dominant groups tend to use all but which of the following methods in dealing with minorities?
A) forced assimilation
B) cultural relativity
C) population transfers
D) economic exploitation
Answer: B
Page Ref: 197
7) Scientists agree that:
A) there are three races
B) there are fifty two races
C) there are no races
D) all of humankind is descended from the same common stock
Answer: D
Page Ref: 201-202
8) Members of an ethnic group:
A) share behavioral traits
B) share social and cultural traits
C) share physical traits
D) are heterogeneous
Answer: B
Page Ref: 194
9) The term "prejudice" implies that:
A) one makes a judgment before having all the facts
B) one refuses to change one's mind even when confronted by facts
C) one takes action against minorities
D) one's judgments are BOTH preconceived and unchangeable
Answer: D
Page Ref: 198-200
10) Which is NOT a reason for the low economic and social status of Mexican Americans?
A) They are concentrated in agricultural and lowskill jobs
B) The nearness of Mexico leads to a retention of Spanish as the principal language
C) Parents tend to be ambitious and upwardly mobile which leads to rebelliousness in their children
D) The norms of their subculture are not conducive to upward mobility
Answer: C
Page Ref: 212-217
11) Which statement is false regarding prejudice?
A) It may be culture-conditioned or character-conditioned
B) It may reflect the norms of the community
C) Its source may be the personality of a specific person
D) It is almost never found in persons with an authoritarian personality type
Answer: D
Page Ref: 198-200
12) Stressing the desirability of retaining each group's cultural distinctiveness is part of the ideology of:
A) Anglo-conformity
B) melting pot
C) ethnicity
D) cultural pluralism
Answer: D
Page Ref: 196
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TEST BANK
13) Discrimination is:
A) an attitude or feeling of dislike for a certain group
B) an action taken as a result of prejudicial feelings
C) racial hatred
D) belief in the superiority of one's own group
Answer: B
Page Ref: 201
14) Discriminatory behavior prompted by the knowledge that prejudice exists on a societywide level is called:
A) attitudinal discrimination
B) institutional discrimination
C) cultural discrimination
D) personal discrimination
Answer: B
Page Ref: 201
15) Prejudice persists because it:
A) is learned in school
B) is emotionally satisfying
C) is based on rational thought
D) causes guilt feelings and most people need a scapegoat
Answer: B
Page Ref: 198
16) Which statement is FALSE?
A) Blacks still lag behind whites in life chances, particularly in the economic sector
B) The black underclass finds itself in the situation of being a minority within a minority
C) Relations between blacks and whites are 100 percent improved
D) The civil rights movement has raised black consciousness and helped decrease selfhatred
Answer: C
Page Ref: 208-211
17) Native Americans have:
A) experienced the greatest amount of upward mobility of all minority groups
B) been helped in their assimilation into mainstream society by the Bureau of Indian Affairs
C) been divided among themselves by tribalism
D) been rejected by the majority because of their clannishness
Answer: C
Page Ref: 203-205
18) Cubans who came to the U.S. in the early 1960s:
A) are found chiefly in the Southwest
B) entered the U.S. illegally
C) had a middle-class background and experienced upward mobility in the U.S.
D) have become mostly working class in the U.S.
Answer: C
Page Ref: 217
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19) Chinese and Japanese Americans have in common:
A) their language
B) a secretive nature
C) upward mobility through education
D) their appearance
Answer: C
Page Ref: 206
20) In sociological studies of race and ethnic relations:
A) minority refers to the smaller group
B) minority refers to an oppressed group
C) majority represents the group in power because of its large numbers
D) minorities are described on the basis of biology
Answer: B
Page Ref: 193
21) Nation-states stimulated raceethnic conflict because:
A) they were homogeneous
B) they tried to absorb different ethnic and racial groups suppressing their identities and values
C) they were peaceful
D) they were patriotic
Answer: B
Page Ref: 193
22) Ethnic groups are based on:
A) skin color
B) common customs and/or identities
C) genes
D) eye shape
Answer: B
Page Ref: 194
23) Human races reflect:
A) pure stock
B) differences in intelligence
C) primarily differences in language
D) mixtures of several populations
Answer: D
Page Ref: 194
24) Classification of human races is:
A) clearcut
B) vague because of overlap of traits
C) restricted to skin color
D) done according to physical appearanceW
Answer: B
Page Ref: 194
25) An ascribed status that a person cannot change is:
A) race
B) religion
C) political party
D) last name
Answer: A
Page Ref: 194
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26) Second- and third-generation immigrants failed to melt in the melting pot because of:
A) language differences
B) residence stability
C) religion
D) skin color
Answer: C
Page Ref: 195
27) Maintaining a group's distinctive customs and identity is called:
A) cultural decline
B) cultural pluralism
C) cultural complex
D) cultural trait
Answer: B
Page Ref: 196
28) In recent years there was an awakening of ethnic identity among the following groups:
A) African Americans
B) Hispanics
C) Native Americans
D) none of the above
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 194
29) The Cuban community in Miami is an example of:
A) assimilation
B) acculturation
C) accommodation
D) segregation
Answer: C
Page Ref: 197
30) When a minority group accepts the culture of the dominant group, it is called:
A) accommodation
B) acculturation
C) amalgamation
D) assimilation
Answer: D
Page Ref: 197
31) The merging of majority and minority groups, as happened in Brazil, is called:
A) segregation
B) acculturation
C) accommodation
D) amalgamation
Answer: D
Page Ref: 197
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32) Racism is based on the belief(s) that:
A) groups inherit certain traits that are inferior
B) the dominant majority is the fittest, from a Darwinian point of view
C) minority groups should not have access to wealth and power
D) none of the above
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 201-202
33) Which statement is an example of stereotyping?
A) Judge each individual on his own merits
B) All blacks are good basketball players
C) There are good and bad among all ethnic or racial groups
D) Talent is not the exclusive property of any ethnic group
Answer: B
Page Ref: 198
34) The Germans blamed the Jews for Germany's defeat in World War I. The persecution that resulted is an
illustration of:
A) scapegoating
B) assimilation
C) historic truth
D) stereotyping
Answer: A
Page Ref: 199
35) Admiration of power and intolerance of differences is linked to a:
A) Democratic personality
B) unprejudiced personality
C) authoritarian personality
D) totalitarian personality
Answer: C
Page Ref: 200
36) The small number of black managers and coaches in professional baseball and football is an example of:
A) individual discrimination
B) institutional discrimination
C) cultural discrimination
D) lack of talent among blacks
Answer: B
Page Ref: 201
37) The decline of unskilled factory jobs has increased black unemployment. The situation is a result of:
A) structural discrimination
B) individual discrimination
C) nature of life
D) personal discrimination
Answer: A
Page Ref: 201
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TEST BANK
38) Standard English and the music of Mozart are better than black English and rap music. This belief is an
example of:
A) structural discrimination
B) attitudinal discrimination
C) individual discrimination
D) elitist discrimination
Answer: B
Page Ref: 201
39) According to Gordon Allport, much prejudice is based on:
A) economic competition among different groups
B) equality of groups
C) lack of human compassion
D) plain ignorance
Answer: A
Page Ref: 201
40) Among the factors that improve a group's status in the United States is (are):
A) concentration in neighborhoods
B) entrance into the middle class
C) economic development
D) none of the above
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 201
41) Native Americans, in comparison to other minority groups:
A) have a low death rate from alcohol
B) enjoy a low unemployment rate
C) live in the best housing available
D) are severely disadvantaged
E) all of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 203
42) Asian Americans:
A) lack mobility
B) do not value education
C) tend to have low incomes
D) have been generally successful
E) all of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 205-208
43) The most recent view of black family problems is that they are a result of:
A) biology
B) the heritage of slavery
C) historic events of recent years
D) none of the above
Answer: C
Page Ref: 208
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44) The black movement to the urban North from the rural South was similar to:
A) the experience of the American Indians
B) immigration from Europe
C) moves of professionals from New York to Los Angeles
D) the arrival of the Cuban middle class after Castro
Answer: B
Page Ref: 208
45) As of the late 1990s:
A) black unemployment was the same as that of whites
B) blacks and whites had the same average income
C) blacks and whites graduated from college at the same rate
D) at least 40 percent of blacks were squarely in the middle class
Answer: D
Page Ref: 208
46) The median income of African American families is:
A) the same as that of whites
B) much lower than it was before World War II
C) continuing to improve without declines
D) still lagging behind that of whites
E) all of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 209
47) For African Americans:
A) things are still as bad as they were fifty years ago
B) college attendance is still out of the question
C) the economic situation has hardly changed
D) there is evidence of increasing entrance into politics and professions
Answer: D
Page Ref: 210-211
48) The most numerous of Hispanic Americans are the:
A) Mexicans
B) Cubans
C) Puerto Ricans
D) Colombians
Answer: A
Page Ref: 214
49) The most economically successful Hispanic group in the U.S. consists of:
A) Chicanos
B) Cubans
C) Puerto Ricans
D) Spaniards
Answer: B
Page Ref: 217
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TEST BANK
50) In the United States, Catholics have been:
A) below Protestants in income and education
B) remaining in white ethnic enclaves
C) dominated by Hispanic elements
D) subjected to less prejudice than in the past
Answer: D
Page Ref: 219
51) Jewish Americans in the United States:
A) have average to high incomes
B) exhibit a high rate of intermarriage
C) are poorly represented in corporate elites
D) none of the above
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 220-221
52) Stratification systems tend to:
A) differentiate among people within societies
B) equalize the status of people in a society
C) oppress children and the old
D) create conflict between old and young
Answer: A
Page Ref: 193
53) Pluralist societies depend upon one of the following for their existence:
A) immigration
B) colonization
C) conquest
D) coexistence
Answer: D
Page Ref: 222
54) The dominant group in a society is the one that is the:
A) most powerful
B) subordinate
C) largest
D) oldest
Answer: A
Page Ref: 193
55) A minority group consists of:
A) fewer people than the majority group
B) people distinguished by their physical or cultural traits
C) the hostile subcultures in the society
D) the most recently settled immigrants
Answer: B
Page Ref: 193
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56) Which of the following is NOT true of minority groups?
A) They are recognizable by their visible ascribed traits or cultural customs
B) They are subject to differential treatment
C) They are not aware of their minority status
D) They are aware of a common group identity
Answer: C
Page Ref: 194
57) Minority groups:
A) constitute a subculture within the larger culture
B) tend to show solidarity to each other
C) exhibit clannish behavior
D) practice cultural relativity
Answer: A
Page Ref: 194
58) For many second and third generation immigrants, ethnic background is less a focus of identity than:
A) social class
B) religion
C) race
D) residence
Answer: B
Page Ref: 219
59) The first ideology prevalent in the United States regarding the treatment of minorities assumed that they:
A) should retain their cultures of origin
B) fuse into the melting pot
C) assimilate into WASP culture
D) should do as they pleased
Answer: C
Page Ref: 195
60) Which of the following processes includes isolation of the minority population?
A) acculturation
B) accommodation
C) segregation
D) assimilation
Answer: C
Page Ref: 197
61) What is the basis of racist ideology?
A) An inaccurate interpretation and social application of Darwin's theory of evolution
B) "Social Darwinism" applied to religious beliefs
C) An invention of European colonial governments
D) The New Testament
Answer: A
Page Ref: 202
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TEST BANK
62) To assign uniform characteristics to an entire group of people without allowing for individual differences is
called:
A) prejudging
B) characterizing
C) stereotyping
D) discriminating
Answer: C
Page Ref: 198
63) When confronted with evidence contrary to their beliefs, prejudiced persons will:
A) suspend judgment until more evidence is found
B) change their judgment to conform to new evidence
C) refuse to change the original judgment in spite of evidence to the contrary
D) apologize to the victim of their prejudice
Answer: C
Page Ref: 198
64) According to Gordon Allport's theory of contact:
A) unequal status between groups reduces prejudice
B) equal status between groups leads to reduced competition
C) Southern blacks and whites of the same social class have been driven further apart in recent years
D) equal status between groups increases prejudice
Answer: B
Page Ref: 200
65) In the social sciences, discrimination as a concept means:
A) having good taste in art and music
B) actions taken as a result of prejudicial feelings
C) ability to discern the direction of social relations
D) the physical ability to see in the dark
Answer: B
Page Ref: 201
66) Discrimination occurs:
A) with prejudice
B) as a result of informal quotas
C) with or without accompanying prejudice
D) as a result of government rulings
Answer: C
Page Ref: 201
67) Prejudice diminishes as:
A) the majority becomes more oppressive
B) assimilation occurs
C) the economic status of minorities becomes equal to that of the majority
D) the economic status of minorities declines
Answer: C
Page Ref: 200
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68) The mechanisms of upward mobility of minorities did NOT include:
A) internal economic development and specialization
B) development of a middle class
C) geographic concentration
D) a social caste system
Answer: D
Page Ref: 200
69) In the Puerto Rican community, "va y ven" means:
A) the movement to the suburbs
B) commuting back and forth to work
C) returning to Puerto Rico after living in the U.S.
D) none of the above
Answer: C
Page Ref: 215
70) Which is false about Asian-Americans?
A) They have the highest poverty rate of all minorities
B) They have the lowest poverty rate of all minorities
C) Their educational achievement is higher than that of whites
D) Sixteen percent of Asians and Pacific Islanders have professional degrees.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 206
71) Psychologists researching the causes of prejudice have found that:
A) it may have an evolutionary origin
B) it is caused by anger
C) it is directed at a target from a different group
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 200
72) Which is false?
A) In 2002, the annual median income nationally was approximately $43,000, while the median income of African
Americans was approximately $29,000.
B) The income gap between whites and African Americans has totally disappeared.
C) Forty-eight percent of Africans owned their homes in 2002.
D) Thirty-six percent of black women worked in technical support and managerial jobs.
Answer: B
Page Ref: 211
73) According to the Pew Research Center:
A) 77 percent of Americans believe that it is OK for whites and blacks to date each other
B) Americans of both races have become much more tolerant.
C) on issues such as the pace of progress, affirmative action, and civil rights the two groups are in accord
D) all of the above
E) only A and B
Answer: E
Page Ref: 212
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TEST BANK
74) The difference in attitudes of whites and African Americans is related to:
A) age
B) social status
C) social class
D) none of the above
Answer: A
Page Ref: 212
75) The fiftieth anniversary of Brown v. Board of Education is not the success it was intended to be because:
A) schools are becoming segregated again
B) the law has been changed again
C) people prefer to live in segregated neighborhoods
D) none of the above
Answer: A
Page Ref: 212
76) Hispanic Americans represent what percentage of the population:
A) 12 percent
B) 20 percent
C) 14.5 percent
D) 9 percent
Answer: C
Page Ref: 212
77) Latino neighborhoods have prospered because:
A) Latinos have a strong sense of community
B) they are well organized politically
C) they try to use English instead of their native Spanish
D) they have a common culture
Answer: A
Page Ref: 214
78) The largest number of Latinos come from:
A) Latin America
B) Spain
C) Mexico
D) Puerto Rico
Answer: C
Page Ref: 214
79) Economically, one of the most disadvantaged ethnic minorities in the U.S. are:
A) Mexicans
B) Puerto Ricans
C) Cubans
D) South Americans
Answer: B
Page Ref: 215
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
80) Jewish Americans in the United States:
A) experience a great deal of prejudice and discrimination
B) have high rates of intermarriage
C) are highly represented among college graduates
D) only B and C
Answer: D
Page Ref: 220-221
81) In the future, the American population will:
A) become more pluralistic
B) consist of immigrants from European countries
C) experience a loss of immigration
D) remain racially segregated
Answer: A
Page Ref: 222
8.3 Essay Questions
1) No one is totally exempt from discrimination and prejudice, either as perpetrator or as recipient. Examine your
own feelings and views for the possible existence of prejudice, and examine your own feelings and views for the
possible existence of discrimination. Do you accept popular stereotypes? Do you tend to scapegoat? Be honest.
Answer:
Page Ref:
2) Do you consider yourself a member of a minority group? If so, on what basis? If you are a minority, have you
experienced instances of prejudice and discrimination personally? Has your minority status had positive results?
Have members of your family experienced prejudice and discrimination? What do your family members say about
the present situation in regard to minority status?
Answer:
Page Ref:
3) This society was intended to be one that accepts all the persecuted of the world, a haven for those who suffer
elsewhere. But immigrants tend to compete for jobs and privileges with the natives. How do we reconcile the rights
of the natives with the aspirations of the immigrants?
Answer:
Page Ref:
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TEST BANK
Chapter 9 Minority Status: Race, Gender, and Sexuality
9.1 True/False Questions
1) Anatomy, genes, and hormones affect human behavior.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 237-238
2) Gender roles are learned instinctively.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 241-243
3) Imitation and reinforcement are some ways in which gender roles are learned.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 241-243
4) People are not socially differentiated according to their age.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 227
5) The elderly have a high status in modern industrial societies.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 228
6) Depression and feelings of social isolation complicate the lives of the elderly.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 229
7) The new roles women are expected to play are clear-cut.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 249-251
8) Conditioning, imitation, and selfdefinition are stages of disengagement.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 228
9) Women earn less than men because they are not heads of families.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 244
10) Most American women are interested in a reversal of sex roles.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 251
11) Ageism is an ideology that maintains the superiority of the old against the young.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 228-229
12) Senescence is the process of growing old.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 229
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
13) A female is born when an ovum bearing the X chromosome is fertilized by a sperm bearing a Y chromosome.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 237
14) An increase in testosterone produces an increase in aggressive behavior and sex drive.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 238
15) Margaret Mead concluded that culture is solely responsible for gender roles.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 239
16) Even in industrial and postindustrial societies, gender roles reflect a society's agricultural past.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 241
17) Behavioral scientists admit that in sex role socialization there may be biological predispositions that prompt
specific behaviors.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 239
18) One out of every four women experience clinical depression at least once in their lives.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 250
19) Age is an ascribed characteristic according to which people are assigned a status in society.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 228
20) Many of the problems associated with old age are the result of disease, abuse, and disuse.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 229
21) The higher the social status of a worker, the more job satisfaction he or she enjoys, and the later the age of
retirement tends to be.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 231
22) A majority of the elderly live with their middle-aged children.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 233
23) Today, death is considered an out-of-the-ordinary event and is understood in very negative terms, unlike in
previous historical eras when it was considered a natural concomitant of life.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 235
24) By the year 2050, those 65 years old and older will comprise almost 25 percent of the population of the United
States.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 227
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TEST BANK
25) Maleness and femaleness are gender roles.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 241
26) Hormones play an irrelevant role in the development of the sexes.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 238
9.2 Multiple-Choice Questions
1) A study of male identical twins, one of whom had been castrated by accident during circumcision and treated as
a little girl until puberty, showed that:
A) the castrated male still acted like a tomboy
B) the intact twin gradually became more "feminine"
C) the castrated twin was tidier than his brother, but never played with dolls
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: A
Page Ref: 239
2) The hormones involved in the development of sex characteristics are:
A) phlogiston and progesterone
B) progesterone and testosterone
C) estrogen and amalyase
D) progesterone and estrogen
E) none of the above
Answer: B
Page Ref: 237-239
3) The basic assertion of ageism is that:
A) the young are superior to the old
B) the old are superior to the young
C) there is a smooth transfer of roles between the old and the young
D) work is best left to those who can do it
Answer: A
Page Ref: 228
4) Males are conceived with which of the following chromosome configurations?
A) XY
B) XX
C) XXX
D) YYY
Answer: A
Page Ref: 227
5) Males:
A) have a lower birthrate than females
B) live longer than females
C) are more prone to aggressiveness than females
D) are less likely to die violently
E) all of the above
Answer: C
Page Ref: 238
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
6) The hormone associated with male traits and aggression is:
A) testosterone
B) estrogen
C) premarin
D) progesterone
Answer: A
Page Ref: 238
7) Mead's work in New Guinea indicated that:
A) biology totally controls social role behavior
B) all tribes in her study stressed male aggression and hostility
C) sex role behavior is conditioned differently in different cultures
D) men are men and women are women everywhere
Answer: C
Page Ref: 239
8) Studies other than Mead's show that:
A) in most cultures males are more aggressive than females
B) there is no pattern to aggressive behavior in either males or females
C) biology is totally unimportant in sex role behavior
D) aggression is strictly socially learned
Answer: A
Page Ref: 240
9) The subordinate position of women in decision making may result from:
A) the instrumental role assumed by males
B) women being less intelligent than men
C) the choice of women as leaders
D) women's modesty
Answer: A
Page Ref: 241
10) When parents give rewards for certain sex role behavior, the process is called conditioning, and is the basis for:
A) the social learning theory
B) initiation
C) selfdefinition
D) bribing
Answer: A
Page Ref: 247
11) According to the cognitive development theory, children learn gender roles according to:
A) instinct
B) attempt to elicit parental approval
C) which stage of cognitive development they have reached
D) biology
Answer: C
Page Ref: 248
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TEST BANK
12) The female role as a passive and domestic creature may be conditioned by:
A) children's picture books
B) stress on male sports in school
C) TV ads showing women as domestics
D) none of the above
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 242-243
13) Gender assignment is based on:
A) biological sex only
B) sexuality only
C) social expectations only
D) a combination of biology and socialization
Answer: D
Page Ref: 245
14) The "feminization of poverty" refers to:
A) the fact that most men are rich
B) an equal number of men and women being poor now
C) the fact that female-headed households are usually poor
D) the fact that women are more blessed than men, in spite of poverty
Answer: C
Page Ref: 244
15) Feminist theory has borrowed much of the ideas of:
A) psychology
B) conflict and Marxist theories
C) the ideology that tries to rationalize women's low position in society
D) The Feminine Mystique
Answer: B
Page Ref: 247
16) Women throughout the world:
A) lack parity with men in salaries
B) are concentrated in women's work
C) have a high rate of poverty
D) none of the above
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 249
17) There is no conclusive evidence that differences in the behavior of the two genders are due to:
A) anatomical differences
B) hormonal differences
C) chromosomal differences
D) environmental differences
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 237
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18) Ageism in the United States is rationalized by stereotyping the elderly as:
A) senile
B) slow
C) unpleasant to look at
D) none of the above
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 228
19) Disengagement refers to:
A) aged persons maintaining their regular social roles
B) aged persons abandoning their regular roles so that younger people may assume them
C) a period before retirement
D) a pleasant interlude for the elderly
Answer: B
Page Ref: 228
20) Sex stereotypes are traditionally found in:
A) books
B) movies
C) segregation of boys and girls in certain activities
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 249-251
21) Secondary sex characteristics:
A) are anatomical differences between men and women
B) develop when specific hormones are introduced into an organism
C) are mental differences between men and women
D) none of the above
E) are BOTH anatomical and hormonally-induced
Answer: B
Page Ref: 238
22) Sex roles are:
A) behavioral norms into which males and females are socialized
B) behavioral norms into which only males are socialized
C) equivalent to macho roles
D) what women are attempting to throw off
Answer: A
Page Ref: 241-243
23) Discrimination against the elderly has been especially apparent in the area of:
A) creditworthiness
B) employment
C) retirement
D) hospitalization
Answer: B
Page Ref: 230-231
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TEST BANK
24) It has been found that disengagement is usually:
A) very voluntary
B) never forced
C) often forced
D) rarely enforced
Answer: C
Page Ref: 228
25) The elderly are a minority because they:
A) are a small percentage of the population
B) are physically weak
C) lack power
D) cannot defend themselves
Answer: C
Page Ref: 227
26) The most obvious effect of sexism on women has been that they:
A) have become passive and accepting of the status quo
B) have been denied alternatives to the roles of wives and mothers
C) have become masculine since they joined the work force
D) realized that motherhood had fewer satisfactions than a career
Answer: B
Page Ref: 250
27) Persons set apart for differential treatment include:
A) those affected by physical and mental disabilities
B) the rich and famous
C) homosexuals
D) none of the above
E) BOTH the disabled and those with same-sex preferences
Answer: E
Page Ref: 252
28) Ageism asserts that:
A) wisdom accompanies advancing age
B) each stage of life has its own rewards
C) the young are superior to the old
D) life begins at forty
Answer: C
Page Ref: 228
29) The experience of loss, or impending loss, of a person to whom one is close is called:
A) disengagement
B) displacement
C) bequeathment
D) bereavement
Answer: D
Page Ref: 235
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30) It is fairly certain that male and female brains:
A) are functionally identical
B) differ in left-right communication
C) distribute sensory functions differently
D) differ in size, weight, and capacity
E) none of the above
Answer: B
Page Ref: 238
31) In his book, The Inevitability of Patriarchy, Steven Goldberg asserts that:
A) matriarchal societies have never existed
B) men perform the highest status non-maternal roles in all societies
C) men dominate male-female relationships
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 240
32) From the dawn of history through the development of agriculture:
A) men and women participated in a sex-based division of labor
B) human infants and their mothers had to be protected
C) males were assigned hunting and other dangerous tasks
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 241
33) Structured inequality of gender roles:
A) has been with humans from the dawn of culture
B) began with hunting and gathering societies
C) has its origins in agricultural communities
D) is peculiar to industrial societies
Answer: C
Page Ref: 241
34) Women first assumed subordinate roles when they:
A) stayed home when men hunted
B) ceased to gather the majority of the food supply
C) assumed primary child-care responsibilities
D) left home to gather food
Answer: B
Page Ref: 241
35) American gender role socialization research has concluded that almost all children know their sex and how each
sex is to behave by the age of:
A) one or two
B) three or four
C) five or six
D) six or seven
Answer: B
Page Ref: 247
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TEST BANK
36) Identification theory is based on the ideas of:
A) Freud
B) Cooley
C) Mead
D) Erikson
Answer: A
Page Ref: 248
37) Male dominance is expressed:
A) in spite of ours being an egalitarian society
B) by the frequent instances of sexual harassment on the job
C) for the lack of wage parity
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 243-245
38) The most pernicious aspect of sexist ideology is:
A) the belief that the sexes differ by nature
B) that men are superior in certain activities
C) that men are basically superior by nature
D) the pervasiveness of the ideology
Answer: D
Page Ref: 237
39) Women are a minority group insofar as:
A) they are treated unequally and are aware of their minority status
B) they are residentially segregated
C) they control few resources
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: A
Page Ref: 237
40) The media present gender roles:
A) realistically
B) according to a Victorian model
C) stereotypically
D) idealistically
Answer: C
Page Ref: 249
41) Which statement appears to be most correct:
A) gender roles have been reversed
B) in a marriage, spousal roles are egalitarian
C) housekeeping and childcare are still considered women's work
D) sex roles are blurred
Answer: C
Page Ref: 249
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
42) In the case of the male twin castrated during circumcision:
A) he was content living as a female
B) he behaved as a little girl once he was given female hormones
C) in spite of attempted socialization as a female, he was unhappy in his gender
D) his case proves that nurture is stronger than nature
Answer: C
Page Ref: 239
43) Women's rate of diagnosed depression is:
A) twice as high as men's
B) half that of men
C) the same as men's
D) similar in duration to that of men
Answer: A
Page Ref: 250
44) As of 2005, what proportion of women were in managerial, professional, and administrative positions?
A) 20%
B) 12.%
C) 50%
D) 4%
E) less than 1%
Answer: C
Page Ref: 244 (Table)
45) By advocating the acquisition of "more androgynous roles" by both men and women, what is meant is that:
A) bisexuality should be the norm
B) we should adopt passive roles
C) we should adopt blurred, ill-defined roles
D) we should combine male and female sex-typed traits
Answer: D
Page Ref: 251
46) The view that the elderly lack social and material resources to reciprocate in relationships and consequently
occupy a subservient status is the point of:
A) activity theory
B) disengagement theory
C) exchange theory
D) modernization theory
E) interactionist theory
Answer: C
Page Ref: 228
47) What percentage of elderly Americans experience mild memory loss?
A) 70%
B) 56%
C) 39%
D) 23%
E) 10%
Answer: E
Page Ref: 229
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TEST BANK
48) As of 2000, what percentage of those over 65 years old lived in nursing homes?
A) less than 20%
B) about 10%
C) 29%
D) 4.5%
Answer: D
Page Ref: 279
49) The trend toward early retirement seems to be:
A) irreversible
B) the inevitable outcome of modernization
C) a reasonable response to the declining intellectual performance that occurs after age 55
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 230
50) Retirement's negative effects are felt most strongly by:
A) upper-class men and service workers
B) women in general and lower-class workers
C) middle-class men and lower-class women
D) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 230
51) In 2002, what percentage of elderly Americans' aggregate income came from Social Security?
A) 22 percent
B) 38 percent
C) 98 percent
D) 59 percent
Answer: B
Page Ref: 231
52) Alzheimer's disease and other neurological diseases affect approximately how many elderly Americans?
A) 2.5 million
B) 20 million
C) 100 million
D) 1 million
Answer: A
Page Ref: 229
53) Which groups are hardest hit by the death of a spouse?
A) The more elderly widowers
B) Women who derived their identity from being someone's wife
C) Women living in large cities, those with small incomes, and those who are fairly young
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 234
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
54) In modern society, death has acquired, to some extent, a sense of:
A) meaninglessness
B) ordinariness
C) unnaturalness
D) appropriateness
Answer: C
Page Ref: 235
55) Which of the following statements is true?
A) Most of the health problems associated with growing old pose serious problems by the age of 65
B) A majority of the elderly live in nursing homes
C) Young workers perform far better than elderly workers, which is why employers prefer them
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 229-232
56) The ideology of ageism:
A) prevails only in the U.S.
B) applies only to the old
C) asserts that the very young and the very old are inferior
D) has little impact on the society
Answer: C
Page Ref: 227
57) The belief in biological determinism of sex roles:
A) has a significant amount of scientific support
B) has been supported by anthropological research, especially by Margaret Mead
C) is based on the wrong assumption that biological differences indicate superiority or inferiority
D) shows the importance of socialization
E) all of the above
Answer: C
Page Ref: 237
58) The identical twin who lost his penis in a tragic accident:
A) accepted his female identity
B) acted as a female would
C) preferred dolls to guns
D) grew up to be a perfectly adjusted young woman
E) none of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 239
59) The instrumental role was traditionally assigned to:
A) males
B) females
C) the old
D) children
Answer: A
Page Ref: 241
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TEST BANK
60) Homosexuality:
A) is a product of the sexual revolution of the 1960s
B) is a sin against nature
C) has been known to exist throughout history
D) is a way of curbing population
Answer: C
Page Ref: 252
61) Scientists agree that homosexuality is:
A) a disease
B) biologically caused
C) culturally learned behavior
D) the result of imperfect socialization
E) none of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 252-254
62) The proportion of American men who admit to being homosexual is:
A) 10 percent
B) 20 percent
C) less than 3 percent
D) 25 percent
Answer: C
Page Ref: 253
63) Kinsey maintained that:
A) sexuality exists on a continuum
B) one is either a heterosexual or a homosexual
C) bisexuals lack specific hormones
D) people should have sex-change operations if they felt they were the wrong sex
Answer: A
Page Ref: 253
64) Approximately what percentage of the population admits to being bisexual?
A) 30 percent
B) 20 percent
C) 10 percent
D) 6 percent
Answer: D
Page Ref: 254
65) As a person ages:
A) health care costs decrease
B) senility sets in
C) senescence affects a small minority
D) none of the above
Answer: A
Page Ref: 229
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
66) Which is false?
A) more men than women live alone
B) more elderly men than women are married
C) only a small percentage of the 65- to 74-year olds live in nursing homes
D) older workers perform as well as younger workers
Answer: A
Page Ref: 229
67) The differences in behavior between men and women:
A) are due strictly to biology
B) are due strictly to culture
C) are due both to biology and culture
D) are the product of totalitarian governments
Answer: C
Page Ref: 240
68) In most societies, male dominance is evident through:
A) the differences in pay for the same job
B) the small number of legislators who are women
C) the sexual harassment situations in the military and other work places
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 243
69) Which is NOT a theory of socialization into gender roles?
A) social learning theory
B) cognitive development theory
C) string theory
D) identification theory
Answer: C
Page Ref: 247
9.3 Essay Questions
1) It is widely believed that women are more emotional, less aggressive, more nurturing, more compassionate, more
devoted and concerned about the welfare of others, particularly of children, and more personal in their
interrelationships. From your own experience, discuss whether these stereotypes are true or false. If these
stereotypes are generally true, then are the qualities women embody valued in our society, or not? If they are valued,
and if women possess them, why are women considered inferior? If the qualities are not valued, why are they not,
since they correspond to Christian injunctions, and the United States is generally said to be based on Judeo-Christian
values?
Answer:
Page Ref:
2) Which goals of the feminist movement do you fear, or object to? Which do you favor? Can you think of a society
that would exhibit complete sexual equality? How would such a society operate?
Answer:
Page Ref:
3) Ours is not a society that values aging and the aged, or dying. Yet both are inevitable conclusions to life. How
can people be educated to accept aging and dying? Which social forces militate against valuing age?
Answer:
Page Ref:
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TEST BANK
Chapter 10 From the Plow to the Computer: Change, Collective Behavior, and
Social Movements
10.1 True/False Questions
1) The speedup of technological progress led to a chain of revolutionary changes that have profoundly transformed
our societies.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 262-263
2) Social change occurs through scientific discoveries, technological inventions, and new achievements in the arts.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 266
3) An innovation can take the form of a discovery or of an invention.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 267
4) Technology refers to machine production and the factory system in modern industrial societies.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 269
5) The factory system became the basis of industrialism when it was discovered that specialization and division of
labor were especially efficient ways of organizing production.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 271
6) Stability and change are equally characteristic of individuals, societies, and cultures.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 263
7) The Industrial Revolution began as a result of a violent upheaval in the American colonies.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 270-271
8) People changed their belief that slavery was an acceptable institution. This constituted social change.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 268
9) In a revolution, cultural traits are spread from one society to another, or from one group in society to another.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 268
10) Diffusion occurs when change results from the violence used by people whose government has ceased to
respond to their needs.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 268
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
11) Random events and acts of individuals have no impact on social change in societies.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 268
12) Computer-driven technologies are reversing the previous industrial system of production because they make it
possible to produce small runs of customized goods and services aimed at specific markets.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 269
13) Iran is an example of a society in which the clash of modernization with traditional values produced great
instability and conflict.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 272-273
14) Social scientists are now convinced that modernization works for all societies.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 273
15) Mass publics have changed the outward appearance of the country in that highways and freeways, shopping
malls and amusement parks, golf courses and stadiums are now pervasive.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 277
16) Collective behavior is relatively unpatterned and unstructured.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 274-275
17) Social movements are much more likely to emerge during periods of rapid social change.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 282
18) A crowd is a collection of people who respond to a common stimulus.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 275-276
19) The readers of Time Magazine constitute a public.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 278
20) Reform social movements represent an attempt to remove the old social order and forcefully substitute it with a
new one.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 284
21) Public opinion has meaning especially in a mass society.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 281
22) Fashions, fads, and crazes are forms of social movements.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 277 (box)
23) A complete lack of structure in the behavior of an aggregate of people is normal.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 274-276
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TEST BANK
24) Casual crowds come together for specific events, such as a concert.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 276
25) Organized crowds are more receptive to mob behavior.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 276
26) A crowd can do what individual members do not want to do.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 276
27) Collective behavior can only take place among people who are close to one another.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 277
28) An out-of-control crowd with no particular goal in mind is a riot.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 276
29) Mobs are highly emotional and moved by the idea of violent action..
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 276
30) Designer jeans came into style because imitation is the sincerest form of flattery.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 276
31) A scattered collection of people who share a common interest or concern about an issue or who are affected by
a common occurrence is the definition of a public.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 278
32) A mass public never changes, its composition remaining constant.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 278-279
33) Politicians exert the strongest influence on public opinion.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 280-281
34) Propaganda gives distorted information, while censorship deletes all or parts of information to the public.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 282
35) "Collective enterprises to establish a new order of life" is one definition of public opinion.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 283
36) Reform movements try to change some feature of an existing social order, while revolutionary movements seek
its total destruction.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 284
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
37) The American Revolution was a class social movement, while the Russian Revolution was a nationalistic social
movement.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 284
38) A crisis of legitimacy is a predisposing factor for revolution.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 285
39) Change-resistant movements are joined by people who believe that things are changing too fast.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 286
10.2 Multiple-Choice Questions
1) Collective behavior is often precipitated by:
A) anomaly
B) rapid social change
C) deviant behavior
D) fear of the future
Answer: B
Page Ref: 274
2) Collective behavior is:
A) nonroutine
B) alienating
C) convergent
D) emergent
Answer: A
Page Ref: 275
3) Which is NOT a characteristic of crowd behavior?
A) Individuals totally shed their identity
B) Development of a common mood
C) Behavior according to previously established norms
D) Temporary
Answer: A
Page Ref: 275-276
4) Change may be experienced at which level?
A) Alpha, beta, and delta
B) Micro, middle, and macro
C) High and low
D) Public and public opinion
Answer: B
Page Ref: 265
5) A scattered collection of people who share a common interest or a concern about an issue are a(n):
A) group
B) crowd
C) public
D) audience
Answer: C
Page Ref: 278-280
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TEST BANK
6) A deliberate attempt to persuade the individual to accept a particular belief, or to make a specific choice,
uncritically, is:
A) brainwashing
B) instruction
C) education
D) propaganda
Answer: D
Page Ref: 282
7) Which is NOT a form of collective behavior?
A) Fashions
B) Rumors
C) Dining out with a friend
D) Panic
Answer: C
Page Ref: 274-275
8) A temporary collection of people gathered in the same place at the same time becomes a crowd when they:
A) interact on a facetoface basis
B) respond to a common stimulus
C) are personally acquainted with each other
D) have the same thing in mind as to how to behave
Answer: B
Page Ref: 276
9) Crowds may engage in unpredictable behavior because:
A) they are temporary
B) individuals can remain anonymous
C) individuals are unpredictable
D) BOTH they are temporary and individuals are anonymous
Answer: D
Page Ref: 276
10) Publics and public opinion:
A) are more characteristic of complex societies than of simple ones
B) are more frequent in totalitarian societies than in democratic ones
C) express the values of leaders of society
D) have special meanings in traditional societies where conflicting issues are common
Answer: A
Page Ref: 278-281
11) Censorship:
A) is the same as propaganda
B) gives a onesided interpretation of an issue
C) deletes all or parts of information
D) is the opposite of propaganda
Answer: C
Page Ref: 282
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
12) Which is NOT an element of a social movement?
A) It has a specific perspective and ideology
B) It involves no orientation toward action
C) It has a strong sense of idealism and solidarity
D) It involves a significant number of people
Answer: B
Page Ref: 282-283
13) Collective behavior is:
A) rather unstructured
B) well planned
C) based on regular norms
D) individual behavior multiplied
Answer: A
Page Ref: 274-275
14) Collective behavior:
A) completely lacks structure
B) has some connection with social factors
C) is always disorganized
D) none of the above
Answer: B
Page Ref: 274-275
15) Social scientists are interested in collective behavior because it is:
A) so predictable
B) not tied to social factors
C) often the basis of important social change
D) reflective of purely animal behavior
Answer: C
Page Ref: 274-275
16) The crowd at a religious revival meeting is:
A) casual
B) acting
C) expressive
D) disorganized
Answer: C
Page Ref: 276
17) Violent crowd behavior:
A) has no limits in its antisocial nature
B) always goes against the wishes of individual members
C) is generally random
D) is usually temporary
Answer: D
Page Ref: 276
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TEST BANK
18) Many listeners to a 1938 sciencefiction radio program believed that Martians were really invading the Earth.
They fled into the streets in panic. We would call their behavior:
A) fashion
B) rationallegal behavior
C) fantasy
D) none of the above
E) all of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 275
19) When old rules and laws are ignored and rebellious crowds set up new rules of behavior, social scientists call
this situation:
A) convergence
B) revolution
C) collective behavior
D) coup d'etat
Answer: B
Page Ref: 275
20) Persons interested in saving the whales could be considered a (n):
A) public
B) acting crowd
C) casual crowd
D) none of the above
Answer: A
Page Ref: 278
21) Public opinion is associated with:
A) mass society
B) primary groups
C) face-to-face-communication
D) emergent norms
Answer: A
Page Ref: 278
22) Telling people that using a certain toothpaste will make them sexually appealing is an example of:
A) truth in advertising
B) propaganda
C) censorship
D) practical use of scientific research
Answer: B
Page Ref: 282
23) Collective behavior favors social change because it:
A) alters people's perspective
B) prevents action
C) destroys group identity
D) none of the above
Answer: A
Page Ref: 274
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
24) Social movements tend to:
A) resist change
B) encourage change
C) redirect change
D) none of the above
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 282-283
25) Ideologies:
A) direct people to act in a certain way
B) never distort the truth
C) always abhor fanaticism
D) refer to the study of ideas
Answer: A
Page Ref: 283
26) Social movements are forms of collective behavior that have:
A) no specific ideology
B) a sense of solidarity
C) an insignificant number of persons involved
D) no particular program of action
Answer: B
Page Ref: 282-283
27) Social movements never:
A) develop into political parties
B) are voluntary associations
C) gain control of governments
D) none of the above
E) all of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 283
28) In industrial societies, the social class most likely to participate in social movements is the:
A) lower class
B) upper class
C) middle class
D) all social classes equally
Answer: C
Page Ref: 287
29) In a developing nation, people start to obtain good jobs. Then, inflation cuts their income. The people begin to
feel:
A) relative deprivation
B) a failure of rising expectations
C) euphoria
D) depression
Answer: B
Page Ref: 287
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TEST BANK
30) Marxists are most interested in:
A) nationalistic revolutionary movements
B) class revolutionary movements
C) coups d'etat
D) guerrilla fighting
Answer: B
Page Ref: 284
31) The civil rights movement in the United States was a:
A) reform movement
B) nationalistic movement
C) changeresistant movement
D) ethical movement
Answer: A
Page Ref: 284
32) People who are suddenly thrust in a situation for which they know no precedent are vulnerable to:
A) criminal behavior
B) normative behavior
C) collective behavior
D) social behavior
Answer: C
Page Ref: 274
33) Billy Graham's religious revival meetings are an example of:
A) expressive crowds
B) social movements
C) people's fear of the unknown
D) spiritual awakening
Answer: A
Page Ref: 276
34) Crowds and masses differ in that:
A) masses are not personally connected to one another
B) people in a crowd are in close proximity to one another
C) collective behavior cannot take place in masses
D) masses of people must always be in the same physical setting
Answer: B
Page Ref: 277
35) Reform movements:
A) are more successful in authoritarian than in democratic societies
B) substitute one ruling class for another
C) may be progressive or reactionary
D) aim to change the entire society
Answer: C
Page Ref: 284
36) A crisis of legitimacy indicates that:
A) the social order requires piecemeal reform
B) general apathy has overtaken the public
C) the public perceives that legitimate government has failed
D) better government propaganda is in order
Answer: C
Page Ref: 285
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
37) The most recent social movements:
A) focus more on economic issues
B) attract the underclass rather than the working class
C) are community and locality based
D) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 285
38) A nationalistic revolution occurred in the:
A) communist takeover of China in 1949
B) Cuban revolution of 1959
C) American Revolution
D) French Revolution
Answer: C
Page Ref: 284
39) When a predominantly foreign government is overthrown, the revolution is called:
A) alternative
B) class
C) nationalistic
D) fascist
Answer: C
Page Ref: 284
40) Redemptive movements include:
A) the antinuclear movement
B) fundamentalist Christianity
C) the civil rights movement
D) the women's liberation movement
Answer: B
Page Ref: 284
41) When the public perceives that the government has failed, the state may be said to be undergoing:
A) revolution
B) a crisis of legitimacy
C) a crisis of confidence
D) involution
Answer: B
Page Ref: 285
42) Reform movements:
A) are always progressive
B) may be reactionary or progressive
C) are equally successful in all types of societies
D) have brought about both communism and fascism
Answer: B
Page Ref: 284
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TEST BANK
43) The abolitionist movement sought the abolition of:
A) alcohol consumption
B) states' rights
C) slavery
D) compulsory education
Answer: C
Page Ref: 285
44) The Ku Klux Klan is an example of a(n):
A) change-resistant movement
B) progressive movement
C) fascist movement
D) neo-Nazi movement
Answer: A
Page Ref: 286
45) A social movement which becomes a formal organization is said to have undergone:
A) cooptation
B) incorporation
C) oligarchization
D) bureaucratization
Answer: D
Page Ref: 286
46) The failure of rising expectations is related to:
A) a general rise in the standard of living for all segments of society
B) a rapid decline in the standard of living
C) dissatisfaction based on relative deprivation
D) false advertising and credit expansion
Answer: C
Page Ref: 287
47) Ideologies:
A) underlie all social movements
B) do not underlie all political movements
C) underlie only political movements
D) underlie only revolutionary movements
Answer: A
Page Ref: 283
48) Change may be experienced on three levels:
A) personal, impersonal, social
B) invention, discovery, exploration
C) micro, middle, and macro
D) planning, reform, revolution
Answer: C
Page Ref: 265
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
49) Change, felt through new patterns of individual and small-group interaction, is called:
A) diffusion
B) micro-level change
C) innovation
D) macro-level change
E) interpersonal change
Answer: B
Page Ref: 265
50) It is correct to say that:
A) change is only a recent situation
B) the more things change the more they remain the same
C) the rate of change has increased in recent years
D) change has been the downfall of societies
Answer: C
Page Ref: 263
51) "Future shock" is:
A) a phrase used to describe an alien culture
B) the name of a famous movie dealing with a society of the future
C) a phrase used by Alvin Toffler to describe the rapidity of change
D) what the elderly experience in every society when a new generation comes into power.
Answer: C
Page Ref: 263
52) Modernization means that a society becomes:
A) democratic
B) affluent
C) agricultural
D) industrial
Answer: D
Page Ref: 270
53) Modernization in Britain was not as disruptive as in other countries because:
A) the British are smarter
B) the rate of change was slower so integration of new values was possible
C) the British were ahead of other societies in their level of civilization
D) the British had the Magna Carta which protected civil rights
Answer: B
Page Ref: 272-273
54) When people's beliefs about the inferiority of a certain group undergo change, the process is called:
A) social change
B) cultural change
C) political change
D) radical change
Answer: B
Page Ref: 267
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TEST BANK
55) Sociocultural change means that:
A) social change is really separate from cultural change
B) cultural change has nothing to do with social change
C) social and cultural change are interrelated
D) the concept is a contradiction in terms
Answer: C
Page Ref: 266
56) The first airplane was a(n):
A) discovery
B) invention
C) diffusion
D) miracle
Answer: B
Page Ref: 267
57) The knowledge of how the blood circulates in the body is a(n):
A) invention
B) discovery
C) diffusion
D) innovation
Answer: B
Page Ref: 267
58) The popularity of spaghetti in the United States resulted from:
A) the discovery of noodles
B) the invention of pasta machines
C) diffusion
D) an innovation in agriculture
Answer: C
Page Ref: 268
59) When one culture borrows traits from another culture, the borrowing culture tends to be:
A) grateful
B) selective in borrowing
C) nonselective in borrowing
D) gullible and impressionable
Answer: B
Page Ref: 268
60) The technological revolution that led to the control of food production is called the:
A) Paleolithic revolution
B) Industrial revolution
C) Agricultural revolution
D) Cultural revolution
Answer: C
Page Ref: 269
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61) The Industrial Revolution was based on:
A) the invention of basic machines
B) the discovery of new material
C) new sources of power
D) none of the above
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 270-271
62) Placing workers and machines in one building is called:
A) cottage industry
B) guild system
C) factory system
D) exploitation of the proletariat
Answer: C
Page Ref: 272
63) The Industrial Revolution began with:
A) the invention of a few basic machines
B) the overthrow of the British
C) the founding of Sony in Japan
D) the proletariat in Russia
Answer: A
Page Ref: 271
64) The idea that technology changes social organization and ideology is called:
A) scientific determinism
B) technological revolution
C) evangelical determinism
D) secular humanism
Answer: B
Page Ref: 269
65) Today, physicians, the clergy, and lawyers have difficulty dealing with test tube babies and surrogate
motherhood. We could say that they are grappling with:
A) cultural advancement
B) cultural change
C) cultural lag
D) cultural conflict
Answer: B
Page Ref: 267
66) When citizens or government agencies attempt to peacefully correct laws or institutions, they are engaged in:
A) revolution
B) reform
C) diffusion
D) innovation
Answer: B
Page Ref: 284
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67) The privileged position of the modern industrial nations was attained because of:
A) a change in the economy from agrarian to industrial
B) a change in the population distribution from rural to urban
C) the discovery of natural resources
D) both urbanization and industrialization
Answer: D
Page Ref: 271
68) The fact that pizza is now a popular American food is due to:
A) cultural lag
B) technological innovation
C) cultural diffusion
D) sociocultural drift
Answer: C
Page Ref: 268
69) The factory system:
A) was introduced when it became convenient to house both workers and machinery under one roof
B) gave more power to the employers, called entrepreneurs
C) was an American invention popularized through cultural diffusion
D) resulted from BOTH the convenience of housing workers and equipment together and gave more power to the
entrepreneurs
Answer: D
Page Ref: 271-272
70) Which is false of the process of diffusion?
A) It tends to be reciprocal
B) Only some elements of a culture are accepted by other cultures
C) Borrowing cultures modify the traits they accept
D) A complex culture borrows more elements from a simple culture than the other way around
Answer: D
Page Ref: 268
71) The first technological revolution:
A) took place in 1750
B) began with the invention of the steam engine
C) turned people from food gatherers to food producers
D) occurred in England
Answer: C
Page Ref: 269
72) The Industrial Revolution:
A) began in England in the 1800s
B) is already finished
C) caused few sociocultural changes
D) none of the above
Answer: A
Page Ref: 271
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73) Social statics and social dynamics:
A) are two dimensions of the same phenomenon
B) refer one to the structure, the other to the processes of a social system
C) are separated only for the sake of analysis
D) are two aspects of the same thing and, therefore, separated only for analysis
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 263
74) Industry:
A) is a system of production
B) represented a radical departure from previous methods of production
C) meant that one worker manufactured the entire product
D) is BOTH a productive system and a radical innovation
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 271-272
75) Futurist Alvin Toffler called his concept:
A) future shock
B) culture shock
C) myocardial shock
D) static shock
Answer: A
Page Ref: 263
76) Social change must be analyzed in terms of:
A) stability and efficiency
B) statics and dynamics
C) backward and forward progress
D) if it is good for the people
Answer: B
Page Ref: 263
77) The rate of change for most of human history has been:
A) slow until the Industrial Revolution, then rapid
B) rapid since the beginning of history
C) unchanged
D) slow because people are creatures of habit
Answer: A
Page Ref: 262
78) As a result of social change, some members of society:
A) play new roles
B) occupy new statuses
C) become social climbers
D) become downwardly mobile
E) take on BOTH new statuses and new roles
Answer: E
Page Ref: 266
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79) Which of the following brings about cultural change?
A) scientific discoveries
B) technological inventions
C) new art forms
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 266-270
80) The processes of cultural change include:
A) conservatism and reactionism
B) innovation and invention
C) conformity and obedience
D) nationalism and patriotism
Answer: B
Page Ref: 266-267
81) Premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by subnational groups or
clandestine agents is the definition of:
A) social movements
B) revolutions
C) coups d'etat
D) terrorism
Answer: D
Page Ref: 287
82) The purpose of terrorism is:
A) to bring in new forms of government
B) to start a nationalistic revolution
C) reject modernization
D) all of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 287
83) The difficulty with fighting terrorism is that:
A) terrorists have no single ideology
B) terrorism is a transnational problem
C) terrorists have differing goals
D) none of the above
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 287
10.3 Essay Questions
1) Around a decade ago, the communist world effectively collapsed. That was an example of monumental change.
Were the changes in each communist society cultural? Social? What processes were involved? Have these changes
affected you personally? Do you think they will affect the United States? The world?
Answer:
Page Ref:
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2) On the world arena, two trends are clearly recognizable. On the one hand, the world is becoming a global village,
with information and goods traded everywhere; on the other, nationalistic forces are pushing the world toward
conflict and disunity. Is a world society desirable? Is it possible? How would it change your life? Which trend has a
better chance of succeeding?
Answer:
Page Ref:
3) List all the forms of collective behavior in which you have participated, and in which you continue to participate.
What kinds of crowds have you been part of? What were some of the emotions you felt? Can you see yourself taking
part in the beating of an individual because everyone else in the crowd is doing it?
Answer:
Page Ref:
4) Fashion is a form of collective behavior only the strongest among us ignore. What force makes you wear your
pants practically around your knees? If this fashion is a social pattern that reflects the interests, values, and motives
of a segment of society at a certain point in time, can you identify that segment of society? Is that segment of society
your reference group? Why or why not? An interesting research project would be to trace the development of an
item of clothing - men's trousers, for instance - for about one thousand years, and see what interests, values, and
motives we can deduce from each change in fashion.
Answer:
Page Ref:
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Chapter 11 Population, Urbanization, and Environment
11.1 True/False Questions
1) One of the side effects of the Industrial Revolution has been population growth.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 291
2) The Industrial Revolution began as a result of the demographic transition.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 303
3) The Malthusian prophecy accurately predicted that the American people would reach zero population growth in
the 1970s.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 302-303
4) The fertility rate represents the number of births in a population in relation to every 1000 women of childbearing
age.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 293
5) Thomas Malthus maintained that population grows by geometric progression, but the food supply grows by
arithmetic progression.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 302-303
6) The demographic transition model is based on the fact that in the past 200 years Western societies have gone
from high mortality and fertility rates to low fertility and mortality rates.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 303-305
7) In 1972, the birthrate in the United States had dropped below the replacement level: we had attained zero
population growth.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 305
8) The population pyramid is a monument thought to have been built in memory of Egyptian royalty.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 300
9) The most technologically advanced nations also have the lowest fertility rates.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 304-305
10) Urbanization is the shift of population to cities.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 310
11) Urbanization and urbanism are interchangeable terms.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 310-311
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12) Suburbanization is a significant factor in the urban crisis.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 312-314
13) Urban renewal has been shown to be highly successful.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 317
14) Urbanism results in central city degeneration.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 316
15) Urbanism is replacing traditional rural values.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 311
16) Rural values have been idealized by Americans; in reality, they are similar to urban values.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 311
17) Urban living is conducive to freedom of action under anonymous conditions.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 311
18) Primary groups are especially important in urban surroundings.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 311
19) Laws, codes, and regulations are more prevalent in the city.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 311
20) A large number of SMSAs leads to an urban crisis.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 315-316
21) A megalopolis is another name for urban sprawl.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 316
22) The inner cities of most metropolitan areas tend to house the very wealthy.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 313
23) There are various levels of ecosystems, but a balance must be maintained in all.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 319
24) Planet Earth constitutes a global ecosystem.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 319
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TEST BANK
25) Americans are worried most about the depletion of fossil fuels burned for energy.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 322
26) A small creek in a suburban neighborhood is considered to be a local ecosystem.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 319
11.2 Multiple-Choice Questions
1) Overpopulation is a problem worldwide but only in relation to:
A) demography
B) poor contraception
C) population density
D) political organization
Answer: C
Page Ref: 292
2) Population began to increase steadily:
A) by around the middle of the 18th century
B) with improvements in agriculture, technology, and medicine
C) in the Bronze Age
D) in the 17th century when agriculture, technology and medicine improved
Answer: A
Page Ref: 304
3) The number of births in a population in relation to every 1000 women of childbearing age in a year is called the:
A) birthrate
B) fertility rate
C) population pyramid
D) population growth rate
Answer: A
Page Ref: 293
4) Which is typical of the first stage of the demographic transition?
A) high birthrates and high death rates
B) high birthrates and declining death rates
C) declining birthrates and high death rates
D) cycles of growth and decline
Answer: A
Page Ref: 303
5) Which subject is NOT studied by demography?
A) Birthrates, death rates, sex rates
B) Age groups, marriage incidence, divorce frequency
C) Human mobility
D) Rockforming, landshaping, soilforming
Answer: D
Page Ref: 292
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6) Zero population growth:
A) means that no more children are born
B) indicates that the fertility rate has dropped below the replacement level
C) must be achieved by all nations by the year 2005
D) is actively pursued by many of the underdeveloped nations
Answer: D
Page Ref: 305
7) Demographers believe that:
A) the demographic transition represents a general pattern
B) Western societies are doomed to extinction
C) the underdeveloped nations must increase their birthrate
D) population grows in inverse proportion to food production
Answer: A
Page Ref: 303-305
8) It is true of the population of the United States that:
A) it is getting older
B) there are more women than men
C) rural and sunbelt areas attract only the young
D) it is BOTH older and more female
Answer: D
Page Ref: 298-300
9) Birthrates:
A) generally correspond to population density
B) are low in Western Europe and Japan
C) are high in Arabia and interior Africa
D) are low BOTH in Western Europe and Japan and high in Arabia and Africa
Answer: D
Page Ref: 293
10) Most population experts:
A) expect the growth rate to remain constant
B) expect population to level off at between 8 and 15 billion people
C) have written off the Malthusian prophecy altogether
D) believe that a high fertility rate continues to be necessary in the developing nations
Answer: B
Page Ref: 304
11) Urban families everywhere in the world:
A) follow the dictates of religion and culture
B) voluntarily curb their fertility
C) have attained zero population growth
D) willingly accept governmental family planning
Answer: B
Page Ref: 305
12) Environmental pollution is the result of:
A) dysfunctions in the earth's atmosphere
B) ignorance on the part of the underdeveloped nations
C) human actions that have harmful consequences
D) unknown bacteria and viruses
Answer: C
Page Ref: 320-321
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13) The real problem in population growth is:
A) sheer numbers
B) uneven density of population
C) population growth presents no problem
D) that most societies have a low fertility rate
Answer: B
Page Ref: 292
14) The highest percentage of humans live in:
A) India
B) Russia
C) China
D) the U.S.
Answer: C
Page Ref: 308 (Table)
15) Population density:
A) always relates to birthrates
B) is low in Japan
C) is low in Western Europe
D) is high in industrial areas
Answer: D
Page Ref: 292
16) The crude birthrate is the:
A) number of births per thousand people per year
B) number or births a year in the world
C) the same as the fertility rate
D) the same as the fecundity rate
Answer: A
Page Ref: 293
17) The highest birthrates today are found in:
A) highly developed nations
B) the underdeveloped nations
C) Japan
D) Western Europe
Answer: B
Page Ref: 307
18) Death rates are highest in:
A) tropical Africa
B) Britain
C) Turkey
D) Thailand
Answer: A
Page Ref: 293-295
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19) Thomas Malthus stated that:
A) food increases in a geometric progression
B) populations grow in arithmetic progression
C) populations increase in geometric progression
D) population growth is a matter of algebra, not geometry or arithmetic
Answer: C
Page Ref: 302
20) World overpopulation could be prevented by:
A) zero population growth worldwide
B) the elimination of the demographic transition
C) natural change
D) a return to preindustrial medicine
Answer: A
Page Ref: 305
21) The stages of the demographic transition model are:
A) high births, high death rates
B) low death rates, high birthrates
C) low birth rates, low death rates
D) none of the above
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 303-305
22) An area which is today in the first stage of the demographic transition is the following:
A) U.S.A.
B) China
C) Tropical Africa
D) Japan
Answer: C
Page Ref: 305
23) Which Catholic nation displays high birthrates?
A) Ireland
B) France
C) Italy
D) Mexico
Answer: D
Page Ref: 305
24) How many children are American women having today?
A) 1.8 per woman
B) 2.1
C) 3.6
D) 4.0
Answer: B
Page Ref: 305
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TEST BANK
25) If population growth in the underdeveloped nations continues unabated, in 2050 world population will be:
A) 6 billion
B) 8 billion
C) 10 billion
D) 30 billion
Answer: C
Page Ref: 302
26) A population pyramid shows:
A) sex and age distribution within a population
B) the relation between population and land area
C) the ratio between a nation's standard of living and its population density
D) the relation between population growth and food supply
Answer: A
Page Ref: 299
27) Birthrates remain high in the Third World because:
A) there has been a cultural lag following superimposed industrialization
B) in many cultures, a man's worth is measured by the number of his children
C) contraception is either opposed or not properly practiced
D) all of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 305-308
28) The relationship between population and income is:
A) an increase in income produces a decline in fertility
B) the birth rate rises because of an increase in education
C) the rise in income and population results in a decrease of urbanization
D) working women have more children
Answer: A
Page Ref: 308
29) The United States, Canada, Northern and Western Europe, among other areas, are:
A) in the first stage of the demographic transition
B) still trying to curb population growth
C) threatened by underpopulation
D) in the third stage of the demographic transition
Answer: D
Page Ref: 303-305
30) One of the perceived advantages of suburban living is:
A) concentration of apartments
B) larger variety of cultural resources
C) older, more gracious housing
D) greater safety from crime
Answer: D
Page Ref: 312
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31) Factors in the urban crisis include:
A) the move of the middle class and industry to the suburbs
B) the inner city's declining tax base
C) a high percentage of deprived and trapped individuals
D) all of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 316
32) Urbanism is defined as:
A) the migration of people from rural to urban centers
B) a set of attitudes and a way of life distinct from the rural
C) the growth of cities and suburbs at the expense of rural areas
D) the study of the growth and decline of populations
Answer: B
Page Ref: 311
33) The urban crisis:
A) is intensified by the move of the middle class to the suburbs
B) has been reduced by urban renewal
C) has been intensified by gentrification
D) is well on the way to being resolved
Answer: A
Page Ref: 316-317
34) The transition from rural living to city living occurred because:
A) there was less need for farm workers as agriculture became mechanized
B) factories were concentrated in cities
C) social change dictated a new fad: urban living
D) of BOTH a decrease in the need for farm workers and the fact that factories were located in cities
Answer: D
Page Ref: 310
35) Social organization in the city brought ALL BUT which one of these changes?
A) The class structure became more rigid
B) Families became nuclear
C) Primary group ties became less important
D) Formal agencies of control multiplied
Answer: A
Page Ref: 310-311
36) When farms are destroyed in favor of factories and suburbs, it is an example of:
A) urbanization
B) secularization
C) popularization
D) none of the above
Answer: A
Page Ref: 310
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TEST BANK
37) In developing nations, cities are growing along with rural areas because:
A) of lower death rates
B) of high birth rates
C) cultural values encourage large families
D) none of the above
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 311
38) Agriculture in industrial nations is now based on:
A) many small farmers
B) greater productivity of farms because of mechanization
C) increases in rural population
D) artificial food production
Answer: B
Page Ref: 310
39) An ecological city is:
A) the central city, suburbs, and satellites
B) one with a recycling center
C) one containing a clean water supply for the area
D) where urban planning originates
E) all of the above
Answer: A
Page Ref: 315
40) A countertrend observable since the 1950s is:
A) a great increase in population in the cities
B) rural areas became very depopulated
C) urban decentralization
D) urban residents providing their own food supply by planting gardens
Answer: C
Page Ref: 315
41) A decline in the rural population was due chiefly to:
A) factories
B) the continued improvements in agricultural methods
C) population size
D) the favor of the local tyrant
Answer: B
Page Ref: 310
42) The urban trends resulting from the Industrial Revolution include:
A) strengthening primary ties
B) a return to Biblical religions
C) homogeneous populations
D) reduced family size
Answer: D
Page Ref: 311
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43) The emphasis on rural virtues:
A) has been reinforced by recent studies
B) is based on stereotypes
C) helped democratic representation in the states
D) gave urban dwellers an inferiority complex
Answer: B
Page Ref: 311
44) According to the U.S. Census Bureau, a CMSA is defined as:
A) a relatively large, dense, permanent settlement of heterogeneous individuals
B) any locality with a population of one million people or more
C) an ecological system
D) any locality with a downtown and suburbs
Answer: B
Page Ref: 315
45) The percentage of people around the world who lived in cities in 2005 is approximately:
A) 20 percent
B) 49 percent
C) 50 percent
D) 80 percent
Answer: B
Page Ref: 310
46) Urbanism is associated with:
A) extended families
B) Gemeinschaft society
C) increase in anomie and alienation
D) public transportation
Answer: C
Page Ref: 311
47) Modern urban sociologists, in contrast to the Chicago school, believe that cities:
A) are doomed to total disorganization
B) are too expensive
C) stimulate creativity
D) will revert to rural areas within a short time
Answer: C
Page Ref: 313 (box)
48) Suburban growth was based on:
A) the development of automobile travel
B) expensive suburban property
C) wartime industrial expansions
D) movement of factories out of the cities
Answer: A
Page Ref: 312
49) Suburbanization today is based on:
A) skin color only
B) homogeneous families
C) social class
D) the grass being greener in the suburbs
Answer: C
Page Ref: 314-315
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TEST BANK
50) Most American cities have:
A) large shopping malls
B) many high income taxpayers
C) continual building of new industries
D) a reduced tax base
Answer: D
Page Ref: 317
51) A metropolitan area consists of:
A) several small towns
B) a central city and surrounding suburbs and small towns
C) the city only
D) a city with a subway system
Answer: B
Page Ref: 315
52) The SMSA is based on:
A) a town smaller than 2500 residents
B) one or more counties containing at least one city of 50,000 residents, or two cities totaling 50,000
C) a town of 10,000 and surrounding counties
D) a city of at least 100,000 residents and its suburbs
Answer: B
Page Ref: 315
53) When metropolitan areas start to merge with each other, the result is:
A) a standard metropolitan area
B) a megalopolis
C) an ecological city
D) a repetition of the Greek polis
Answer: B
Page Ref: 316
54) The model in urban ecology that stresses distance of residence from central business based on social class is
the:
A) sector model
B) concentriczone model
C) multiple nuclei model
D) wedgeshape model
Answer: B
Page Ref: 313 (box)
55) A ghetto tends to contain:
A) slums
B) a concentration of one racial group in an area
C) residents who make up an economic underclass
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: B
Page Ref: 316-317
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56) Gentrification is the trend of:
A) city dwellers learning proper manners
B) middleclass professionals renovating old city housing and using them as residences
C) continued movement to suburbs
D) city residents returning to manor houses in country
Answer: B
Page Ref: 317
57) Urban renewal has:
A) provided good housing for the poor
B) secured many jobs for the poor
C) eliminated housing discrimination
D) moved residents but not improved conditions
Answer: D
Page Ref: 317
58) The relationship of organisms to their environments is called:
A) physical
B) chemical
C) ecological
D) astral
Answer: C
Page Ref: 319
59) A lake is polluted. The fish in it die. The algae make unpleasant odors. It may be said that:
A) the ecosystem is disturbed
B) biological capital is lost
C) the environment is degraded
D) none of the above
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 320-321
60) Overpopulation can result in:
A) higher literacy
B) environmental damage
C) price stability
D) increased public services
Answer: B
Page Ref: 320
61) A reduction of the ozone layer in the upper atmosphere leads to:
A) greater rainfall
B) greater crop yields
C) climate changes
D) fluorochlorocarbon production
Answer: C
Page Ref: 321
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TEST BANK
62) Chemical pesticides:
A) continue to control pests for many years
B) leach out of the ground quickly
C) are harmless to humans
D) can be toxic to other forms of life
Answer: D
Page Ref: 320
63) The oil supplies of the United States are subject to:
A) constant increase
B) environmental depletion
C) environmental pollution
D) price stability
Answer: B
Page Ref: 322
64) Which nation state has reached zero population growth?
A) Iran
B) Zimbabwe
C) the United States
D) Turkey
Answer: C
Page Ref: 305
65) Natural resources are:
A) infinite
B) finite
C) ready to support many more billions of people
D) dispensable
Answer: B
Page Ref: 322
66) In Africa, many children are:
A) symbols of disgrace
B) social security for the future of the parents
C) detested by non Catholics
D) signs of a good harvest
Answer: B
Page Ref: 305-307
67) In Third World countries, the factors that discourage birth control include:
A) traditional values
B) government subsidies for large families
C) low infant mortality
D) women's rights
Answer: A
Page Ref: 308
68) The strongest urge that all living creatures feel is to:
A) avoid stress
B) be important
C) feel respectable
D) reproduce themselves
Answer: D
Page Ref: 292
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69) The most dramatic change that followed each technological revolution was:
A) a dramatic increase in population
B) a visible decrease in population
C) the systematic migration of populations to different areas
D) a return to an agrarian way of life
Answer: A
Page Ref: 291
70) Population density may be defined as:
A) the number of people to a land area
B) the density of a compound group
C) the number of births and deaths per year
D) the ability of a square foot of land to feed a number of people
Answer: A
Page Ref: 292
71) The majority of the human population lives in:
A) New York
B) Africa
C) Pacific Islands
D) Eurasia
Answer: D
Page Ref: 308
72) The crude birthrate is:
A) an important demographic concept
B) the number of male births per 1000 people per country per year
C) the rate at which infants survive past their first year
D) the rate at which the elderly die in any given year
Answer: A
Page Ref: 293
73) Death rates are:
A) defined as the number of deaths per 1000 people per country per year
B) the rate at which infants survive past their first year
C) deaths of infants before they are one year old
D) the rate at which the elderly die in any given year
Answer: A
Page Ref: 293-295
74) Malthus suggested the following as means of birth control:
A) late marriage
B) abstinence
C) celibacy
D) none of the above
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 302-303
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TEST BANK
75) Zero population growth:
A) means that the number of births equals the number of deaths in a country in any given year
B) signifies that the deaths exceed the births
C) is the term used when there are no births in any given year in a specific country
D) means that populations stop growing because of an epidemic, such as the Black Death, or AIDS
Answer: A
Page Ref: 305
76) The natural environment is:
A) the way humans found the earth
B) the totality of natural conditions and resources that occur in a specific area
C) the total complex of manmade elements in an area
D) mountains, oceans, rivers, and deserts
Answer: B
Page Ref: 319
77) The ecosystem is:
A) the way inanimate objects are placed into the natural system
B) a systematic application of the economy
C) the way living things interact and interrelate with each other and their environment
D) what Hobbes called the "state of nature"
Answer: C
Page Ref: 319
78) Which elements are affected by pollution?
A) Water
B) Air
C) Land
D) None of the above
E) All of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 320-322
79) Before ecological problems can be resolved, what will probably need to happen?
A) It will have to become politicized
B) The smog will have to increase
C) Acid rain will have to destroy our crops
D) Cultural values will have to change
Answer: D
Page Ref: 323
80) Environmental depletion is the term used to mean that:
A) natural resources are increasing in proportion to an increased demand for them
B) natural resources are decreasing as demand for them increases
C) natural resources can be substituted with artificial ones
D) humans are capable to adapt to other resources when the old ones disappear
Answer: B
Page Ref: 322
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
81) Which two factors have engendered problems that threaten the environment?
A) overpopulation and urban life
B) agriculture and horticulture
C) fishing and mining
D) low population growth and low density
Answer: A
Page Ref: 319
82) Ecology is the discipline concerned with:
A) the growth or decline of populations
B) human processes such as migration
C) how ideologies motivate human behavior
D) the way living things relate and adjust to each other in a common habitat
Answer: D
Page Ref: 319-320
83) Metropolitan areas with a population of 1 million or more are called:
A) CMSAs (Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Areas)
B) SMSAs (Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas)
C) CBSAs (Core Bases Statistical Areas)
D) MSAs (Micropolitan Statistical Areas)
Answer: C
Page Ref: 315
84) The largest number of statistical areas in the United States are:
A) SMSAs
B) CMSAs
C) CBSAs
D) MSAs
Answer: B
Page Ref: 315
85) The Micropolitan Statistical Area consists of:
A) one urban cluster of at least 10,000 but less than 50,000 population
B) one city of at least 50,000 population
C) one city of at least 1 million population
D) a region of the country
Answer: A
Page Ref: 315
11.3 Essay Questions
1) Can technology overcome the effects of overpopulation and environmental degradation? Develop positive and
negative arguments on this issue.
Answer:
Page Ref:
2) Human nature being what it is, is it realistic to expect people to change deeply ingrained cultural habits? In short,
will the Chinese and Indians be satisfied with one child, even though it is a female? Will Americans stop driving to
the corner mail box in their huge utility vehicles? Based on past history, what might change such habits?
Answer:
Page Ref:
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TEST BANK
3) Few politicians display a grave concern for the environment. Why do most politicians scoff at environmental
concerns, or try to avoid discussing them? Should it be the business of government to impose restrictions on people
in order to protect the environment? Or should government keep "hands off" in the hope that the "invisible hand" of
capitalism will resolve matters to everyone's satisfaction?
Answer:
Page Ref:
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
Chapter 12 Pivotal Institutions: Marriage and the Family
12.1 True/False Questions
1) Institutions are the habits or traditional ways of doing things that eventually crystallize into patterns of behavior.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 326
2) In urban industrial societies, the family has become increasingly more extended.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 327
3) Historically, the most prevalent form of marriage has been group marriage.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 330
4) Endogamy means that individuals are encouraged to marry outside their subcultural group.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 331
5) The function of providing affection and companionship became more important in the nuclear family.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 227
6) The nuclear family is typical of an agricultural society.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 327
7) When individuals become parents, the family they form is one of procreation.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 327
8) The marriage of one man with one woman is called polygamy.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 330
9) Marrying a person with traits altogether different than one's own is called homogamy.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 333
10) The incest taboo represents an example of exogamy
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 330
11) The anthropologist George Murdock stated that the family is found only in some human societies.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 327
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TEST BANK
12) Most single mothers are working women who made a deliberate choice to have a child even though they are
unmarried.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 328
13) All of the former family functions have been taken over by new institutions.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 328
14) Endogamy and homogamy are characteristic of traditional societies only.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 330-331
15) The early years of marriage are the easiest in terms of stability because the spouses are still very much in love.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 333
16) Having a baby tends to stabilize a marriage, just as folk wisdom suggests.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 335
17) Modernization and affluence has had the effect of decreasing birthrates, increasing voluntary childlessness, and
dramatically increasing divorce rates.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 336
18) Remarriage is a rare occurrence because the institution of marriage has been so discredited.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 338-339
19) Women who have a stable financial situation cope quite well with the unmarried status.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 347
20) The no-fault divorce has proven to be one of the more progressive ideas of the 20th century, especially for
women and children.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 338
21) The psychological adjustment to divorce may be harder for males who commit suicide more often, have a
higher number of car accidents, and higher rates of alcoholism, drug abuse, depression, and anxiety than women.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 338
22) The best adjustment to divorce is made by childless couples.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 341
23) According to the Wallerstein study, the worst adjustment in a divorce is made by children, especially those in
the 9- and 10-year-old group.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 340-342
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
24) Teenagers manifest the damaging effects of divorce more overtly than younger children, by committing crimes
and abusing alcohol and drugs.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 342
25) The divorce rates have taken a slight dip at the turn of the 20th century.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 339
26) Cohabitation previous to marriage leads to more successful unions than marriages without previous
cohabitation.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 343-344
27) It has been definitely shown that maternal care is a prerequisite for the development of a psychologically sound
individuals.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 347-349
28) Single parenthood has greatly decreased, especially among teenagers, because of the easy availability of birth
control.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 344
29) Kinship systems existed only in traditional societies.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 328
30) Romantic love as a prerequisite for marriage evolved in Biblical times.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 331
31) Most couples fight most commonly about children and money.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 335
32) According to the resource theory, the distribution of power in a marriage depends on the resources each spouse
brings to it.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 335
33) Americans' preoccupation with individualism and the self is incompatible with relationships that require
commitment, such as marriage.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 337
34) The leading causes of divorce are infidelity, alcohol and drug abuse, and psychological abuse.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 338
35) In the last two decades, the rates of divorce have increased most rapidly among middle-aged Americans.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 338
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TEST BANK
12.2 Multiple-Choice Questions
1) The most important product of the social way of life is:
A) marriage
B) family
C) culture
D) society
Answer: C
Page Ref: 326
2) Social institutions:
A) are ingrained patterns of behavior representing solutions to universal human needs
B) are things like banks and schools
C) make up cultural components
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: A
Page Ref: 327
3) Which component of culture is central to human life?
A) Interdependence
B) The industrial
C) The normative
D) The habitual
Answer: C
Page Ref: 327
4) An example of a basic, pivotal institution is:
A) show business
B) gossip
C) sports
D) the family
Answer: D
Page Ref: 327
5) The anthropologist George Murdock believes that the family:
A) is found only in some human societies
B) has functions fundamental to human life
C) is harmful and leads to schizophrenia
D) was the last institution to develop
Answer: B
Page Ref: 327
6) The family - and particularly marriage - binds its members through:
A) interfaith competition
B) legal and economic bonds
C) educational functions
D) class conflict
Answer: B
Page Ref: 329
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
7) In rural India, a man and his wife often live with their unmarried and married children and grandchildren under
one roof. This family type is called:
A) nuclear
B) conjugal
C) extended
D) homogamous
Answer: C
Page Ref: 327
8) The nuclear form of the family often appears in:
A) traditional agrarian societies
B) industrial societies
C) locations where there is the need for large families
D) rural areas
Answer: B
Page Ref: 327
9) A kinship system is based on:
A) marriage
B) common descent
C) adoption
D) none of the above
E) all of the above
Answer: B
Page Ref: 328
10) Marriage is:
A) any union of males and females
B) a union recognized as legal by a society
C) always monogamous
D) always endogamous
Answer: B
Page Ref: 329
11) In some cultures, a man can have several wives at one time. This custom is called:
A) lunacy
B) polyandry
C) polygyny
D) serial marriage
Answer: C
Page Ref: 330
12) In a few cultures, a woman can have several husbands at one time. This custom is called:
A) monogamy
B) bigamy
C) polyandry
D) polygyny
Answer: C
Page Ref: 330
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TEST BANK
13) The most common form of marriage today is:
A) polygamy
B) polyandry
C) polygyny
D) none of the above
E) they are all common
Answer: D
Page Ref: 330
14) Social scientists explain the incest taboo as:
A) biologically programmed
B) a religious universal
C) way of reducing family conflict
D) all of the above
Answer: C
Page Ref: 330
15) In rural India, a person must marry within his or her caste. This custom is called:
A) exogamy
B) endogamy
C) polygamy
D) purdah
Answer: B
Page Ref: 331
16) The family today influences:
A) production activities
B) attitudes on politics
C) hospitalization rates
D) none of the above
Answer: B
Page Ref: 328
17) Romance as a reason for marriage:
A) is an ancient principle
B) is a modern invention
C) prevents divorce
D) contributes to divorce
Answer: B
Page Ref: 331
18) Marrying someone with similar traits is called:
A) homogamy
B) heterogamy
C) exogamy
D) hypogamy
Answer: A
Page Ref: 333
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
19) The ethnic groups among whom arranged marriages are common include:
A) Indians (natives of India)
B) Hasidic Jews
C) Muslims
D) All of the above
E) None of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 333 (box 1)
20) The low birthrate in the United States is related to:
A) questionable nutrition
B) increased drug use
C) increase of women in work force
D) none of the above
Answer: C
Page Ref: 336
21) The high divorce rate in industrial societies is related to:
A) the importance of religion
B) the low status of women
C) emphasis on group goals
D) the stress on values of individualism and personal goals
Answer: D
Page Ref: 337
22) A number of celebrities in the entertainment world have been married five or six times. They may be said to
have had:
A) the standard number of marriages in our society
B) a faulty distribution of power in their marriages
C) respect for polygamy
D) a negative experience of married life
Answer: B
Page Ref: 335
23) Divorced men, as compared to married men, are subject to:
A) more suicides
B) more instances of depression
C) more car accidents
D) none of the above
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 338
24) Children of divorce have:
A) no problems
B) a preference for parental conflict rather than their divorce
C) the most difficulty at ages nine and ten
D) fewer problems of adjustment than children from intact families
Answer: C
Page Ref: 341
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TEST BANK
25) Female-headed families have:
A) increased in number since 1970
B) generally a lower income than two-parent families
C) greater emotional stress in dealing with children
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 344
26) The blended family:
A) consists of natural parents and children
B) is another name for a childless family
C) is made up of natural parents, stepparents, natural children and stepchildren
D) is quite stable for children
Answer: C
Page Ref: 344-346
27) While birthrates in the United States have been in a state of decline, a countertrend may be seen in:
A) the fact that young women unanimously want children
B) the "baby boomlet" caused by births to women in their thirties and forties
C) the desire of most couples to have large families
D) Census Bureau predictions about the increase in family size in the next century
Answer: B
Page Ref: 346
28) Which is a true statement?
A) Industrialization has increased divorce rates wherever it has appeared.
B) Marriage rates in the U.S. have greatly decreased from the turn of the century.
C) The majority of divorces in the U.S. are granted to people who have been married 30 years or more.
D) Social pressure to marry is currently very strong in the U.S.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 337
29) Births to unmarried women accounted for what percent of all births in the U.S. in 2004?
A) 60%
B) 11%
C) 32%
D) 25%
Answer: C
Page Ref: 345 (box 3)
30) The teenage birthrate:
A) has soared in the past two years
B) has declined in the past several years
C) is highest among white teenagers
D) none of the above
Answer: B
Page Ref: 353
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
31) Teenagers who are sexually active are in danger of:
A) becoming pregnant
B) contracting sexually transmitted diseases, including AIDS
C) having to quit school
D) only A and B
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 353-355
32) Which is NOT a new alternative to the traditional family?
A) Single-parent family.
B) Extended family.
C) Blended family.
D) Reconstituted family.
Answer: B
Page Ref: 327
33) The nuclear family is characteristic of industrial societies because:
A) most functions are better performed in secondary groups
B) geographic and social mobility are common in industrial societies
C) ascribed status is more important in industrial societies
D) a large family means more hands to work
Answer: B
Page Ref: 327
34) The nuclear family form is also called:
A) conjugal
B) consanguine
C) procreational
D) extended
Answer: A
Page Ref: 327
35) The opposite of a nuclear family is the:
A) conjugal family
B) atomic family
C) extended family
D) group family
Answer: C
Page Ref: 327
36) Which is NOT a form of plural marriage?
A) Polyandry
B) Polygyny
C) Polygamy
D) Monogamy
Answer: D
Page Ref: 330
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TEST BANK
37) The most fundamental function of the family is:
A) ensuring the reproduction of the species
B) providing sex education
C) feeding its members
D) keeping members sheltered
Answer: A
Page Ref: 328
38) Endogamy and exogamy are:
A) two social science disciplines
B) ways of studying institutions
C) social limitations placed on marriages
D) practiced only by select groups in society
Answer: C
Page Ref: 331
39) Mistreatment or abuse of children:
A) occurs with greater frequency in extended families
B) occurs less frequently in extended families
C) is a function of social class
D) happens only in industrial societies
Answer: B
Page Ref: 350
40) Most societies:
A) discourage marriage
B) encourage marriage
C) accept all kinds of man-woman unions
D) pay couples to have children
Answer: B
Page Ref: 329
41) The family into which you were born is called:
A) my family
B) the family of procreation
C) the family of origin
D) the family of orientation
Answer: D
Page Ref: 327
42) Group marriage:
A) is widespread in several societies
B) is practiced among Australian aborigines
C) has been a consistent feature in Western societies
D) has never been consistently or extensively practiced
Answer: D
Page Ref: 330
43) The regulation of sex:
A) is attempted by societies by encouraging marriage
B) has become unimportant in the U.S.
C) has no relationship to the liberalization of sexual norms
D) is unrelated to societal mores and taboos
Answer: A
Page Ref: 328
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44) Reproduction outside the family:
A) cannot occur
B) has not been positively sanctioned in any society
C) reflects the norms and values of American society
D) is considered a sin by all religions of the world
Answer: B
Page Ref: 328
45) The first years of marriage:
A) are the most difficult
B) require the most adjustment
C) offer the most satisfaction
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 333-335
46) The expectations people have regarding how husbands and wives ought to behave are called marital:
A) norms
B) illusions
C) orders
D) scripts
E) models
Answer: D
Page Ref: 334
47) Young couples who have children very soon after marriage:
A) are quite content with their lot
B) spend very little time together
C) experience constant elation
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: B
Page Ref: 335
48) When children reach school age, their parents:
A) experience a decline in marital satisfaction
B) spend more time together and are more content
C) shift their focus toward their own relationship
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: A
Page Ref: 335
49) A perspective that focuses on power relations between spouses is called:
A) microconflict theory
B) transactional analysis
C) resource theory
D) dependency theory
E) strategic interaction theory
Answer: C
Page Ref: 335
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TEST BANK
50) The resources each spouse brings to a marriage include:
A) income
B) the ability to earn income
C) occupational prestige
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 335
51) Women after divorce:
A) need not do any of the menial housework
B) have a more difficult psychological adjustment than men
C) experience a 45 percent drop in income
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: C
Page Ref: 339
52) In today's marriages in the United States:
A) both men and women subscribe to egalitarian views
B) only men subscribe to egalitarian views
C) only women subscribe to egalitarian views
D) neither men nor women subscribe to egalitarian views
Answer: A
Page Ref: 335
53) One of the causes of the increased rates of divorce, according to some social commentators, is that most
Americans pursue self fulfillment at the expense of:
A) the family
B) the community
C) inherited ideas, like responsibility and obligation
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 337
54) The annual divorce rate in the U.S.:
A) has increased every year since 1910
B) has begun to stabilize as of 2006
C) is no longer the highest in the world
D) has doubled since 1979
Answer: B
Page Ref: 337
55) The median duration of American marriages that end in divorce is:
A) 20.3 years
B) 15.7 years
C) 12.2 years
D) 7 years
E) 4.3 years
Answer: D
Page Ref: 338
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56) Following a divorce, both partners remarry in what percentage of cases?
A) 90%
B) 80%
C) 60%
D) 50%
Answer: B
Page Ref: 338
57) Among the leading causes of divorce are:
A) drug and alcohol abuse
B) infidelity
C) physical abuse
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 338
58) The percentage of men filing divorce petitions is:
A) equal to that of women
B) less than that of women
C) considerably more than that of women
D) slightly more than that of women
E) slightly less than that of women
Answer: B
Page Ref: 338
59) Among the leading causes of divorce are:
A) infidelity
B) personality differences
C) incompatibility
D) only B and C
Answer: D
Page Ref: 338
60) Which women are most likely to report feeling unhappy after their divorce?
A) elderly women
B) childless middle-aged women
C) young mothers
D) none of the above
Answer: C
Page Ref: 341
61) The "real revolution" of the last twenty years, according to one sociologist, refers to:
A) the jailing of spouse abusers and marital rapists
B) "serial" or "throwaway" marriages
C) male bonding and tribalism
D) women's lack of interest in marriage
Answer: D
Page Ref: 339
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TEST BANK
62) Which of the following does NOT appear to be a factor in divorce:
A) marriage after an engagement of over three years
B) differences in occupational goals and careers
C) pregnancy shortly after marriage
D) dramatic differences in family backgrounds
Answer: B
Page Ref: 337-340
63) There is a growing realization that divorce:
A) is a normal process from which people quickly recover
B) means freedom and happiness
C) may bring devastating economic and emotional consequences
D) none of the above
Answer: C
Page Ref: 340-342
64) No-fault divorce has:
A) left alimony awards intact
B) all but eliminated alimony and somewhat decreased the average child support award
C) increased child support requirements
D) increased both alimony and child support awards for the first few years after divorce
Answer: B
Page Ref: 340
65) The noncustodial parent:
A) renounces all responsibility for his children
B) is often a "deadbeat dad"
C) is usually unfit to be a parent
D) none of the above
Answer: B
Page Ref: 340
66) In the 1960s, some young people:
A) decided to return to the traditional forms of family
B) saw the family as an oppressive institution
C) preferred to live in communes
D) chose to cohabit rather than marry
Answer: B
Page Ref: 355
67) Single Americans in their middle years:
A) resemble their married-with-children neighbors
B) live a totally distinct life style
C) are reclusive and depressed
D) are considered deviant
Answer: A
Page Ref: 345
68) Cohabiting couples:
A) are predominantly homosexual
B) represent an example of premarital life
C) are an old phenomenon
D) represent the great majority of couples
Answer: B
Page Ref: 343-344
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
69) It is true of single-parent households that:
A) they have greatly increased in the past decades
B) they are mostly headed by women
C) they are most frequent among African-Americans
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 344
70) The blended, or reconstituted, family:
A) is considered the wave of the future
B) has its own set of problems
C) is the best solution to a failing institution
D) only A and B
E) only C
Answer: D
Page Ref: 344-346
71) In 1930, the average family size in the United States was:
A) 6 people
B) 4.11 people
C) 1.9 people
D) 2.00 people
Answer: B
Page Ref: 346
72) Which method of child care is best for children?
A) Spending at least 20 hours with a person other than the mother.
B) Being cared for by the biological mother, even if she would rather work outside the house.
C) We do not really know.
D) Being in a day-care center with other children of the same age.
Answer: C
Page Ref: 347-349
73) In Western societies, marriage:
A) was influenced by the Judeo-Christian religions
B) was impacted by Greek and Roman secular philosophies
C) was an invention of the Catholic church
D) all of the above
E) only A and B
Answer: E
Page Ref: 329
74) In Western societies, legal marriage was seen as a way to:
A) regulate sexuality
B) determine rights and obligations
C) protect children
D) all of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 329
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TEST BANK
75) Modern societies are grappling with the notion of:
A) eliminating marriage altogether
B) allowing same-sex couples to marry
C) lowering the age at marriage
D) none of the above
Answer: B
Page Ref: 329
76) According to the Census Bureau:
A) the number of Americans who never married has increased
B) the number of American who never married has decreased
C) Americans marry at the same rate as in the past
D) Marriage is a dying institution
Answer: A
Page Ref: 345
77) Conditions associated with long-term marriages include:
A) a woman's age at marriage
B) a woman's family income
C) whether the woman came from an intact family
D) all of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 335
78) Among the changes in the family institution, which is false?
A) families have gotten larger
B) the birthrate has greatly declined
C) there has been an increase in voluntary childlessness
D) marriage rates have declined
Answer: A
Page Ref: 335
79) Factors in the decline of the marriage rate include:
A) a delay in the age of first marriage
B) the increase of cohabitation
C) the increase in the incidence of remaining single
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 336
80) It is true of divorce rates that:
A) they increased dramatically with industrialization
B) they are highest in the United States
C) they have stabilized at 3.6 per 1000 marriages
D) all of the above are true
Answer: D
Page Ref: 337
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81) Cohabitation:
A) is most popular among the 24-35 age group
B) among working couples
C) among college-educated, high-income groups
D) all of the above
E) only A and B
Answer: E
Page Ref: 343
82) The teen pregnancy rate:
A) began to decline in 1997
B) has declined principally for non-Hispanic black teens
C) is highest among Asian teens
D) none of the above
E) only A and B
Answer: E
Page Ref: 353
83) Child abuse:
A) includes physical and emotional neglect
B) refers to a wide range of maltreatment
C) has a victimization rate of 12.3 per 1,000 children
D) includes only fatalities
E) only A, B, and C
Answer: E
Page Ref: 350
84) The highest victimization rates occur:
A) in the teenage years
B) in the 10-15 years age group
C) in the 0 to 3 years age group
D) equally in all age groups
Answer: C
Page Ref: 350
85) Studies have found that:
A) victims of child abuse become troubled adults
B) the more severe the abuse, the more extreme the later psychiatric symptoms
C) not all abused children go on to abuse their own children
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 350
86) A strong predictive factor of becoming an abusive parent is:
A) to have felt unloved and unwanted by one's own parents
B) to have felt the injustice of abuse
C) to have come to believe that abuse is the way things are
D) none of the above
E) only A
Answer: E
Page Ref: 350
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TEST BANK
87) The perpetrators of fatal child abuse have these traits in common:
A) they are young males
B) they live at or below the poverty level
C) they are seriously depressed
D) they have a rigid type of personality
E) only A, B, and C
Answer: E
Page Ref: 350
12.3 Essay Questions
1) Since divorce is so common in our postindustrial society, many couples sign a prenuptial agreement specifying
how to proceed in the eventuality of divorce. If you had to draw up such an agreement, what would you include?
Answer:
Page Ref:
2) It is said that love as a prerequisite for marriage is a modern invention. If you are married, how much of a role
did love play in your marriage? Were you conscious of other considerations–economic, occupational, of status–that
entered into the equation? Did you marry according to the rules of homogamy? If you are unmarried, what are your
thoughts on the subject? Would you marry only if you were "in love?" What other traits would you want in a marital
partner? Are they like or unlike your own?
Answer:
Page Ref:
3) The family has been the subject of much controversy of late. In the 60s and 70s it was accused of being an
oppressive institution; today, most people claim they want to go back to a time when family was important, to
recoup "family values." Since we were all born into families, we have a first-hand opportunity to judge the
institution. What do you personally feel is the value of the family? What are some of the disadvantages? Can you
think of a viable alternative?
Answer:
Page Ref:
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
Chapter 13 Pivotal Institutions: Religion and Education
13.1 True/False Questions
1) Religion is an activity that relates to the beyond of human life.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 359
2) Scientists are considered to be the best authorities on religion.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 359
3) Modern religions may be categorized into monogamous and polygamous.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 359-360
4) Islam is the second-largest religion in terms of the number of followers.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 361
5) The chief religion in China is Zoroastrianism.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 360
6) Durkheim's theories of religion stress the function of social integration.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 363
7) Karl Marx considered religion to be an institution that prepared people for communism.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 365
8) By supporting societal norms, religion functions to sanction the status quo.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 364
9) Americans have developed a kind of "civil religion" by attributing sacredness to political ideals, national heroes,
and a common destiny.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 374
10) Those religious bodies in the United States that are highly secularized are losing members and attendance is
waning.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 375-377
11) Social scientists agree that religion is functional in society.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 364-365
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TEST BANK
12) The United States is one of the least religious nations in the world.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 369
13) The characteristics of the sacred are that it is mysterious, powerful, and unusual.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 361
14) The need to transcend everyday experience is a reaction to the human condition, which is characterized by
powerlessness, contingency, and scarcity.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 364
15) Rites of passage are rituals engaged in by followers of pagan religions.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 364
16) Religion in America has become increasingly spiritual.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 369
17) The transmission of culture from one generation to another is a latent function of education.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 382
18) The goal of a universal system of education is to educate the more talented or privileged for positions of
leadership.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 381
19) The best predictor of academic success is the family.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 386-388
20) The most important determinant of scholastic success is the student's native intelligence.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 386
21) Education is often used as a remedy for social problems in the United States.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 384
22) The stress on order, regularity, punctuality, silence, and staying in line works against lower-class students who
do not practice these behaviors outside of school.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 385
23) According to the conflict theory, the educational institution tends to perpetuate the stratification system of the
society.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 383
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
24) American schools are administered centrally, on a federal level, as are schools in all industrial societies.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 384
25) The first Coleman Report indicated that minority students improved their academic success when they attended
schools in which they were in a majority.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 386-387 (Box 13.2)
26) The Framers of the Constitution had as one of their goals the total eradication of illiteracy, as they believed that
democracy required a literate electorate.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 380-381
27) Education is said to affect attitudes. Therefore, college students are less tolerant of nonconformity than are high
school graduates.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 383
28) Credentialism is the practice of requiring degrees for specialized occupations.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 383
29) Statistics show that a much higher number of whites than African Americans hold high school degrees.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 384
30) As of 1977, women have been surpassing men in educational achievement.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 390
13.2 Multiple-Choice Questions
1) The push for teaching people to read in the English-speaking world was based on a desire to read:
A) history
B) shop manuals
C) the Bible
D) maps
Answer: C
Page Ref: 380
2) Marx believed religion was used to:
A) help people improve their lives
B) support the exploitation of the masses
C) deal with reality
D) attain immortality
Answer: B
Page Ref: 365
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TEST BANK
3) Durkheim believed that religion:
A) exploited the masses
B) was a reflection of human society
C) had nothing to do with social life
D) was a radical force in society
Answer: B
Page Ref: 361
4) Religion has the function of:
A) supporting societal norms
B) making life anxiety-ridden
C) having the individual lose his/her identity
D) decreasing a person's sense of security
Answer: A
Page Ref: 364
5) In countries such as Iran and Iraq, the Moslem religion is a(n):
A) sect
B) cult
C) denomination
D) ecclesia, or universal church
Answer: D
Page Ref: 368
6) Baptists, Anglicans, Methodists, and Lutherans in the United States are:
A) sects
B) cults
C) denominations
D) ecclesiae
Answer: C
Page Ref: 368
7) Religion in the United States:
A) is a state religion
B) has no connection to gambling
C) lacks voluntary organizations
D) none of the above
E) all of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 369
8) The denomination which is generally divided according to class lines in the United States is:
A) Catholicism
B) Protestantism
C) Judaism
D) Islam
Answer: B
Page Ref: 372-373
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9) The reality that lies beyond human perception is called:
A) transpersonal reality
B) paranormal reality
C) transient reality
D) transcendent reality
E) transposed reality
Answer: D
Page Ref: 359
10) The social class(es) least interested in church participation is (are) the:
A) lower-middle class
B) upper-lower class
C) upper and lower classes
D) none of the above
Answer: C
Page Ref: 372
11) According to some commentators, today religion in the United States is used to:
A) get closer to God
B) support social and political values
C) promote love among humans
D) become more spiritual
Answer: B
Page Ref: 377-378
12) Secularization will:
A) finally destroy religion in the United States
B) promote secular humanism
C) stimulate new sects and cults to overcome the secularization process
D) be punished by God
Answer: C
Page Ref: 375-377
13) Religion performs all but one of the following functions:
A) provides answers to basic questions for which there is no other authority
B) supports societal norms and values by transforming them into divine laws
C) helps people deal with guilt for their transgressions, offering a way back to a constructive life
D) provides a single set of norms that are universally accepted and agreed upon
Answer: D
Page Ref: 363-365
14) Religious beliefs are often contained in:
A) doctrines
B) creeds
C) articles of faith
D) all of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 366
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TEST BANK
15) According to sociologists, Americans' religious behavior reflects:
A) an attempt to revive old religious traditions
B) an ongoing need for the supernatural
C) the stress on individualism present in the society
D) the separation of church and state
Answer: B
Page Ref: 376
16) Social scientists:
A) provide criteria for choosing a valid religion
B) neither accept nor reject claims of divine revelation
C) have no interest in the content of religious doctrines
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: B
Page Ref: 359
17) An example of polytheism is:
A) Hinduism
B) Christianity
C) Buddhism
D) Zoroastrianism
Answer: A
Page Ref: 360
18) Islam was established:
A) about the time of Moses
B) around the time of the apostle Paul
C) well after the founding of either Judaism or Christianity
D) 400 years before the birth of Jesus Christ
Answer: C
Page Ref: 359
19) Which religion includes a hierarchy of gods?
A) Christianity
B) Shintoism
C) Zoroastrianism
D) Hinduism
Answer: D
Page Ref: 360
20) Durkheim's approach to religion involved the opposed concepts of:
A) good and evil
B) children of light and children of darkness
C) natural and supernatural
D) sacred and profane
E) ice people and sun people
Answer: D
Page Ref: 361-362
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
21) In animism:
A) animals are worshipped as gods
B) spirits are worshipped as disembodied humans
C) spirits are thought to acquire various forms
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 361
22) Durkheim viewed religion as a form of social:
A) recreation
B) innovation
C) ingratiation
D) integration
Answer: D
Page Ref: 361
23) Durkheim's analysis suggests that so-called primitive people:
A) invented the concept of gods
B) thought they were gods
C) projected their human ideals and personified them as gods
D) saw themselves as clans of animals
Answer: C
Page Ref: 363
24) In Melanesia, "mana" is:
A) the power of good over evil
B) the power of evil over good
C) a power that is neither good nor evil
D) the food miraculously given to the escaped slaves in the wilderness
Answer: C
Page Ref: 367
25) According to functionalism, the fundamental human needs are:
A) income, safety, and deference
B) life, liberty, and the pursuit of property
C) survival and expressiveness
D) control over nature and the denial of death
Answer: C
Page Ref: 363-365
26) Religions:
A) reinforce society's notion of good and evil
B) link the human and divine orders
C) provide a special feeling of belonging and power
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 359
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TEST BANK
27) Rituals that have been established around certain critical times are called:
A) natural rites
B) ritualization exchanges
C) cultural transitions
D) rites of passage
E) conventional rites
Answer: D
Page Ref: 364
28) The theologian Ludwig Feuerbach portrayed God as:
A) an inappropriate object of worship
B) a figment of the human imagination
C) a sort of ideal
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: B
Page Ref: 365
29) Liberation theory is:
A) another name for atheism
B) a fusion of Christianity and Marxism
C) a doctrine of personal transcendence
D) a branch of Roman Catholicism
Answer: B
Page Ref: 365
30) Marx regarded religion as:
A) a deliberate hoax on the part of dominant classes
B) alienating on both personal and social levels
C) an opiate
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 365
31) The Protestant denomination emphasized in Max Weber's Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism was:
A) Baptism
B) Anglicanism
C) Calvinism
D) Lutheranism
E) None of the above
Answer: C
Page Ref: 366
32) Weber's "Protestant Ethic" is:
A) a rejection of the ideological function of religion
B) a refutation of economic determinism
C) a vindication of the morality of capitalism
D) an explanation of Third-World underdevelopment
Answer: C
Page Ref: 366
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
33) The transition from a charismatic religious leader's direct example to routine procedures and observances is
called:
A) differentiation
B) denomination
C) institutionalization
D) bureaucratization
Answer: C
Page Ref: 366
34) All religions, once established, consist of:
A) beliefs, rituals, and organization
B) doctrine, sacraments, and priests
C) dogma, ecclesia, and faith
D) church, clergy, and believers
Answer: A
Page Ref: 366-368
35) Theology is:
A) the sympathetic interpretation of myths
B) the rational system of ideas that explains a belief system
C) a justification of the function of religion
D) the rules of ritual observance
Answer: B
Page Ref: 367
36) The most common form of religious behavior is:
A) tithing
B) mana
C) prayer
D) taboo
Answer: C
Page Ref: 367
37) Cults differ from sects in that:
A) they are small, voluntary, and exclusive
B) they reject the status quo
C) they have no ties to existing religious groups
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 369
38) The term "ecclesia" means:
A) a book of the Bible
B) a member of the clergy
C) a universal religion
D) a state religion
Answer: D
Page Ref: 368
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TEST BANK
39) What is the percentage of Americans who say they believe in God?
A) 50%
B) 75%
C) 85 to 90%
D) 99%
Answer: C
Page Ref: 370
40) What percentage of Americans are unaffiliated?
A) 50%
B) 75%
C) 45%
D) 10.8%
Answer: D
Page Ref: 371 (Fig.13.2)
41) Religiosity refers to:
A) depth of religious feelings
B) whether one believes in God or gods
C) whether one participates in religious rituals
D) a belief in heaven and hell
Answer: A
Page Ref: 370-372
42) More than many Europeans, Americans believe in:
A) life after death
B) miracles
C) a personally concerned God
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 370
43) The second largest American religious group is composed of:
A) Catholics
B) Buddhists
C) Jews
D) Gnostics
E) New Age believers
Answer: A
Page Ref: 371 (Fig.13.2)
44) A key tenet of Christian fundamentalism is:
A) political conservatism
B) the view of earthly existence as purgatory
C) the reduction of the New Testament to a few fundamentals
D) the literal interpretation of the Bible
Answer: D
Page Ref: 377-378
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
45) Which branch of Judaism ordains women as rabbis?
A) Orthodox
B) Conservative
C) Reform
D) Sephardic
Answer: C
Page Ref: 378
46) The attempt to unite the Roman Catholic and Anglican Churches foundered on the issue of:
A) married clergy
B) transubstantiation
C) papal infallibility
D) women as priests
Answer: D
Page Ref: 378
47) From the point of view of Catholicism, Protestantism began as a(n):
A) cult
B) charismatic movement
C) fundamentalist movement sect
D) ecclesia
Answer: A
Page Ref: 369
48) Religion in the United States has been distinct because:
A) we have never had a state religion
B) religious prejudice and discrimination have never existed here
C) there has been no separation between church and state
D) we have prevented religious dissenters from immigrating
Answer: A
Page Ref: 369
49) In preindustrial societies, education was intended for:
A) the masses
B) a small elite
C) productive persons
D) the obviously intelligent
Answer: B
Page Ref: 379
50) American public education is aimed at:
A) the intellectual elite
B) the average student
C) a minority of students
D) special students
Answer: B
Page Ref: 381
51) American parents generally want schools to:
A) prepare children for jobs
B) stimulate artistic endeavors
C) promote controversy
D) teach children to think
Answer: A
Page Ref: 384
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TEST BANK
52) Which are manifest functions of schools?
A) To teach skills
B) To teach the values prevalent in the society
C) To reinforce the norms of the society
D) None of the above
E) All of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 381
53) Latent functions of schools include:
A) maintaining the class system
B) encouraging social mobility
C) promoting nationalism
D) allowing the formation of a subculture and keeping children in school for a period of time
Answer: D
Page Ref: 381-382
54) Critics of our school system state that:
A) education makes no attempt to exercise social control
B) education places too little emphasis on hard work and obedience
C) education is used to foster the acceptance of our political system without question
D) none of the above
E) all of the above
Answer: C
Page Ref: 381
55) Credentialism opens jobs:
A) to all people
B) to members of skilled professions
C) to members of academia
D) but has no bearing on the job market
Answer: B
Page Ref: 383
56) American schools:
A) are sensitive to subcultural variation
B) are uniformly funded
C) are as successful as those in other countries
D) must cater to the average student's abilities
Answer: D
Page Ref: 381
57) In education:
A) the family is unimportant
B) the family is crucial to student success
C) the social class of the family is unimportant
D) smart students easily overcome the disinterest of the family
Answer: B
Page Ref: 386-388
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
58) The Coleman Report indicated that educational success for blacks was based mainly on:
A) physical facilities
B) the number of books in the school library
C) integration in the schools with white, middle-class students
D) being in a segregated all-black setting
Answer: C
Page Ref: 386 (Box 13.2)
59) Coleman's later report indicated that the best schools in the United States were:
A) public schools
B) integrated public schools
C) private schools
D) segregated public schools
Answer: C
Page Ref: 386 (Box 13.2)
60) American schools suffer from:
A) high dropout rates of minority students
B) the functional illiteracy of many students
C) devaluation of college degrees
D) underpaid and ill-prepared teachers
Answer: A
Page Ref: 389
61) What kind of individual was valued in pre-industrial societies?
A) a highly educated intellectual
B) manual workers
C) nonproductive citizens
D) the poor and alienated
Answer: B
Page Ref: 379
62) What kind of individual is valued in industrial and postindustrial societies?
A) the uneducated member of an underclass
B) the nonproductive elderly
C) the technically sophisticated and well-educated individual
D) the manual worker
Answer: C
Page Ref: 379
63) Compulsory mass education in the United States was NOT intended to:
A) "Americanize" the immigrants and make them fit in as citizens
B) teach immigrants the skills to fit into the work force and handle increasingly complex technology
C) provide the means for each person to become self-supporting
D) establish an elite to be trained to govern
Answer: D
Page Ref: 380-381
64) Which of the following is an unintended function of education?
A) Reinforcement of society's stratification system
B) Understanding mathematical concepts
C) Reinforcement of grammatical forms in language
D) Formation of youth leadership groups
Answer: A
Page Ref: 383
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TEST BANK
65) Which of the following is true?
A) Students with low levels of self-esteem and low levels of confidence tend to do poorly in school
B) Students are seldom able to evaluate their own abilities
C) Lower-class students do as well academically as those from higher social classes
D) Testing consistently low does not affect a student's self-confidence
Answer: A
Page Ref: 386
66) The most important determinant of scholastic success is:
A) how well the student's parents did in school
B) the peer group influence
C) the opinion of the neighbors
D) a family's values regarding education
Answer: D
Page Ref: 386
67) Middle- and upper-class parents foster the viewpoint that:
A) occupational success is desirable
B) success does not matter as much as happiness
C) their children should have a classical education
D) students should find peers with similar goals
Answer: A
Page Ref: 386
68) A nineteenth-century model of rote education which imitated the assembly line was called the:
A) Schumpeterian system
B) Birmingham system
C) Topeka system
D) Lancaster system
Answer: D
Page Ref: 381
69) The practice of requiring degrees as a minimum hiring requirement is called:
A) elitism
B) academicism
C) credentialism
D) syndication
Answer: C
Page Ref: 383
70) The commitment of American society to universal education derives from:
A) the ideas of the framers of the Constitution that an educated electorate is necessary for the survival of democracy
B) economic necessity, because more education translates into better jobs
C) religious principles that each individual has an obligation to learn as much as possible
D) nineteenth-century ideas which are no longer relevant in the 21st century
Answer: A
Page Ref: 379
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
71) Critics maintain that the following issues are present in higher education:
A) high tuitions
B) a lowering of standards
C) muzzling of academic freedom
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 390
72) A 44-nation survey regarding religions found that:
A) Americans are the least religious of these nations
B) 59 percent of Americans said that religion played an important role in their lives
C) the English and the French are much more religious than Americans
D) Canadians are as religious as Americans
Answer: B
Page Ref: 370
73) The United States is an exception in that:
A) wealth correlates with religion
B) wealth does not correlate with religion
C) in most wealthy nations religion is very important
D) none of the above
Answer: B
Page Ref: 372
74) Religiosity, defined as belief in God and an afterlife is:
A) higher in the east and west of the United States
B) higher in the south and Midwest of the United States
C) equally intense in all regions of the United States
D) not a characteristic of Americans
Answer: B
Page Ref: 370
75) The majority of Americans identify themselves as:
A) Protestants
B) Catholics
C) Jews
D) belonging to a variety of cults
Answer: A
Page Ref: 370
76) The highest church membership is found in:
A) the Midwest
B) the Eastern seaboard
C) the West
D) the South
Answer: D
Page Ref: 370
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TEST BANK
77) What percentage of Americans attend church every week?
A) 55%
B) 68%
C) 24.2%
D) 33%
Answer: C
Page Ref: 371
78) A recent survey by the Graduate Center of the City University of New York has concluded that:
A) the number of Christians in the United States has grown
B) the number of Muslims and Jews in the United States is decreasing
C) there has been an increase in the number of people who do not identify themselves as belonging to any religion
D) more people subscribe to an institutional rather than a personal form of religion
Answer: C
Page Ref: 370-371
79) An example of religion affecting political affiliation is illustrated by the fact that:
A) Muslims are prevalently Democrats
B) Protestant Evangelicals have gravitated in large numbers to the Republican Party
C) Religious groups are evenly divided between Democrats and Republicans
D) Republicans are more committed to upholding moral values
Answer: B
Page Ref: 377
80) Prejudice and discrimination:
A) have never existed toward diverse religious groups
B) have been a part of the relationships among diverse religious groups
C) are tenets of some religions
D) none of the above
Answer: B
Page Ref: 365
81) The Bureau of the Census has reported that in the past decade:
A) more men than women have earned Bachelor's degrees and above
B) more women than men have earned Bachelor's degrees and above
C) there has been a decrease in persons of both genders in obtaining higher education degrees
D) almost 80 percent of Americans are now earning Bachelor's degrees
Answer: B
Page Ref: 390
13.3 Essay Questions
1) In a famous novel, a character says something to the effect that "without God, anything is possible." What does
he mean by this statement? Do you think it is sacrilegious? What social function does this statement support? In
your answer, consider the normative system of society and the maintenance of the status quo.
Answer:
Page Ref:
2) A well-known sociologist has made the point that religion "mystifies" what are essentially human inventions.
Explain his meaning. Of the two above definitions of God and religion, to which do you personally subscribe? Are
there any particular events in your life that would explain your feelings toward religion?
Answer:
Page Ref:
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
3) We live in a society - and in a world - that has seen an "information explosion," and yet there seem to be ever
fewer people who have a good grasp of even the most elementary knowledge. How did this come about? Why are
American students so much father behind students from most other industrial nations in information and skills?
What can we do to change this situation? What is going to happen to us as a nation if we do not?
Answer:
Page Ref:
4) Describe the perfect school, as you would want to experience it. Be serious and consider the function of
education in society.
Answer:
Page Ref:
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TEST BANK
Chapter 14 Government: The Institutions and the Ideologies that Underlie It
14.1 True/False Questions
1) Abstract concepts of organized habits and standardized ways of getting things done is a definition of the state.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 397
2) The pivotal institutions of government and the economy are closely related to and dependent on ideology and
social movements.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 397
3) The pattern of statuses and roles that a society develops to fulfill the need for order and defense is a definition of
government.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 397
4) Power relationships are always somewhat reciprocal.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 399
5) The legitimate possession of power is called strength.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 399
6) A culture group residing within the territory of the political state is called a nation.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 404
7) Certain universal human needs have resulted in the establishment in all societies of pivotal institutions.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 396
8) The source of ultimate power in most modern societies is the state.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 401
9) Government may be defined as the pattern of statuses and roles that a society develops to fulfill the need for
order within and the need for defense against threats from without
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 397
10) What is good for the individual is always good for the society; thus, some societies do away with institutions.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 397
11) A group way of life requires a degree of order.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 396
12) The most important function of government is to implement political control.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 397
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
13) Some functions of government are manifest, while others are latent.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 398
14) The existence of party machines is a manifest function of government.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 399
15) Power can be asserted by rewarding, coercing, or influencing individuals.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 399
16) A crisis of legitimacy occurs when people question the legitimacy of their government.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 399
17) Traditional authority is no longer accepted in modern societies.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 399
18) Charismatic authority depends on the personality of a particular leader.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 400-401
19) State and government are interchangeable terms.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 401
20) The state has had many forms historically.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 401
21) Membership in the state is compulsory for all those who live within its territorial limits.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 401
22) Thomas Hobbes maintained that before the emergence of the state people lived as "noble savages."
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 403
23) The nation is a culture group living within the territory of the political state.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 404
24) The English were the first to have embraced the concept of nationhood.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 404
25) Today, nationalism is similar to ethnic cooking: a quaint reminder of a past cultural tradition.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 404-405
26) People cannot hold conflicting ideologies: they either believe one thing, or another.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 406
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TEST BANK
27) Ideologies vary in scope from completely comprehensive to partial.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 406
28) Autocracy is the ideology espousing the belief that ultimate power should reside in the hands of the people as a
whole.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 407
29) The most basic assumption of democracy is the importance and value of the individual.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 433
30) Regimes in which power is held by an absolute leader or by a small elite, but where it is limited to the political
sphere alone, are called totalitarian.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 407
31) Fascism and Nazism are two vastly different ideologies.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 408-409
32) Karl Marx predicted that the bourgeoisie would be overthrown and power would be held by the proletariat.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 409-412
33) Fascists reject the concept of human equality, which is the ideal of democracy.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 409
34) An important principle of democracy is that the only legitimate basis for rule is the consent of the governed.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 413
35) Political ideologies deal with the questions: who gets what, and why, in society?
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 406-407
14.2 Multiple-Choice Questions
1) Legal-rational authority is characteristic of:
A) homogeneous societies
B) traditional, agrarian societies
C) urban industrial, developed societies
D) totalitarian societies
Answer: C
Page Ref: 400
2) The difference between government and state is that:
A) government is a symbol and state is the process
B) government is a process that includes the people who exercise political power
C) the state is an abstract symbol of the political institution
D) government is a process and the state is an abstract symbol
Answer: D
Page Ref: 401
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
3) Government is:
A) the ultimate source of social control
B) institutionalized social control
C) a way of insuring absolute freedom for citizens
D) BOTH ultimate and institutionalized social control
Answer: D
Page Ref: 397
4) Power may be asserted by:
A) reciprocating
B) promising a reward in return for compliance
C) coercion
D) coercion, reciprocation, or reward
Answer: D
Page Ref: 399
5) Power is legitimate if:
A) it is enforced on members of society
B) a majority of societal members accept its use as right and proper
C) it has been transmitted in a traditional way
D) it is rational
Answer: B
Page Ref: 399
6) Which is FALSE of power?
A) It is necessary for exerting social control in society
B) It plays a significant role in all kinds of social interactions
C) All power relationships are one sided
D) People have greater or lesser amounts of power according to their statuses in society
Answer: C
Page Ref: 399
7) Moral control:
A) does not exist in large, urban industrial societies
B) is insufficient to maintain social order in complex societies
C) can only be exerted through the institution of religion
D) is best when exerted by forces outside the individual
Answer: B
Page Ref: 397
8) The forces and processes revolving around government, its policies and actions are called:
A) politics
B) general social processes
C) dynamics
D) statics
Answer: A
Page Ref: 397
9) The manifest functions of government include:
A) the formation of party machines
B) the protection of the interests of the power elite
C) the enlargement of the administrative elite
D) the provision of institutionalized social control
Answer: D
Page Ref: 398
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TEST BANK
10) Even in a democracy, the state can:
A) seize property
B) imprison persons
C) deprive people of their lives
D) none of the above
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 401
11) Antarctica is occupied by several nations together because no one nation has:
A) sovereignty over it
B) the desire to rule it
C) interest in its resources
D) the power to take it over
Answer: A
Page Ref: 402
12) The most important function of government is to:
A) provide social welfare
B) implement political control
C) exercise total control
D) regulate human life in society
Answer: B
Page Ref: 397
13) The basic components of the state include ALL BUT WHICH of the following?
A) Territory
B) Population
C) Armed services
D) Sovereignty
Answer: C
Page Ref: 402
14) The view that the state has emerged to protect the rights of a privileged few has been expressed by philosophers
of which school of thought?
A) Functionalism
B) Ideologism
C) Conflict
D) Hegelianism
Answer: C
Page Ref: 403
15) Charismatic leaders:
A) appear only in traditional societies
B) may appear in societies with either a traditional or a legal-rational base of authority
C) establish a stable social organization
D) are only characteristic of theocracies
Answer: B
Page Ref: 400-401
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
16) The legitimate possession of power is a definition of:
A) force
B) the police
C) the state
D) authority
Answer: D
Page Ref: 399
17) The oldest form of power rests on:
A) rational-legal authority
B) charismatic authority
C) traditional authority
D) the authority of force
Answer: C
Page Ref: 399-400
18) In essence, people need government because:
A) they live in groups and need a degree of order
B) of their competitive nature
C) they have not reached a sufficient amount of civilization to exist without it
D) brute force is not sufficient to keep them in line
Answer: A
Page Ref: 397
19) Political control:
A) is internalized cultural learning
B) is acquired through socialization
C) is social control exerted by forces outside the individual
D) takes the place of moral control in simple societies
Answer: C
Page Ref: 397
20) Political power:
A) appears only in capitalistic societies
B) is power exercised by the state through its government
C) characterizes all dictatorships
D) belongs to a ruler in democratic regimes
Answer: B
Page Ref: 398
21) The state has the following relationship to force:
A) it shares it with the citizens
B) it lacks it completely in a democracy
C) it has a monopoly on it
D) it gives it up to the people
Answer: C
Page Ref: 401
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TEST BANK
22) Government is characterized by a(n):
A) pattern of statuses and roles
B) system of norms and values
C) system to deal with order and defense
D) none of the above
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 396-398
23) Political control refers to:
A) any social control
B) social control exercised by peers
C) social control exercised by the government
D) being forced to vote
Answer: C
Page Ref: 398
24) The Pope's leadership of the Catholic Church is based on which kind of authority?
A) Legal-rational
B) Democratic
C) Traditional
D) Charismatic
Answer: C
Page Ref: 399-400
25) Italy has had many changes in political leadership since World War II. However, economic and legal specialists
keep the nation going. We would call their authority:
A) legal-rational
B) charismatic
C) traditional
D) irrational
Answer: A
Page Ref: 400
26) Hitler led the German people by emotional speeches. He derived his authority from:
A) God
B) the law
C) the Bible
D) personal charisma
Answer: D
Page Ref: 400-401
27) Functionalists approach the state as a tool to:
A) maintain order
B) protect the privileged few
C) protect private property
D) maintain the state of nature
Answer: A
Page Ref: 403
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
28) Conflict theorists see the state's functions as:
A) protecting the interest of the ruling elite only
B) helping the poor and homeless
C) bringing peace to its citizens
D) directing the economy
Answer: A
Page Ref: 403
29) Marx believed that the state would vanish when:
A) the elite would work toward the good of the masses
B) the lion would lie down with the lamb
C) social classes ceased to exist
D) all societies became capitalist
Answer: C
Page Ref: 403
30) "My country, right or wrong" is an example of:
A) nationalism
B) legal-rational thinking
C) an internationalist world view
D) a reasoned approach to detente
Answer: A
Page Ref: 404-405
31) A person affected by nationalism:
A) identifies with a state's culture
B) shares a state's interests and goals
C) displays feelings of ethnocentrism
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 404-405
32) In order for power to be legitimate, a government must have:
A) the ability to coerce agreement
B) legitimate authority
C) a charismatic leader
D) a strong army
Answer: B
Page Ref: 399
33) Legal-rational authority tends to be characteristic of:
A) homogeneous, single-culture societies
B) heterogeneous, multicultural societies
C) simple agrarian societies
D) Central American societies
Answer: B
Page Ref: 400
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TEST BANK
34) Politics may be defined as:
A) the statuses and roles that enforce the law
B) the legitimate use of force within a territory
C) the process by which individuals and groups acquire power
D) all of the above
Answer: C
Page Ref: 397
35) Social control is:
A) cultural learning which resides within the individual
B) control exercised by legal agencies charged with punishing violators
C) the process whereby a group induces a person to behave in a certain way through the enforcement of taboos,
mores, and folkways
D) none of the above
Answer: C
Page Ref: 397
36) The state differs from all the other institutions in that:
A) it is an abstract concept
B) its political control is complete
C) membership is compulsory for all residents of its territory except for aliens and visitors
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 401-403
37) Ideology:
A) explains why things are as they are
B) underlie all social movements
C) underlie all governments
D) all of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 405
38) In the U.S., the military is:
A) subordinate to the government
B) a provision of government
C) synonymous with government
D) the basis of legitimate government
Answer: A
Page Ref: 398
39) Latent functions of government include:
A) public education
B) health care
C) the rise of administrative elites
D) war
Answer: C
Page Ref: 398
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
40) The emergence of the state as a result of a "social contract" is the hypothesis found in the work of:
A) Talcott Parsons
B) Thomas Hobbes
C) Karl Marx
D) Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Answer: B
Page Ref: 403
41) Nation states emerged in Europe in the historical period of:
A) the Middle Ages
B) the Renaissance
C) the Hundred Years War
D) the Protestant Reformation
Answer: B
Page Ref: 403
42) The first European people to form a nation were the:
A) Scots
B) Picts
C) Slavs
D) Gauls
E) English
Answer: E
Page Ref: 404
43) Recent events vividly demonstrate that nationalism is:
A) dead
B) the source of wars and atrocities
C) at most a quaint reminder of past political cultures
D) the bastion of freedom and world peace
Answer: B
Page Ref: 404-405
44) The view that nationalism would wither away was held by:
A) classical liberals
B) Marxists
C) stoic philosophers like Marcus Aurelius
D) all of the above
E) only A and B
Answer: B
Page Ref: 404
45) Another term for nationalism might be:
A) racism
B) imperialism
C) colonialism
D) national ethnocentrism
Answer: D
Page Ref: 404-405
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TEST BANK
46) The author of a famous treatise on the origin of the state characterized existence in the "state of nature" as:
A) similar to an earthly paradise
B) among "noble savages"
C) "solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short"
D) a pre-Christian utopia
Answer: C
Page Ref: 403
47) According to French philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau, the state emerged:
A) to restore peace
B) after the establishment of private property
C) because people began to fight among themselves
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 403
48) When a new nation is formed:
A) older tribal loyalties must be abandoned
B) a "we" feeling must emerge among people
C) people must acknowledge a common history and a sense of a common future
D) foreigners must be kept out
E) only A, B, and C
Answer: E
Page Ref: 403-404
49) In the United States, a sense of national identity:
A) never developed
B) was first based on a common ethnicity and language
C) was later reinforced by the notion of "specialness"
D) none of the above
E) only B and C
Answer: E
Page Ref: 404
50) A number of social commentators fear that having become a nation of hyphenated Americans:
A) we may begin to question our national identity
B) the United States will be divided into a number of smaller nations
C) we must keep out all new immigrants
D) we will not defend the nation from invasion
Answer: A
Page Ref: 404
51) An ideology is:
A) a set of ideas, values, and attitudes
B) a testable theory
C) always based on religion
D) none of the above
Answer: A
Page Ref: 405
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
52) Ideologies:
A) direct people to act in a certain way
B) never distort the truth
C) always abhor fanaticism
D) refer to the study of ideas
Answer: A
Page Ref: 406
53) Ideologies may be described as:
A) simplified world views
B) complex explanations of the world
C) rejecting action
D) none of the above
Answer: A
Page Ref: 405-406
54) Political ideology deals with:
A) matters of ruler selection and principles of rule
B) parties
C) economics
D) none of the above
Answer: A
Page Ref: 406-407
55) The myth complex functions to:
A) make people feel free
B) secure the will of the people
C) give legitimate authority to the government in power
D) fool the people some of the time
Answer: C
Page Ref: 407
56) Most ideologies consist of:
A) a body of doctrines, beliefs, and symbols
B) ideas that have been in existence for centuries
C) a set of complex algebraic expressions
D) ideas derived exclusively from ancient Greece
Answer: A
Page Ref: 407
57) Ideologies tend to arise during periods of:
A) prosperity
B) crisis
C) natural disasters
D) conversations among intellectuals
Answer: B
Page Ref: 407
58) Ideologies may be:
A) partial
B) comprehensive
C) abstract
D) all of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 406
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TEST BANK
59) Traditional autocracy has been replaced by:
A) democracy
B) egalitarianism
C) authoritarian or totalitarian ideologies
D) tyranny
Answer: C
Page Ref: 407-408
60) Totalitarian regimes:
A) control the individual socially and politically
B) control only political life
C) leave individual's human and civil rights intact
D) deal only with economic and foreign policy matters
Answer: A
Page Ref: 408
61) A totalitarian regime
A) contains a secret police
B) controls the mass media
C) exhibits a centralized control of the economy
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 408-409
62) Fascism first emerged:
A) in Germany, under the leadership of Adolf Hitler
B) in Italy, under the leadership of Benito Mussolini
C) in Argentina, under Juan Peron
D) in South Africa, under apartheid
Answer: B
Page Ref: 408
63) Fascism:
A) distrusts reason
B) refuses violence
C) stresses a belief in human equality
D) appeals to intellectuals
Answer: A
Page Ref: 408-409
64) The concept of human inequality:
A) is tolerated by religious ideologies
B) is incorporated in the ideology of democracy
C) underlies fascism
D) has been borrowed from the natural sciences
Answer: C
Page Ref: 409
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
65) Communism emerged as an ideology in reaction to conditions following:
A) the French Revolution
B) starvation in Ireland
C) the Industrial Revolution
D) the Protestant Reformation
Answer: C
Page Ref: 409
66) The history of the world, according to Marx, could be interpreted through:
A) idealism
B) dialectic materialism
C) an absence of materialism
D) a cyclical theory
Answer: B
Page Ref: 409
67) Regarding capitalist industrial societies, Marx asserted that:
A) the means of production are controlled by the masses
B) religion and philosophy are the foundations of society
C) property is unimportant in the modern state
D) they contained the seeds of their own destruction
Answer: D
Page Ref: 409-411
68) Communism has a history of attracting Third World nations because of the fact that:
A) the ideology is static
B) the ideology changes to suit conditions
C) it has not led to dictatorships
D) it promises to give more power to the masses
Answer: D
Page Ref: 412
69) The dialectic is based on:
A) two extreme positions giving rise to a middle position
B) polarization, forcing societies to split up
C) conflicts between rich and poor countries
D) imperialism being destroyed by capitalism
Answer: A
Page Ref: 410-411
70) In theory, communism calls for:
A) abolition of private property
B) military expansionism
C) the creation of a new ruling class
D) intense nationalism
Answer: A
Page Ref: 409
71) Democracy is based on:
A) the value of the individual
B) rule by the elite
C) leadership of a charismatic leader
D) ideal hopes for a future society
Answer: A
Page Ref: 413
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TEST BANK
72) The democratic state is based on the social contract theories of Locke and Rousseau. These theories maintain
that:
A) people must obey the rulers at all times
B) the rulers govern at the direction of God
C) the people allow themselves to be governed for their own good
D) a society cannot exist without authoritarian rulers
Answer: C
Page Ref: 413
73) The fundamental assumption of democratic socialism is that:
A) participation in political decision making should be extended to religious leaders
B) the Socialist party must be in command of the economy
C) participation in political decision making should be extended to economic decision making
D) it is not necessary for everyone in a society to work
Answer: C
Page Ref: 415
74) Democratic socialism is an ideology that:
A) preaches hatred of the state
B) demands total nationalization of the economy
C) stresses class struggle
D) seeks to provide essential services to all
Answer: D
Page Ref: 415
75) Democratic capitalism means that:
A) all property belongs to the government
B) the economy is regulated through legislation and taxation
C) losers are totally destroyed
D) the individual is free to do anything as long as he/she has money
Answer: B
Page Ref: 414
76) The cause of freedom is served, according to democratic capitalists, when:
A) everyone has economic security
B) everyone has the right to hold private property
C) welfare is eliminated
D) everyone has the chance to become a millionaire
Answer: B
Page Ref: 414
77) Why is the private ownership of property deemed beneficial?
A) It is the American way
B) Greed makes the world go around
C) Keeping up with the Joneses leads to success
D) None of the above
E) All of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 414
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
78) The difference in the three most prevalent economic systems lies in how:
A) the people respect the government
B) much the government interferes in the economy
C) profits are made
D) easy it is to become rich
Answer: B
Page Ref: 415
79) Contrary to Karl Marx's expectations, communist revolutions occurred in:
A) agricultural nations, like Cuba
B) less economically developed nations, like Russia
C) Asian nations lacking well-developed industrial sectors, like China
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 410-412 (Boxes 14.1&14.2)
80) The unraveling of soviet communism can be traced to:
A) a failure in raised expectations
B) the oppressive role of the Communist Party
C) the failure of the Soviet economy to provide for consumer goods
D) all of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 410
81) Capitalism is based on the ideas of Adam Smith regarding:
A) the free market
B) oligopoly
C) democracy
D) industrialization
Answer: A
Page Ref: 414
82) Adam Smith believed that the government should maintain:
A) rigid control over the economy
B) a policy of hands off the economy
C) the basic markets and not look for new ones
D) artificial competition
Answer: B
Page Ref: 414
83) Smith wrote that private ownership of the means of production would:
A) create abuse
B) stimulate government control
C) stimulate economic growth as each individual tried to maximize profits
D) stifle economic growth as the markets would be flooded with merchandise
Answer: C
Page Ref: 414
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TEST BANK
84) "Laissez-faire":
A) is the rallying cry of the Gay Liberation Movement
B) was Karl Marx's exhortation to the workers of the world
C) is the French expression Adam Smith used to mean that government should keep its hands off the economy
D) is the economic theory introduced to the U.S. by Keynes
Answer: C
Page Ref: 414
85) The "invisible hand" refers to:
A) a feature of Adam Smiths's Wealth of Nations
B) the belief in God exhibited by the Puritans
C) the fact that prayer results in help
D) a belief in ghosts prevalent in the early Middle Ages
Answer: A
Page Ref: 414
86) Government:
A) is a pivotal institution
B) is the acting arm of the state
C) includes the political process
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 396
14.3 Essay Questions
1) Not only governments, but most groups recognize the authority of some entity that regulates the activities of the
members. Of the important groups to which you belong, which base their authority on legal-rational processes,
which on tradition, and which on a charismatic leader? Is charisma of no importance in a society in which legalrational authority predominates? Is tradition of no importance in such a society?
Answer:
Page Ref:
2) Ideologies are pervasive in all societies, but sometimes we fail to realize that we are affected by them. Do you
accept the tenets of the democratic ideology? Do you agree that it is the best ideology for all the people of the
world? Do you possibly hold a contradictory ideology, such as the belief in the superiority of one group of people
over another? How do you reconcile this contradiction?
Answer:
Page Ref:
3) Of the three ideologies discussed in the chapter, which appeals to you most? Why do you suppose communism
and even socialism failed? Why does fascism still hold a wide appeal to some groups of people? What would the
ideal political ideology include, in your opinion?
Answer:
Page Ref:
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
Chapter 15 The Government of the United States of America
15.1 True/False Questions
1) The U.S. government did not begin to function as a cohesive unit until the presidency of Abraham Lincoln.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 421
2) The Constitutional Convention of 1787 provided for the creation of the two major political parties.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 422
3) Federalism is a system of dividing nations into regions.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 425-427
4) The rule of law holds that those in authority exercise power based on specifically drawn up laws and not on their
will.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 424
5) The Constitution leaves the manner of electing representatives up to the individual states.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 424
6) Legislation is debated in Congress according to seniority rule.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 434
7) The role of Congress, particularly in the fields of foreign relations and the military, has been subordinate.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 433-437
8) Judicial review is the power of the Supreme Court to create inferior courts.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 440
9) Limited government is basic to constitutionalism.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 443
10) Checks and balances refers to the power of the Department of the Treasury to issue checks and balance the
budget.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 428-430
11) Residual or reserved powers are shared by the central government and the state governments.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 426
12) Political parties were conceived and delineated at the Constitutional Convention of 1787.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 422
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226
TEST BANK
13) The signers of the Constitution were primarily concerned about preserving the interests of their social class,
which was the landed, wealthy elite.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 423 (Box 15.1)
14) The Magna Carta was the Roman document on which the founders modeled the Bill of rights.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 423
15) A unitary form of government is one in which political power is centralized in a national government.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 425
16) Federal grants originally consisted of public land and today have almost totally ceased to exist.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 427
17) In the United States, there is a complete renewal of government every four years when a new administration is
voted in.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 428-430
18) The American presidency is modeled on the examples of the Greek and Roman republics in which leadership
derived from committee-like groups.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 430
19) The Joint Chiefs of Staff have the power to declare war without the approval of either the president or
Congress.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 433
20) The House Rules Committee determines the specific time allotted for the debate of important legislation.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 435-439
21) According to the seniority rule, the chairmanship of each committee goes unquestioningly to the member of the
majority party who has served longest on the committee.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 435
22) Beginning in 1962, reapportionment of members of the House effectively initiated the civil rights movement.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 434
23) Courts and judges hear and rule only on actual cases brought before them, and they do so in adversary
proceedings.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 441
24) One of the four major principles of the American government is federalism.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 425-428
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
15.2 Multiple-Choice Questions
1) The system of distributing political power between a central national government and the governments of the
geographical regions of the nation is called:
A) confederacy
B) federalism
C) centralism
D) unitarianism
Answer: B
Page Ref: 425
2) The chief reason that Congress is so ineffective is:
A) that the Constitution delegates it so little power
B) a result of the gradual emergence of the Supreme Court as a legislative body
C) the development of the power of state governments
D) the traditional organization of the legislative branch
Answer: D
Page Ref: 433-435
3) Which is NOT a restraint imposed on the United States government?
A) Presidential supremacy
B) Federalism
C) Separation of powers
D) Checks and balances
Answer: A
Page Ref: 431
4) Which is NOT a presidential role?
A) Chief Justice
B) commander in chief of Armed Forces
C) chief diplomat
D) party leader
Answer: A
Page Ref: 430-433
5) Congressional representation is based on:
A) single member constituency system
B) proportional representation
C) parliamentary system
D) BOTH single-member constituency and proportional representation
Answer: D
Page Ref: 434
6) Judicial review by the Supreme Court is based on:
A) explicit statements in the Constitution
B) the Marbury v. Madison decision
C) an act of Congress
D) the First Amendment to the Constitution
Answer: B
Page Ref: 440
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7) The favorable evaluation of presidents is based on:
A) the caretaker role
B) strict adherence to the written Constitution
C) dynamic political leadership
D) the teflon principle
Answer: C
Page Ref: 431
8) The writers of the Constitution intended the president to have:
A) strong personal power
B) weak personal power
C) no power at all
D) power only in declaring war
Answer: B
Page Ref: 431
9) Congressional members:
A) are aware of their constituents' views
B) represent all constituents equally
C) generally have a nationwide perspective
D) represent local elites
Answer: D
Page Ref: 434
10) The Supreme Court probably reflects:
A) philosophies of the elite
B) beliefs of the masses
C) complete neutrality
D) none of the above
Answer: A
Page Ref: 441
11) The purpose of the Bill of Rights is to:
A) give more power to the government
B) restrict the power of the government
C) weaken the government
D) make revolution impossible
Answer: B
Page Ref: 443
12) Constitutions are:
A) always written
B) intended to limit governmental power
C) meant to establish the rule of men
D) blueprints for monarchies
Answer: B
Page Ref: 423
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
13) A government that is subject to limitations and that operates in accordance with general rules rather than
arbitrarily is:
A) autocratic
B) democratic
C) republican
D) constitutional
Answer: D
Page Ref: 423
14) The principle of the separation of powers:
A) was imitated by the framers of the Constitution from Roman forms of government
B) provides for an absolute separation of three branches of government
C) is prescribed by the Constitution
D) was a notion the framers had to abandon
Answer: C
Page Ref: 428-430
15) The United States Constitution provides for the:
A) doctrine of elitist pluralism
B) doctrine of executive privilege
C) principle of federalism
D) concept of polis
Answer: C
Page Ref: 425
16) When did the United States government begin to function as a cohesive unit?
A) At the signing of the Declaration of Independence
B) After the Constitutional Convention of 1788
C) At the Inauguration of George Washington in 1789
D) Both B and C
Answer: D
Page Ref: 421
17) What were the goals of the Constitutional Convention?
A) To preserve the status quo
B) To form a government that would serve the interests of all groups in the society
C) To insure the power of the small farmers
D) To diminish the power of a strong central government
Answer: B
Page Ref: 422
18) Most autocratic regimes have constitutions based on the principle of the:
A) rule of law
B) rule of men
C) rule of public authority
D) rule of the majority
Answer: B
Page Ref: 424
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19) The United States Constitution is based upon the principle of the:
A) rule of law
B) rule of men
C) rule of central government
D) rule of the Congress
Answer: A
Page Ref: 424
20) The advantages of a federal system are that:
A) the government is brought closer to the people
B) it is possible for many to become personally involved in the numerous agencies of local governments
C) there are no advantages in a large heterogeneous country
D) people are BOTH closer to the government and more personally involved
Answer: D
Page Ref: 425-428
21) The federal government makes its greatest impact on state and local governments with:
A) the court system
B) funds
C) inspections
D) emergency services
Answer: B
Page Ref: 427
22) How are presidential programs funded?
A) By foreign nations
B) By government investments
C) By Congress
D) By withdrawals from the Treasury Department
Answer: C
Page Ref: 430
23) What models did the framers of the Constitution use for the office of the presidency?
A) The European monarchs
B) Middle Eastern dynasties
C) American Indian chiefdoms
D) None
Answer: D
Page Ref: 430
24) In the American political system:
A) everyone participates in the political process
B) real equality for everyone is a fact
C) there is no ruling elite
D) members of Congress and their constituents generally do not know much about what the other thinks
Answer: D
Page Ref: 434
25) Constitutions are:
A) signed documents
B) instruments for limiting governmental power
C) possible only in industrial societies
D) characteristic of democracies only
Answer: B
Page Ref: 423
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26) The United States government includes the following traits:
A) federalism
B) a subordinate judiciary
C) unlimited power
D) appointed representatives
Answer: A
Page Ref: 425
27) The powers held by the states include those that are:
A) reserved
B) delegated
C) confederate
D) legislative
Answer: A
Page Ref: 425-426
28) The federal government has increased its responsibilities at the local level because:
A) the states' inefficiency
B) the tenth amendment
C) urban influence on the states
D) excess state revenues
Answer: A
Page Ref: 426-427
29) It is the function of Congress to:
A) vote funds for conducting foreign affairs
B) conduct foreign affairs
C) unanimously approve treaties
D) decide the constitutionality of specific laws
Answer: A
Page Ref: 434
30) The principle of separation of powers may be responsible for:
A) the stability of the government
B) quick action on pending legislation
C) a lack of confusion
D) the decisiveness of Congress
Answer: A
Page Ref: 428
31) It may be said that the three branches of government:
A) are absolutely separated from one another
B) undergo checks and balances among one another
C) are integrated into a cohesive unit
D) make for speedy decision making
Answer: B
Page Ref: 428
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TEST BANK
32) The president's most important role is as:
A) administrator
B) foreign policy maker
C) legislator
D) ceremonial representative of the U.S.
Answer: B
Page Ref: 433
33) One of the most powerful committees in the House of Representatives is the:
A) Foreign Affairs Committee
B) Farm Affairs Committee
C) Rules Committee
D) Forest Preservation Committee
Answer: C
Page Ref: 435
34) Congress is the dominant branch when it comes to:
A) foreign affairs
B) military affairs
C) initiating laws
D) allocating funds
Answer: C
Page Ref: 434
35) Both the federal and the state courts are organized on the basis of:
A) the equality of all courts
B) a hierarchy
C) lack of review
D) inability to appeal
Answer: B
Page Ref: 441
36) A case cannot be appealed to the Supreme Court. But the Court may exercise its power of review by a writ of:
A) habeas corpus
B) mandamus domine
C) certiorari
D) flagrante delicto
Answer: C
Page Ref: 441
37) Theoretically, the Supreme Court acts as a stabilizing force on our political system by:
A) interpreting the Constitution through judicial review
B) curbing the excesses of the other branches of government
C) maintaining independence from special interest groups
D) none of the above
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 443
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38) In reality, the Supreme Court may reflect:
A) an elitist bias
B) values of the mass society
C) total impartiality
D) distance from political influence
Answer: A
Page Ref: 443
39) The term "constitutional" is reserved to describe:
A) a government that acts arbitrarily
B) a government that operates in accordance with general rules and limitations
C) an agreement, or treaty, in written form
D) a government that is not subject to restraints on political power
Answer: B
Page Ref: 423
40) Some state powers are inferred from the powers specifically delegated by the Constitution to the central
government. These are called:
A) inferred powers
B) residual powers
C) implied powers
D) reserved powers
Answer: D
Page Ref: 426
41) The federal system has worked particularly well in:
A) large sized countries with regional differences
B) small, homogeneous countries
C) small urban industrial countries
D) large homogeneous single religion countries
Answer: A
Page Ref: 426
42) The federal system is contrasted with a(n):
A) unitary system
B) confederate system
C) catholic system
D) none of the above
E) BOTH unitary and confederate systems
Answer: E
Page Ref: 425
43) Federalism may be defined as a system of:
A) concurrent powers
B) central power
C) wholesale power
D) regional power
Answer: A
Page Ref: 425
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TEST BANK
44) The principle of separation of power had been discussed by the following political thinkers prior to their
incorporation into the Constitution:
A) Thomas Jefferson and Benjamin Franklin
B) Adam Smith and John Maynard Keynes
C) John Locke and Charles Montesquieu
D) Alexis de Tocqueville and Jean Jacques Rousseau
Answer: C
Page Ref: 428
45) The President fills all but which of the following roles?
A) Chief of state
B) Speaker of the House
C) Chief administrator
D) Commander in chief of the Armed Forces
Answer: B
Page Ref: 430-433
46) Which of the following is true?
A) The president, Supreme Court Justices, and all members of Congress are elected by popular vote
B) Senate members are elected but the members of the House are appointed by the president
C) Each branch of government is brought to office by a different constituency
D) Supreme Court Justices are appointed by the Senate and voted in by the House
Answer: C
Page Ref: 430
47) When politicians refer to the intention of the framers of the Constitution of the United States, they are making
recourse to:
A) traditional authority
B) legal rational authority
C) charismatic authority
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: A
Page Ref: 399 (Ch.14)
48) The United States government began to function in:
A) 1763
B) 1776
C) 1781
D) 1788
Answer: D
Page Ref: 421
49) Government based on the rule of either the landed gentry, the educated and privileged, or the hereditary nobility
is called:
A) aristocracy
B) oligarchy
C) republicanism
D) democracy
E) plutocracy
Answer: A
Page Ref: 423 (Box 15.1)
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50) The British Constitution:
A) was a source document for the American and French Constitutions
B) was rewritten after the war with the colonies
C) was only a documentary source for the Canadian and other Commonwealth nations' constitutions
D) does not exist in written form
Answer: D
Page Ref: 423
51) The opposite of the rule of law is:
A) anarchy
B) the rule of men
C) the rule of custom
D) the rule of reason
Answer: B
Page Ref: 424
52) In a confederacy:
A) powers not claimed by individual states are reserved by the national government
B) there is no national government whatsoever
C) power is centralized in a national government
D) all political power ultimately belongs to the states
Answer: D
Page Ref: 425
53) An example of a federal cooperative project would be:
A) the DEA
B) the IRS
C) the interstate highway system
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: C
Page Ref: 426
54) Which of the following programs are particularly dependent upon state resources?
A) Corporate growth
B) The Social Security system
C) Public education
D) Public housing
Answer: C
Page Ref: 426
55) Federal legislation has sometimes been prompted by:
A) outright opposition by state governments to federal law
B) a general lack of financial resources and professional expertise at the state level
C) inefficiency and sluggishness of state administrations
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 426
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TEST BANK
56) The major function of the legislative branch is:
A) to enact legislation
B) ensure that legislation is carried out
C) get around the administration
D) none of the above
Answer: A
Page Ref: 434
57) Enacting legislation:
A) is a slow and painful process
B) involves negotiation and compromise
C) sometimes pits the executive branch against the interests of the members of states and districts
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 434
58) The second function of the legislative branch is to:
A) govern every state in the Union
B) ensure a system of representation
C) ensure that neither of the chambers has the upper hand
D) pass laws consistent with moral values
Answer: B
Page Ref: 434
59) The third function of the legislative branch is:
A) oversight
B) ensuring that jobs are provided equally
C) provide an opposition party to the administration in office
D) none of the above
Answer: A
Page Ref: 434
60) Supervising and investigating the manner in which the legislative bureaucracy carries out and implements the
laws Congress passes is a function called:
A) control of Congress
B) Ways and Means
C) oversight
D) supervision
Answer: C
Page Ref: 434
15.3 Essay Questions
1) When an agency or an agent of government perpetrates violent acts, these acts are called the legitimate exercise
of power based on authority. Can you think of events when legitimate power was abused in the United States? In
foreign countries? What can people do to prevent their government from abusing the power vested in it? Is it easier
to limit governmental power in a democracy or in an autocracy?
Answer:
Page Ref:
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
2) If you, like the founders, had the opportunity of choosing a government for a brand new country, how would you
go about it? Where would you look for models? How would it be ultimately structured? Historically, which forms of
government have been less successful than ours?
Answer:
Page Ref:
3) Research the parliamentary form of government and compare and contrast it to the American system.
Answer:
Page Ref:
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TEST BANK
Chapter 16 Democracy in Action: We the People…
16.1 True/False Questions
1) The framers of the Constitution provided for the formation of political parties.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 458
2) In the pluralist view, political decisions are usually compromises.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 451
3) Elitists subscribe to the notion that force holds society together.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 450
4) The chief characteristic of American political parties is that they are based on the ideology of capitalism.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 458
5) It has been established that the mass media play an unimportant role in opinion formation.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 471
6) Apathy and alienation are two of the reasons offered as explanations for the failure to vote.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 467-468
7) Americans express great faith in the democratic processes and in every one's right to self government.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 465
8) American parties are distinctive in that there are so many of them, reflecting every shade of the political
spectrum.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 459
9) The most important function of political parties is to determine and define the ideals of the people, clarifying
them in the form of issues.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 458
10) Elitists are usually identified with the conflict school of thought.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 450
11) Pluralists maintain that power is diffused among numerous interest groups.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 451
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
12) The basic purpose of interest groups is to seize and exercise political power by legal means.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 453-454
13) The principal activity of interest groups is selecting candidates for public office.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 452-453
14) Most PACs have a conservative orientation.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 455-456
15) The majoritarian model of democracy interprets the statement "government by the people" to mean that
decisions are to be made by the majority of the people.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 449
16) Karl Marx and C. Wright Mills are associated with the pluralist position regarding the location of power.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 450
17) The voters have a choice because there is competition among elites.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 450
18) Interest groups act as checks on other interest groups as well as on governmental actions and public officials.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 454
19) Interest groups, unlike Congress, provide representation on other than geographical bases.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 454
20) To seize and exercise political power by legal means is the fundamental purpose of interest groups.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 458
21) The "winner-take-all" principle means that the party that wins the majority of votes in a given district or state
carries the entire district or state.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 461
22) The American party system is experiencing a renaissance, with many new parties coming into existence.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 463
23) The non-voters in the United States belong mostly to the higher social classes. They do not vote because they
are already in privileged positions.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 468
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TEST BANK
24) The danger of relying on the mass media for information is that in communicating information, interpretation
becomes necessary, and bias easily creeps in.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 471-472
25) Information in the guise of "sound bites" presents the danger of distorting the truth, rather than informing the
public.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 472
26) Most media in the United States are public, funded and run by the government.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 471
16.2 Multiple-Choice Questions
1) The political process:
A) allows those representing minority views to try to become the majority
B) favors those representing majority views
C) allows those in positions of power to ignore the people's wishes
D) none of the above
Answer: A
Page Ref: 448
2) Which of the following is identified with the elitist view?
A) C. Wright Mills
B) Karl Marx
C) Paul Samuelson
D) Pat Robertson
E) BOTH Mills and Marx
Answer: E
Page Ref: 450
3) According to Marx, which group constituted a ruling elite?
A) The proletariat
B) The bourgeoisie
C) The workers for the owners of the means of production
D) The military
Answer: B
Page Ref: 450
4) Political scientists Dye and Zeigler maintain that:
A) the elite may be influenced by the masses, but it is more likely that it influences the masses
B) the elite constitutes a monolithic ruling class
C) elite groups have maximum control over decisions that affect the majority of people
D) the elite works against the public good
Answer: A
Page Ref: 450
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
5) In C. Wright Mill's view, what group constitutes an elite?
A) Church leaders and educators
B) The corporate rich only
C) Highranking military officers only
D) Highechelon politicians only
E) The military-industrial-governmental complex
Answer: E
Page Ref: 450
6) The American democratic system is based on:
A) the dignity of the individual
B) representation of the majority
C) protection of minority rights
D) none of the above
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 448-449
7) The school of thought that considers power to be brokered by various interest groups is called:
A) pluralism
B) power elitism
C) absolute power
D) authoritarianism
Answer: A
Page Ref: 451
8) C. Wright Mills maintains that the nation is really ruled by:
A) the masses
B) a power elite
C) representatives of the people
D) the participants in the political process
Answer: B
Page Ref: 450
9) The power elite are drawn from among the:
A) military and business leaders
B) middle-class urban residents
C) union leaders
D) intellectuals
Answer: A
Page Ref: 450
10) The elitist school of thought asserts that:
A) the elite is not always against the masses
B) the elite always works against the public interest
C) the elite displays a monolithic power structure
D) the masses should rebel against the elite
Answer: A
Page Ref: 450
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TEST BANK
11) A pluralist in the U.S. would maintain that:
A) power is spread through multiple centers
B) policy reflects the wishes of a few elites
C) significant decisions are made by the upper classes
D) power is in the hands of a small homogeneous class of leaders
Answer: A
Page Ref: 451
12) Advocates of the elitist approach believe that the ruling elite maintains its power by:
A) physical force
B) manipulation of the masses
C) explaining the truth to the people
D) none of the above
Answer: B
Page Ref: 450
13) The synthesis of the elitist and pluralist approaches, realist democracy, assumes that:
A) voters do have a choice in elite competition
B) the elites have a consensus on basic democracy
C) new groups can become the new elite
D) none of the above
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 452
14) The main purpose of a political party in a democracy is to:
A) eliminate the opposition
B) gain power
C) eliminate power
D) control the media
Answer: B
Page Ref: 458
15) Political parties in the U.S. function to:
A) define the interests of the people in the form of a platform
B) provide personnel to run the government
C) engage in political socialization
D) be the loyal opposition
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 458-461
16) The unique twoparty system in the United States is based on:
A) the need to have religious representation in government
B) proportional representation
C) extremist ideologies
D) broad agreement on basic principles
Answer: D
Page Ref: 459
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17) Proposed political party reforms in the U.S. include:
A) greater ideological division
B) increasing numbers of Independents
C) greater freedom of action for candidates
D) adopting a winner-takes-all principle
Answer: A
Page Ref: 463
18) The nation with the longest political campaign period is:
A) Italy
B) the United States
C) England
D) all nations take the same time to campaign
Answer: B
Page Ref: 464
19) The political organization that may have too much influence on elected officials because of its generous
contributions is the:
A) Republican Club
B) Democratic Club
C) Political Action Committee
D) Rules Committee
Answer: C
Page Ref: 455-457
20) Interest groups have the following traits. They:
A) present official candidates to the electorate
B) have the goal of complete control of the government
C) put their names on ballots
D) are only accountable to themselves
Answer: D
Page Ref: 452-455
21) The positive functions of interest groups include:
A) informing public officials of the opinions of constituents
B) debating public issues
C) checking on other interest groups
D) none of the above
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 454
22) The negative functions of interest groups include:
A) they are representative of a minority of people
B) they are democratic
C) they are accountable to the public
D) none of the above
Answer: A
Page Ref: 455
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TEST BANK
23) Surveys of American voters reveal:
A) a general support of the government
B) full support of democratic principles
C) the majority of people and political leaders are equally committed to democratic values
D) a general cynicism about government
Answer: D
Page Ref: 465
24) Americans voting in local elections represent the following percentage:
A) 60%
B) 10%
C) 90%
D) 50%
Answer: B
Page Ref: 466
25) Which American is most likely to vote?
A) A poor, young black
B) An educated middle-aged white
C) Someone voting for the local school board
D) Someone who does not identify with either party
Answer: B
Page Ref: 466-467
26) A predisposition toward certain points of view is called:
A) attitude
B) action
C) opinion
D) conviction
Answer: A
Page Ref: 471
27) In regard to public and political opinion:
A) they are the same
B) public opinion is limited to a few issues
C) political opinion deals with all matters
D) political opinion is all opinions expressed on political issues
Answer: D
Page Ref: 470
28) The relationship of the mass media and politicians can be described as:
A) political control of the media
B) media subversion of government
C) nonexistent
D) symbiotic and adversarial
Answer: D
Page Ref: 471-472
29) Many Americans are politically apathetic and alienated because:
A) they are experiencing universal adult suffrage
B) they feel that conventional political participation is meaningless
C) politicians work only for their own interest
D) they are deeply divided by ideology
Answer: B
Page Ref: 468
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30) Popular participation in the political process:
A) has always been a fact of life in the U.S.
B) has increased with the education of the electorate
C) is more difficult in complex mass societies
D) is forbidden by the Constitution
Answer: C
Page Ref: 448
31) Interest groups may be defined as:
A) groups of people interested in specific legislation
B) groups of people who want to enter politics
C) wealthy and civicminded people with excessive leisure time
D) coalitions of individuals with similar attitudes and interests who attempt to influence public policy
Answer: D
Page Ref: 453
32) According to the "broker rule" school of thought:
A) power is in the hands of a small group of individuals
B) Wall street brokers and other bankers hold the effective reins of government
C) power is diffused among numerous interest groups who compete and compromise on the decisionmaking process
D) the fewer interest groups exist, the greater the stability of the political system
Answer: C
Page Ref: 451
33) The chief function of interest groups is to:
A) provide group representation above and beyond that provided by our elected officials in Congress
B) provide geographic representation
C) bring into the open obscure problems to be solved
D) choose candidates for political office
Answer: A
Page Ref: 452
34) Public policy, according to elitists, tends to reflect:
A) the demands of the masses
B) the values of the elites
C) the ideals of the society
D) the compromises necessary to temper ideals with reality
Answer: B
Page Ref: 450
35) Which of the following groups has traditionally had the worst voting record in the United States?
A) Urban and suburban residents
B) The young and underprivileged
C) College educated professionals
D) White collar workers
Answer: B
Page Ref: 467-468
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TEST BANK
36) The factors influencing the political behavior of American voters include:
A) mass media
B) socialization
C) social class
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 465-466
37) The classic, textbook model of democracy is referred to as the:
A) Lockean model
B) referendum model
C) majoritarian model
D) Madisonian model
Answer: C
Page Ref: 449
38) The process of circulating petitions in order to place specific issues before the legislators is called:
A) impressment
B) appeasement
C) innuendo
D) initiative
E) interdiction
Answer: D
Page Ref: 449
39) What function do politicians serve, according to pluralists?
A) Front men
B) Statesmen
C) Shills, or decoys
D) Power and interest brokers
Answer: D
Page Ref: 451
40) C. Wright Mills wrote that the "power elite" controls:
A) all political and social issues
B) the major issues like war and peace
C) the election of all national officials
D) access to Supreme Court appointments
Answer: B
Page Ref: 450
41) A modified version of elitist theory holds that:
A) elite members identify with middle-class values
B) the masses can, on occasion, influence the elite
C) elites vary in their degree of openness
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 450
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42) Elites:
A) do not always triumph
B) cannot always be identified
C) are not public decision-making bodies
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 451
43) Pluralists believe that American parties and interest groups:
A) play outside the rules of the game
B) agree with the ideology of free enterprise
C) operate purely in terms of self-interest
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: B
Page Ref: 451
44) Elitist theorists:
A) endorse the use of brute force when necessary
B) observe that force is seldom used in a brazen manner by American elites
C) believe that the elites themselves are brainwashed
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: B
Page Ref: 450
45) Public policy is:
A) what the government does
B) what the government fails to do
C) a plan of action
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 452
46) Interest groups abound because:
A) Americans are ready "joiners"
B) Americans are not a homogeneous people so there are many conflicting interests
C) they substitute for the weaker political parties
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 453
47) Which of the following is NOT an interest group?
A) The National Rifle Association
B) The American Association of Retired People
C) Lobbyists of America
D) The Southern Christian Leadership Conference
Answer: C
Page Ref: 453
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TEST BANK
48) According to Robert Salisbury, the crucial factor in turning awareness of an issue into an organized movement
is:
A) money
B) mass media
C) leadership
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: C
Page Ref: 454
49) Effective social movement leadership requires:
A) taking tactical advantage of trends and opportunities
B) marketing skills
C) procedures for succession
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 454
50) Shortcomings of interest groups include:
A) injecting partisan ideologies into political parties
B) creating splinter parties
C) the dissemination of biased information
D) stifling minority voices
Answer: C
Page Ref: 457
51) The numbers of PACs:
A) doubled since 1974
B) tripled since 1974
C) quadrupled since 1974
D) increased nearly sevenfold since 1974
Answer: D
Page Ref: 456
52) The leaders of interest groups tend to be:
A) in accord with the agenda of the rank and file
B) more liberal than the rank and file
C) more conservative than the rank and file
D) unaware of the concerns of the rank and file
Answer: B
Page Ref: 457
53) Political parties link:
A) PACs to Congress
B) heterogeneous groups to coalitions
C) extremists to government
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: B
Page Ref: 458
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
54) The Democratic Party dates back to:
A) 1789
B) 1792
C) 1823
D) 1854
E) 1902
Answer: B
Page Ref: 458
55) The framers of the Constitution:
A) were all Federalists
B) were all Whigs
C) made no provision for political parties
D) expressly forbade political parties
E) none of the above
Answer: C
Page Ref: 458
56) Which is NOT a function of political parties in the U.S.?
A) Structuring voter choices
B) Political socialization
C) Providing government personnel
D) Suppressing dissent
Answer: D
Page Ref: 459
57) We justify the two-party system by asserting that:
A) there are no clear-cut ideological differences among Americans
B) Americans prefer simple choices
C) most Americans agree on essential matters of domestic policy
D) it does not matter which party wins because both parties must rule together
E) none of the above
Answer: C
Page Ref: 459
58) Some of the features of American political parties include the facts that they:
A) are strong, centralized organizations
B) receive support from clearly defined groups
C) are sharply differentiated by program
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 458-462
59) Third parties arise when:
A) a charismatic leader is available
B) a large portion of the electorate is dissatisfied with the other candidates
C) the nation experiences severe economic recession or depression
D) new political ideologies emerge
Answer: B
Page Ref: 461-462
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TEST BANK
60) A characteristic that differentiates American political parties from many other contemporary parties is that they:
A) are interchangeable
B) are not based on particular doctrines
C) have a strong ideological component
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: B
Page Ref: 461
61) The Democrats lost the presidential elections in 1984 and 1988 because of:
A) split ticket voting
B) huge political gaffes
C) loss of direct contact with the electorate
D) running the wrong candidates
Answer: D
Page Ref: 459
62) The proportion of registered Democrats:
A) exceeds that of Republicans
B) is less than that of Republicans or Independents
C) is exceeded by Republicans
D) equals that of Republicans
Answer: A
Page Ref: 463-464
63) The relative decline in the proportion of Democrats may be due to:
A) the assimilation of some ethnic communities
B) an increase in independent voters
C) a decline in single-party voting within families
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 463-464
64) The American political system works against party reform because of:
A) federalism
B) political localism
C) separate elections of the president and Congress
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 463
65) Campaign finance legislation passed in 1974 and 1976:
A) prohibits PACs from contributing more than $2000 to a candidates
B) established a ceiling of $10,000 in total political contributions from an individual in a given year
C) limits contributions and expenditures in federal campaigns
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: C
Page Ref: 465
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66) "Soft" money is:
A) money promised for campaigns
B) money used to purchase air time
C) money given after the election
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 464
67) "Hard" money is:
A) money actually tendered to campaigns
B) cash, rather than checks or notes
C) money given during the campaign
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 464
68) What percentage of the American electorate voted in local elections?
A) 5%
B) 10%
C) 15%
D) 20%
Answer: B
Page Ref: 466
69) What percentage of the American electorate voted in the 2004 presidential election?
A) 54%
B) 60%
C) 65.9%
D) 45%
E) 30%
Answer: C
Page Ref: 469 (Table 16.4)
70) What percentage of the French electorate voted in the first round presidential elections in 2007?
A) 10%
B) 83.77%
C) 50%
D) 35%
Answer: B
Page Ref: 466 (Table 16.3)
71) A symbiotic relationship exists between:
A) the press and politicians
B) the president and Congress
C) the two political parties
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 471-472
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TEST BANK
72) What are some of the criticisms leveled at the way democracy works in the United States?
A) The U.S. is a country undergoing mob rule
B) There is too much popular participation in the decisions of government
C) There is quite a gap between the real and the ideal when it comes to how democracy works in the U.S.
D) The nation is ruled by a single ideology so that government does not represent the will of the majority
Answer: C
Page Ref: 449
73) The transitional period between the dominance of one party or another is called:
A) realignment
B) dealignment
C) alignment
D) derailment
Answer: A
Page Ref: 462
74) The current transitional period, in which there is uncertainty as to what will happen to political parties, is
termed:
A) dealignment
B) realignment
C) alignment
D) retrenchment
Answer: A
Page Ref: 462
75) Whenever a third party becomes significant, its platform:
A) is rejected by the two main parties
B) is integrated into the platforms of the two main parties
C) is declared unconstitutional
D) becomes a social movement
Answer: B
Page Ref: 461-462
76) The decline of the political parties has been hastened by:
A) the disbanding of ethnic communities
B) the geographical dispersal of Americans
C) the loss of cohesiveness of the American family
D) none of the above
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 463
77) Members of Congress are more responsive to:
A) wealthy contributors to their campaigns
B) interest groups within their districts
C) individual voters
D) party directives
Answer: B
Page Ref: 455
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78) According to campaign legislation, an individual is allowed to contribute:
A) $1000 per candidate per year
B) $25,000 to all candidates in any one year
C) $100,000 per candidate of each party
D) both A and B
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 464
79) Corporations and labor unions:
A) cannot contribute to congressional candidates
B) may establish their own PACs
C) may use union or corporate funds to administer PACs
D) can give soft money to a national party for state and local campaigns
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 465
80) The Campaign Reform Bill signed by President Bush in 2002 involved:
A) soft money
B) hard money
C) making it illegal to contribute any money to candidates
D) allowing only private individuals to donate money to political candidates
Answer: A
Page Ref: 464
81) The "red-blue" divide refers to:
A) the colors of the flag
B) communism and fascism
C) states that voted a Republican or a Democratic ticket in the election of 2004
D) the geography of the United States
Answer: C
Page Ref: 463-464
82) The American electorate:
A) is mainly centrist
B) appears to differ in values and culture
C) is more polarized since 9/11
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 464
83) Political activists:
A) are moving outside the Democratic party to achieve some of their political goals
B) are becoming very scarce in both parties
C) are hoping to create a third party
D) none of the above
Answer: A
Page Ref: 464
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TEST BANK
84) Political activists in the Democratic Party:
A) want to imitate the Republicans
B) are trying to take back the country's agenda from conservative ideologues
C) see themselves as progressives
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 464
16.3 Essay Questions
1) Political socialization occurs first within the family. That is, you acquire the first attitudes toward government
and politics at the kitchen table. Recall some of the political issues you heard discussed in your home. Did your
parents vote? If so, did they vote Democratic or Republican? How do you now vote? Do you share your family's
political attitudes? Are you more liberal, or more conservative, than members of your immediate family? To what do
you attribute the differences? The similarities?
Answer:
Page Ref:
2) Do you think your peers had more influence on your political attitudes than your family? What effects did the
media have on your political opinion?
Answer:
Page Ref:
3) Some social commentators maintain that interest groups that demand ever more entitlements for their members
have the ultimate effect of centering ever more power in the government. How can big government be avoided and
the interests of minorities still attained? Which presents the greater danger, a powerful government, or powerless
groups in society?
Answer:
Page Ref:
4) Review the last presidential election. Which candidates did you like? Why? Did you change your mind during
the electoral campaign? If so, why? How closely did you follow the campaign and through which media? Were you
aware of the attempt of "selling" you the candidate? Did you buy him, and are you glad you did?
Answer:
Page Ref:
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
Chapter 17 The Economy: Concepts and History
17.1 True/False Questions
1) The basic economic problem facing societies is how to divide resources.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 477
2) Since scarcity has been eliminated, there is no need for decisions regarding what, how, and for whom to produce
resources.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 477
3) Custom, command, and market are systems of economic decision making.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 477
4) Natural material things, called land, consist of objects, machinery, and factories.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 478
5) The factors of production include land, labor, and capital.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 478
6) Resources are versatile and finite.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 478
7) The economy consists of five sectors.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 487-488
8) In the last stage of industrialization, most workers are employed in the tertiary sector.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 488
9) Professions are unskilled occupations requiring specialized, theoretical training.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 488-489
10) The corporation is an enterprise organized for smallscale production.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 484-485
11) One of the problems of the corporation is the concentration of corporate power, called oligopoly.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 485
12) Trade unions are growing in influence as the ranks of bluecollar workers increase.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 495-497
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TEST BANK
13) For the past 200 years, economic decision making in the United States has been entirely dependent on custom
or tradition.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 477
14) Entrepreneurship, together with labor, land, and capital, are called factors of production.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 478
15) Technology, time, and efficiency are the real factors of production in industrial societies.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 478
16) The opportunity cost is what each economy sacrifices when it chooses to produce one thing rather than another
in order to attain a particular goal.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 479
17) Economic output has no limits: production possibilities are limitless.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 479
18) Specialization of labor is a recent economic innovation, coming to the fore only in the twentieth century.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 479-480
19) Money is a more efficient medium of exchange than trade or barter.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 480
20) An economy is a social system because values, patterns of behavior, and expectations emerge around a system
of production.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 476
21) The economy is a cultural system because people hold specific statuses and play the roles corresponding to the
statuses.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 476
22) The transition from a mainly agricultural to a chiefly industrial mode of production was marked by conflict
because of the changes in class structure and in values and beliefs.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 481
23) Karl Marx wrote The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 481
24) The religious ideas embodied in Protestantism led to the adoption of mass production methods.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 481
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
25) The company, owned and managed by a single owner or a partnership, was the predominant form of business
organization up to the middle of the 19th century.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 483
26) The disadvantages of sole proprietorships are evident in the high number of bankruptcies that occur in new
businesses.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 483
27) In a monopoly, corporations merge for the purpose of cornering a market.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 484
28) In the condition called "interlocking directorates," executive officers in one corporation are members of the
board of directors of other corporations.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 485
29) In multinationalism, one corporation acquires controlling shares in other corporations, often in totally different
industries.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 486
30) The extent of professionalization increases with the shift into the tertiary sector of the economy.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 489
17.2 Multiple-Choice Questions
1) Which resources are scarce in every society?
A) Fertile land
B) Wheat and corn
C) Food, shelter, and protective coverings
D) Sufficient males to mate with all the females
Answer: C
Page Ref: 476
2) The primary function of the economy as a social institution is to:
A) convict felons in Common Pleas Court
B) provide a blueprint showing people how to survive
C) show people how to obtain goods and services without having to pay for them
D) none of the above
Answer: B
Page Ref: 477
3) Each society must make the following decisions of an economic nature regarding the:
A) time, place, and quantity of production
B) assessment, collection, and counting of taxes
C) measurement of land, water, and minerals
D) production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services
Answer: D
Page Ref: 476-477
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TEST BANK
4) Resources are defined as:
A) anything that is manmade
B) anything that is produced in factories
C) anything that is derived from natural ingredients
D) everything that is needed for the production of goods and services including human energy
Answer: D
Page Ref: 477-479
5) Land, labor, capital, and entrepreneurship are called:
A) raw materials
B) impetus to upward mobility
C) factors of production
D) external devices
Answer: C
Page Ref: 478
6) A society's economic system is largely determined by its concept of:
A) truth
B) property
C) happiness
D) justice
Answer: B
Page Ref: 480
7) In most societies, ownership of property takes one of three forms:
A) restricted, guarded, and private
B) esthetic, visible, tangible
C) communal, private, public
D) ambiguous, hermetic, contraceptive
Answer: C
Page Ref: 480
8) What does one call property owned by the state in the name of the people?
A) public
B) private
C) commonlaw
D) communal
Answer: A
Page Ref: 480
9) The foremost advantage of a corporation is its:
A) ability to accumulate vast amounts of capital in a short time
B) capacity for protracted periods of employment
C) ability to profit from the labor of its employees
D) necessity to exhibit the latest technology
Answer: A
Page Ref: 483-485
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
10) Professionalization means:
A) excessive upward mobility
B) interlocking directorates
C) racial polarization
D) a combination of theoretical knowledge and training
Answer: D
Page Ref: 488-489
11) The main problem facing societies with a surplus is:
A) how to get rid of it
B) what to produce, how to produce it, and for whom to produce it
C) there is no problem: it is divided equally
D) how to keep it away from enemies
Answer: B
Page Ref: 477
12) In industrial societies, consumption:
A) must always be limited
B) maintains and fuels demand
C) is not a factor
D) is viewed unfavorably
Answer: B
Page Ref: 477
13) Which economic orientations govern Western industrial societies?
A) Tradition
B) Command
C) Free Market
D) BOTH market and command
Answer: D
Page Ref: 477
14) Material objects found in nature are called:
A) land
B) capital
C) labor
D) time
Answer: A
Page Ref: 478
15) Efficiency, in economic terminology, means:
A) using existing technology
B) obtaining the highest output in the least amount of time
C) ignoring the time factor
D) making do with as few workers as possible
Answer: B
Page Ref: 478
16) The production possibilities frontier refers to:
A) the amount of each commodity that can be produced given available resources
B) unlimited production of one commodity
C) limitless output of commodities
D) none of the above
Answer: A
Page Ref: 479
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TEST BANK
17) Specialized division of labor in industrial societies can make workers feel that they:
A) have lack of control
B) have no sense of accomplishment
C) are an anonymous group
D) none of the above
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 479-480
18) In the market system of today:
A) one must barter cows for autos in a marketplace
B) one must seek someone who wants the product one wants to sell
C) money is used in exchange for goods
D) all exchanges take place through the use of plastic credit cards
Answer: C
Page Ref: 480
19) The presidents of American banks and the Chairman of the Federal Reserve Board are a part of:
A) the economic social system
B) the economic cultural system
C) neither the economic nor the cultural social systems
D) BOTH the economic and the cultural social systems
Answer: D
Page Ref: 476
20) A member of a Navajo tribe can graze his sheep on clan land, but he cannot sell it. Navajo land is what kind of
property?
A) Public
B) Private
C) Communal
D) Indian
Answer: C
Page Ref: 480
21) The market system consists of planning by:
A) inducement
B) direction
C) command
D) tradition
Answer: A
Page Ref: 477
22) Consumer sovereignty means that:
A) production depends on supply and demand
B) consumers create demand
C) producers supply what is demanded
D) none of the above
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 477
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23) In contemporary market systems, competition:
A) is quite strong
B) is diluted by private and state monopolies
C) does not exist
D) has been replaced by planning
Answer: B
Page Ref: 485-486
24) Socialism and communism both call for:
A) government controlling parts of the economy for the common good
B) revolutionary change
C) abolition of private property
D) totalitarian government and dictatorship of the proletariat
Answer: A
Page Ref: 480
25) The Protestant Ethic supported capitalism through the religious doctrine that praised:
A) hard work and thrift
B) predestination
C) turning the other cheek
D) buying indulgences
Answer: A
Page Ref: 481
26) The Industrial Revolution shifted the emphasis in ownership from land to:
A) gold and silver
B) the means of production: machines, tools, materials
C) serfs
D) precious spices
Answer: B
Page Ref: 481
27) With the shift from family capitalism to industrial capitalism, the important unit became the:
A) corporation
B) government
C) commune
D) union
Answer: A
Page Ref: 483-485
28) When a few powerful corporations dominate an industry, the condition is called:
A) a free market for all
B) oligopoly
C) government control
D) none of the above
Answer: B
Page Ref: 485
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TEST BANK
29) One of the side effects of advertising is that it:
A) supplies the real needs of people
B) creates artificial demands
C) helps the wealthy get richer
D) none of the above
E) all of the above
Answer: B
Page Ref: 486
30) When the American Cigar Co. buys a pizza chain, the process is called:
A) monopoly
B) diversification
C) planned obsolescence
D) takeover attempt
Answer: B
Page Ref: 486
31) Royal Dutch Shell Oil Co. has branches in Holland, Britain, the United States, and France. This kind of
corporation is called:
A) closed
B) multinational
C) restricted
D) monopolistic
Answer: B
Page Ref: 486
32) Today, most workers in the United States are employed in the:
A) primary sector
B) secondary sector
C) tertiary sector
D) quaternary sector
Answer: C
Page Ref: 488
33) Unions face WHICH of the following problems?
A) Antitrust laws
B) Increasing white-collar membership
C) Expansion of the manufacturing sector
D) Loss of membership
Answer: D
Page Ref: 495-497
34) The following factors are important in production:
A) water, space, air
B) earth, wind, fire
C) animal, vegetable, object
D) technology, time, efficiency
Answer: D
Page Ref: 478
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35) Land, labor, capital and entrepreneurship:
A) must be combined in the production of goods and services
B) must be used separately to produce goods and services
C) have no function in the production of goods and services
D) create a balance between humans and their environment
Answer: A
Page Ref: 478
36) What kind of a system is the economic institution?
A) Cultural and social
B) Religious and educational
C) Semantic and semitic
D) Typically American
Answer: A
Page Ref: 476
37) Resources are defined as:
A) everything needed for the production of goods and services including human energy
B) everything found in the ground
C) everything that is made by people
D) none of the above
Answer: A
Page Ref: 477-478
38) Professionalization means:
A) everyone is called by a title
B) the same as unemployment
C) there is a decrease in polarization
D) having theoretical knowledge in addition to training
Answer: D
Page Ref: 488
39) A corporation:
A) is a public institution
B) has the advantage of being able to accumulate vast amounts of capital in a short period of time
C) can afford to pay for the latest research and technology
D) none of the above
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 483-485
40) Capitalism's roots can be found in:
A) feudal agriculture
B) Christianity
C) machine-based production
D) dialectic materialism
Answer: C
Page Ref: 481
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TEST BANK
41) When a business has multiple absentee owners with limited liability it is a:
A) partnership
B) proprietorship
C) trust
D) corporation
Answer: D
Page Ref: 484
42) A professional trained in a narrow abstract field is a:
A) vice president
B) specialist
C) bureaucrat
D) foreman
Answer: B
Page Ref: 488
43) Which status is in transition and difficult to classify in corporate relationships?
A) Foreman
B) Union official
C) Stock holder
D) CEO
Answer: A
Page Ref: 491
44) The main function of organized labor is to:
A) manage large corporations
B) strike
C) bargain collectively
D) regulate safety
Answer: C
Page Ref: 495
45) Extraction of raw materials occurs in which sector of the economy?
A) Primary
B) Secondary
C) Tertiary
D) Quartenary
Answer: A
Page Ref: 488
46) An accountant is part of which sector?
A) Primary
B) Secondary
C) Tertiary
D) Quartenary
Answer: C
Page Ref: 488
47) To use up the final products of production is to:
A) distribute
B) consume
C) allocate
D) appropriate
Answer: B
Page Ref: 477
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48) Products of the economy used in production, as opposed to gifts of nature, are:
A) land
B) labor
C) capital
D) entrepreneurship
Answer: C
Page Ref: 478
49) The practice of U.S. corporations moving their production facilities abroad is called:
A) multinationalism
B) insourcing
C) diversification
D) oligopoly
Answer: A
Page Ref: 486
50) The difference between an average worker's salary and that of the average CEO has:
A) gradually narrowed
B) remained stable
C) slightly increased
D) greatly increased
Answer: D
Page Ref: 490
51) An example of resource versatility is:
A) land used for both mining and recreation
B) swimming, fishing, and boating in the same lake
C) stringing beads in the morning, fishing in the afternoon, and teaching bead stringing at night
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: A
Page Ref: 478
52) In economic terms, every action entails:
A) fixed costs
B) risk
C) opportunity costs
D) prime costs
Answer: C
Page Ref: 479
53) Another way of talking about opportunity costs might be as:
A) economic consequences
B) social consequences
C) value of sacrificed resources
D) parallel world
E) marginal production
Answer: C
Page Ref: 479
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TEST BANK
54) Economists chart the limits of resources and technology on output through:
A) production-possibility schedules
B) product-moment correlations
C) Venn diagrams
D) welfare functions
E) Phillips curves
Answer: A
Page Ref: 479
55) Money is:
A) a means of exchange
B) a method of barter
C) anything of intrinsic value
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 480
56) Property is defined in terms of rights of:
A) ownership
B) consumption
C) distribution
D) production
Answer: A
Page Ref: 480
57) Industrialization was accompanied by:
A) creation of a middle class
B) dehumanization and commodification of labor
C) continued accumulation and reinvestment of capital
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 481-482
58) The most numerous form of business ownership in the United States is the:
A) partnership
B) subchapter S corporation
C) sole survivorship
D) sole proprietorship
E) "C" type corporation
Answer: D
Page Ref: 483
59) What percentage of American business revenues do corporations represent?
A) 60%
B) 70%
C) 80%
D) 90%
Answer: D
Page Ref: 485
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60) Who really owns the corporation? The:
A) government
B) stockholders
C) banks
D) founders
Answer: B
Page Ref: 485
61) The purpose of separating management from ownership is to:
A) secure the highest possible salaries for managers
B) ensure that the long-term interests of the corporation outweigh short-term gains
C) shield "absentee owners" from any and all responsibility
D) shield the board of directors from any and all responsibility
Answer: B
Page Ref: 484
62) The result of executive officers sitting on several corporate boards is:
A) oligopolies
B) trusts
C) interlocking directorates
D) restraint of trade
Answer: C
Page Ref: 485
63) Corporations wield power through:
A) PACs
B) interlocking directorates
C) investment portfolios
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 484
64) The intended consequence of advertising is to:
A) increase consumption
B) create brand awareness and direct consumption
C) create demand
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 485-486
65) Which of the following is NOT within the secondary economic sector?
A) Home construction
B) Oil drilling
C) Salmon canning
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: B
Page Ref: 488
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TEST BANK
66) The shift toward tertiary sector jobs has:
A) reduced the need for unskilled or semi-skilled workers
B) eliminated hardcore unemployment
C) established a general trend toward the professionalization of everyone
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: A
Page Ref: 488
67) Which occupational categories received the greatest increase in compensation in the 1990s?
A) Domestic workers
B) Accountants and financial consultants
C) Senior and chief executives
D) corporate attorneys
Answer: C
Page Ref: 491
68) CEO stands for:
A) clear everybody out
B) capital employment outlay
C) chief executive officer
D) Caribbean Entrepreneurs Office
E) Commerce Exchange Office
Answer: C
Page Ref: 491
69) The average CEO's salary in 2005 was:
A) 50 times that of the average worker
B) 100 times that of the average worker
C) 250 times that of the average worker
D) 262 times that of the average worker
Answer: D
Page Ref: 490
70) The American Federation of Labor was mostly composed of:
A) industrial workers
B) clerical workers
C) craft workers
D) service workers
Answer: C
Page Ref: 494-495
71) Craft unions differed from industrial unions in that they:
A) welcomed minorities
B) were socialist
C) were horizontally organized
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: C
Page Ref: 494
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CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY: AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL SCIENCE, 12E
72) The federal government opposed national union organizations until the presidency of:
A) William Howard Taft
B) Calvin Coolidge
C) Herbert Hoover
D) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Answer: D
Page Ref: 494
73) "Lean production":
A) combines the best features of craft and mass production
B) has as its goal perfection
C) pushes responsibility down the organizational ladder
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 492 (Box 17.2)
74) Japan's lean production method is modeled on a system worked out at:
A) Nissan Motors
B) Mazda Motors
C) Toyota Motors
D) Mitsubishi Motors
Answer: C
Page Ref: 492 (Box 17.2)
75) What percent of total work hours must be used to fix errors that occur on the assembly line in mass-production
plants?
A) 50%
B) 25%
C) 35%
D) 40%
Answer: B
Page Ref: 492 (Box 17.2)
76) By what method were the first cars ever manufactured produced?
A) Craft method
B) Assembly-line method
C) Lean-production method
D) Production-line method
Answer: A
Page Ref: 492 (Box 17.2)
77) What kind of labor does the craft method require?
A) Untrained and unskilled
B) High-cost, highly skilled
C) Lean skilled and motivated
D) Untrained and unmotivated
Answer: B
Page Ref: 492 (Box 17.2)
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TEST BANK
78) What were guilds?
A) A type of money used in the Middle Ages
B) Organizations dating back to the 10th century
C) Kinds of labor unions
D) Only B and C
Answer: D
Page Ref: 491
79) The cottage or putting-out system refers to:
A) the housing given factory workers
B) the fact that in early industrialization work was done in the home
C) a type of architecture popular in Britain
D) the way young people were put out to go work in factories
Answer: B
Page Ref: 491
80) Globalism:
A) is a movement aimed at pulling African nations into a world economy
B) refers to the fact that capitalism has become the economic system of choice around the world
C) attracts young idealistic people who want to introduce a world government
D) is a movement of religious zealots who want to introduce a common religion around the world
Answer: B
Page Ref: 498 (Box 17.3)
81) Between 1990 and 2003, CEO earnings increased by:
A) 313 percent
B) 49 percent
C) 65 percent
D) 100 percent
Answer: A
Page Ref: 490
82) In 2003, the gap between the average worker's pay and that of a CEO was:
A) 100 to 1
B) 200 to 1
C) 300 to 1
D) 400 to 1
Answer: C
Page Ref: 490
83) Beginning in 2000, the economy slowed, with the results that:
A) the average shareholder lost 12 percent of his or her portfolio
B) the average CEO received a 22 percent raise in salary and bonuses
C) both the average worker and the average CEO lost around 40 percent of their pay
D) none of the above
E) only A and B
Answer: E
Page Ref: 490
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17.3 Essay Questions
1) Americans are accustomed to being told that they are No. 1 in the world, certainly as far as economic power is
concerned. But an ugly truth has been emerging of late: we have allowed other nations to overtake us in
productivity, and we have lost enormous market share to others. How did this happen? Research the subject, using
the work of some economists mentioned in the text, and report what has been done to solve this problem. Will the
solution ensure a continuing economic boom?
Answer:
Page Ref:
2) Explain your understanding of "lean production" and discuss how that system may be used to prop up our
decaying industrial system.
Answer:
Page Ref:
3) The text notes that the transitional period between an agrarian and an industrial economic system exhibited a
great deal of conflict and social disorganization. Similarly, the changeover from an industrial to a postindustrial,
informational economic order promises to be equally difficult. What changes in values does this new transition
require? What new statuses and roles will people have to acquire? How can individuals best prepare for the new
system? What indications of the turmoil are already visible?
Answer:
Page Ref:
4) The fact that the United States has been so successful economically, allowing its citizens a lifestyle and living
conditions on a much higher level than elsewhere has produced envy and resentment in certain quarters. What can
the United States do to prevent such resentment from boiling over into acts of violence? And how can we answer
those Americans who claim that our first duty is to ourselves, that is, that we should provide for our indigent citizens
before we worry about other countries' economic weaknesses.
Answer:
Page Ref:
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TEST BANK
Chapter 18 The Principle of Economic Behavior: Microeconomics and
Macroeconomics
18.1 True/False Questions
1) In a market economy, production decisions are made by consumers through a price system.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 505
2) The participants in an economic system are withdrawals and injections.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 505-506
3) Economists assume that households act as a unit, as if they were single individuals.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 505
4) All consumers are recipients to an equal extent of the goods and services produced by the economic system.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 507
5) People engage in economic exchanges because no one individual can produce all that is needed or wanted.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 509
6) When demand is elastic, it means that consumers are buying more of a product because its price has been cut.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 510
7) The doctrine of "laissez-faire" underlies all command economies.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 511-512
8) In a market economy, those with inherited fortunes or special talents are at an advantage with respect to those
who have neither.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 512
9) The government's purchasing power depends on people's donations to the political party of their choice.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 512
10) The American economy is shifting its work emphasis from production to service and information.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 529
11) The study of individual behavior in the economy is called macroeconomics.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 504
12) It is correct to say that the price system acts as a mechanism of social control.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 505
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13) The central authorities, as participants in the economy, are defined as the unit that decides how to use labor,
land, and capital.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 506
14) All public agencies, government bodies, and organization under the control of the various levels of government
are called factor markets.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 506
15) The "invisible hand" that makes the economy work is what Karl Marx called human greed.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 507
16) The "circular flow" is how Adam Smith described the functioning of the market economy.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 507-508
17) Demand may be expressed as an individual consumer's willingness and ability to buy a specific product at a
given price.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 509-510
18) Full employment is the first and predominant goal of the society and its economic system.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 513
19) The GNP and the GDP are measures of inflation.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 518-519
20) An economic growth rate of 4 percent is considered desirable.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 518
21) The quality of the labor force has nothing to do with economic growth.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 519
22) In contemporary economies, there is no need for the government to intervene.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 519
23) The competition between the public and the private sectors results in huge deficits, eventually increasing
interest rates.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 519
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TEST BANK
24) When interest rates are high, businesses like to borrow for investment.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 522
25) In order to increase the GDP, it is necessary to raise productivity.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 518
18.2 Multiple-Choice Questions
1) How are decisions about production made in a market economy?
A) By a command system
B) According to tradition
C) Through a price system
D) By executive fiat
Answer: C
Page Ref: 505
2) Which of the following groups determine market transactions?
A) Households, firms, and central authorities
B) Producers, distributors, consumers
C) The executive, legislative, and judicial departments
D) none of the above
E) all of the above
Answer: A
Page Ref: 505-506
3) What forces prices down?
A) Large consumer purchasing power
B) Elastic demand
C) Inelastic demand
D) Inferior products
Answer: B
Page Ref: 510
4) The mechanism of the market system provides for:
A) the content and flow of goods and services to take place without any fixed plan
B) buyers and sellers not needing to know how the market works in order to act in it
C) the economy to function so that all participants derive some satisfaction
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 511
5) What is meant by the public sector?
A) The goals of the society
B) Economic activities in which the government engages for the public good
C) Economic activities in which self interest makes for personal affluence
D) Economic activities open to the public
Answer: B
Page Ref: 511
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6) The economic participant who decides how to use the factors of production, and for what purpose, is called a:
A) firm
B) household
C) market
D) product
Answer: A
Page Ref: 506
7) The price system is based on:
A) a government plan
B) tradition
C) consumer demand
D) the command of a ruler
Answer: C
Page Ref: 505
8) The participants in a market include:
A) households
B) firms
C) governments
D) none of the above
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 505-506
9) The circular nature of the economic process occurs from:
A) firm to firm
B) household to firm to consumer and back again
C) government to consumer
D) firm to consumer
Answer: B
Page Ref: 507-508
10) Taxes may be considered:
A) additions to the circular flow
B) withdrawals from the economic flow
C) injections into the economic flow
D) as not affecting the economic flow
Answer: B
Page Ref: 508-509
11) Some of the restrictions at work in a market include:
A) prices of goods and services
B) income for labor
C) prices of resources for firms
D) none of the above
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 512
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TEST BANK
12) The exchange system is based on:
A) supply and demand
B) government reaction
C) lack of labor
D) goods and services
Answer: A
Page Ref: 509
13) Aggregate demand is defined as:
A) one person's demand for goods and services
B) the lack of demand for goods and services
C) the total demand in a society or on a world level for goods and services
D) none of the above
Answer: C
Page Ref: 519
14) When cars are offered at low prices but people still do not buy them, the situation is one in which:
A) demand is elastic
B) demand is inelastic
C) there is aggregate demand
D) exchange takes place
Answer: B
Page Ref: 510
15) Some of the advantages of a market economy include:
A) all participants get some satisfaction
B) scarce resources are put into goods that are in demand
C) economic output is distributed to those who can pay the price
D) none of the above
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 511
16) Public, governmental agencies are:
A) firms
B) households
C) markets
D) central authorities
Answer: D
Page Ref: 506
17) Demand and supply are:
A) market forces
B) key economic indicators
C) thesis and antithesis
D) causes of inflation
Answer: A
Page Ref: 509
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18) When supply and demand are essentially equal, the economy is said to be in:
A) a recession
B) equilibrium
C) equivalence
D) abeyance
Answer: B
Page Ref: 510
19) A problem with laissez-faire economic policy is that there is:
A) no flexibility
B) no provision for public goods
C) no profit motive
D) responsiveness to demand
Answer: B
Page Ref: 511-512
20) Which is NOT a socioeconomic goal?
A) Full employment
B) High and equitably distributed income
C) Reasonable price stability
D) Low prime interest rate
Answer: D
Page Ref: 512-513
21) Adam Smith would approve of governmental support of:
A) full employment
B) protection of environment
C) care for sick and needy
D) none of the above
E) all of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 512
22) Liberals and conservatives would agree to some extent that economic goals should include:
A) full employment
B) price stability
C) adequate economic growth
D) none of the above
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 512-513
23) Inflation results when:
A) demand exceeds supply
B) supply exceeds demand
C) there is control of purchasing power
D) consumers have no purchasing power
Answer: A
Page Ref: 517
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TEST BANK
24) Adequate growth of the economy refers to the goals of:
A) maintaining current standards of living in spite of increasing population
B) increasing GNP per capita
C) approximately 4% growth rate per year
D) none of the above
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 518-519
25) The participants in a market economy cannot pursue their goals freely because they are affected by:
A) the ratio of gold to paper money
B) economic laws
C) prices and incomes
D) the religious institution
Answer: C
Page Ref: 507
26) Exceptions to the circular flow are:
A) incidentals
B) withdrawals
C) injections
D) B and C only
Answer: D
Page Ref: 508-509
27) Adam Smith's "invisible hand" is:
A) government
B) divine providence
C) greed and the pursuit of profit
D) the entrepreneur
Answer: C
Page Ref: 507
28) The behavior of an individual firm is part of:
A) macroeconomics
B) mesoeconomics
C) microeconomics
D) institutional economics
Answer: C
Page Ref: 504
29) In microeconomics, the household is defined as:
A) the nuclear family
B) the extended family
C) everyone who lives under one roof
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: C
Page Ref: 505-506
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30) Income received by firms from sources other than households is called:
A) incrementals
B) windfalls
C) injections
D) incidentals
Answer: C
Page Ref: 508
31) Income received by households that is not returned to firms is called:
A) dissavings
B) withdrawals
C) incrementals
D) injections
E) inheritance
Answer: B
Page Ref: 509
32) Income received by firms that is not returned to households or other firms is called:
A) savings
B) withdrawals
C) unbalanced exchange
D) exchange flow
Answer: B
Page Ref: 509
33) Need and demand:
A) are unrelated concepts
B) amount to the same thing
C) are closely related to price
D) are closely related to supply
Answer: A
Page Ref: 511
34) Which of the following is NOT a predominant goal of American society?
A) a desirable mix of windfall profits
B) a leisure-based society
C) spectacular growth
D) all of the above are predominant goals
E) none of the above are dominant goals
Answer: E
Page Ref: 512-513
35) The Department of Health and Human Services has summarized the "correct" mix of goods and services
through:
A) "market basket of goods"
B) the consumer price index
C) 165 social indicators
D) the externalities index
Answer: C
Page Ref: 515
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TEST BANK
36) The marginal productivity of labor:
A) concerns wage rates and labor supply
B) is a political as well as economic issue
C) is complicated by overlapping labor markets
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 515
37) Without stabilized prices:
A) product market demand is problematic
B) resource market demand is problematic
C) the distribution of income becomes more inequitable
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 515-517
38) The condition of an increase in prices NOT triggered by an increase in demand is called:
A) hyperinflation
B) the Pigou effect
C) inflation
D) restraint of trade
Answer: C
Page Ref: 517
39) Total planned OR desired spending in the economy as a whole within a given period is called:
A) pent-up demand
B) aggregate demand
C) elastic demand
D) excess demand
E) the multiplier
Answer: B
Page Ref: 509
40) NAFTA binds which three countries into a single commercial entity?
A) Mexico, Panama, Costa Rica
B) United States, Canada, Puerto Rico
C) United States, Canada, Mexico
D) United States, Cuba, Mexico
Answer: C
Page Ref: Class discussions, news reports, or Google
41) Maintaining full employment, stabilizing the economy, and pursuing economic growth are issues analyzed in
the context of:
A) supereconomics
B) microeconomics
C) macroeconomics
D) hypereconomics
Answer: C
Page Ref: 505
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42) The more consumers are willing to pay for a product:
A) the more of the product will be produced
B) the less producers will manufacture, to raise the price still more
C) the more they go into debt, forcing them to stop buying
D) the more expensive the product becomes
Answer: A
Page Ref: 505
43) Firms sell their products in:
A) factor markets
B) resource markets
C) product markets
D) abstract markets
Answer: C
Page Ref: 506
44) The price system:
A) is equitable
B) rations products among consumers
C) allows wealthy consumers to obtain more products
D) none of the above
E) only B and C
Answer: E
Page Ref: 505
45) Participants in the market system:
A) are totally free to pursue their goals
B) are affected by prices and incomes
C) try to maximize their worth
D) try to maximize their labor
Answer: B
Page Ref: 507
46) Demand and supply curves:
A) simplify the analysis of market actions
B) are used by commodities brokers only
C) are useful only to economics professors
D) are useful mainly to advertisers
Answer: A
Page Ref: 509-510
47) When the supply and demand curves intersect, the final, lasting price is achieved. This is called:
A) clearance price
B) equilibrium price
C) pressure price
D) a buyer's market
Answer: B
Page Ref: 510
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TEST BANK
48) "Laissez-faire" is a policy that appeals to:
A) political liberals
B) political independents
C) political conservatives
D) political freethinkers
Answer: C
Page Ref: 511-512
49) Total "laissez-faire" is impossible because:
A) the market does not provide for satisfying public needs
B) the market is not equitable, favoring those with more resources
C) the market makes no provision for protecting smaller participants
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 511-512
50) The public sector:
A) is bloated with a large bureaucracy
B) employs one of every four workers
C) is less efficient and effective than the private sector
D) none of the above
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 512
51) The Great Depression:
A) resulted from the greed of the robber barons
B) resulted from insufficient demand
C) was the worst case of massive unemployment
D) all of the above
E) only B and C
Answer: E
Page Ref: 513
52) Congestion, pollution, urban decay and similar side effects of the market system are termed:
A) negatives
B) externalities
C) internalities
D) tangentials
Answer: B
Page Ref: 515
53) In economic terms, incomes are distributed according to:
A) a person's marginal productivity
B) whom one knows
C) which skills one has
D) innate talent
Answer: A
Page Ref: 515
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54) Income distribution according to productive contribution is:
A) efficient but inequitable
B) inefficient but equitable
C) efficient and equitable
D) a tenet of communism
Answer: A
Page Ref: 515
55) A way of calculating the total output of the economy regardless of where resources are located is:
A) the GDP
B) the NNP
C) the SPQR
D) the GNP
Answer: D
Page Ref: 518
56) A way of calculating the total output of the economy and all incomes earned within the United States,
regardless of whether the resources are American or foreign is:
A) the GDP
B) the GNP
C) the NNP
D) the SPQR
Answer: A
Page Ref: 518
57) In order to raise the GNP and the GDP per capita, one must:
A) earn more money
B) increase productivity
C) increase absenteeism
D) decrease productivity
Answer: B
Page Ref: 518
58) In economic growth, it is important to consider:
A) the quantity of capital and labor
B) the quality of capital and labor
C) the quality of the labor force
D) none of the above
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 518
59) The inordinate growth of government is a side effect of:
A) the increasing poverty of individual states
B) government intervention in the economy
C) the political apathy of Americans
D) the willingness of individuals to give up traditional freedoms
Answer: B
Page Ref: 519
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TEST BANK
60) One of the functions of public policy is to:
A) mediate among conflicting economic goals
B) plan to ensure the correct mix of supply and demand
C) ensure that everyone is a sinner in the economy
D) none of the above
Answer: A
Page Ref: 519
61) Which is/are the policy option(s) to counteract business cycles?
A) Shift the demand curve
B) Shift the supply curve
C) Do nothing
D) All of the above
E) None of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 525-526
62) The Keynesian revolution acknowledged:
A) that the masses were being exploited
B) that the market was inherently unstable
C) the need for the intervention of the owners of the means of production
D) that industrial workers were becoming the new bourgeoisie
Answer: B
Page Ref: 526
63) The argument that in some situations the government had to "prime the pump" was advanced by:
A) Karl Marx
B) Adam Smith
C) John Maynard Keynes
D) Milton Friedman
Answer: C
Page Ref: 526
64) A demand-side theory that focuses on the role of money to finance aggregate demand is termed:
A) monetarism
B) Reaganism
C) the gold standard
D) cash and carry
Answer: A
Page Ref: 526
65) Supply-side theories claim that:
A) business cycles are caused by insufficient supply
B) a decline in aggregate supply is responsible for economic downturns
C) an increase in aggregate supply causes output and employment to decline
D) none of the above
Answer: B
Page Ref: 526
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66) During and after a depression, the government can use fiscal policy through its powers of:
A) spending and taxation
B) wage regulation
C) income ceilings
D) bank regulation
Answer: A
Page Ref: 525
67) Both fiscal and monetary policies focus on:
A) the supply side of the market
B) the demand side of the market
C) both sides of the market
D) the global market
Answer: B
Page Ref: 526
68) Although the American per capita income is one of the highest in the world:
A) all of our economic goals are not achieved
B) periodic business downturns, such as slowdowns or recession, occur
C) high unemployment rates among some segments of the population are periodically apparent
D) inflation is often a problem
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 527
69) Economic policies do not work as well as they should because of obstacles posed by:
A) timing
B) interpretation
C) implementation
D) none of the above
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 527
70) Symbolic analysts are:
A) people employed in new enterprises
B) employees capable of manipulating data, words, and visual images
C) psychologists with advanced degrees
D) only A and B
Answer: D
Page Ref: 529
71) Engineers, lawyers, investment bankers, top CEOs, entertainers, and so on, are described as:
A) nouveau riches
B) generation x-ers
C) baby boomers
D) symbolic analysts
Answer: D
Page Ref: 529
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72) Which is true?
A) Productivity has increased in the decade of the 1990.
B) Blue-collar workers have suffered layoffs.
C) Downsizing has created a new style of employment.
D) None of the above are true.
E) All of the above are true.
Answer: E
Page Ref: 529
73) What is the Phillips curve?
A) a reference to a government economist favoring high taxes
B) a special kind of screw driver that reflects the functioning of the economy
C) a graphic representation of conflict between full employment and inflation
D) a deflationary curve
Answer: C
Page Ref: 524
74) The jobs of the future will include:
A) steel workers
B) routine services
C) personal services
D) symbolic analysts
E) all but A
Answer: E
Page Ref: 529
75) Manipulation of taxation and spending levels is:
A) fiscal policy
B) monetary policy
C) incomes policy
D) revenue policy
Answer: A
Page Ref: 519-521
76) The government can curb excessive aggregate demand (inflation) by:
A) decreasing taxes on consumers
B) increasing spending
C) decreasing taxes on firms
D) none of the above
E) all of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 519
77) When the government must pay for fighter planes based on commitments made five years previously, the
spending is called:
A) discretionary
B) uncontrollable
C) balanced
D) unavoidable
Answer: B
Page Ref: 521
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78) The Federal Reserve Bank regulates the money supply by:
A) establishing minimum reserve requirements of member banks
B) the discount rate it charges member banks
C) buying and selling government securities
D) none of the above
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 522-523
79) If the GNP increases by 8% and prices increase by 3%, the actual growth rate is:
A) 11%
B) 5%
C) 8%
D) 3%
Answer: B
Page Ref: 518-519
80) In the Bush administration:
A) the government was running a huge deficit
B) taxes were cut
C) new taxes were imposed
D) only A and B
Answer: D
Page Ref: 520
81) Future generations will have to pay interest on the current debt because:
A) it takes a long time to pay off debts
B) budget deficits are funded with borrowed money
C) the U.S. government never borrows money from foreign governments
D) none of the above
Answer: B
Page Ref: 521
18.3 Essay Questions
1) One by one, the centrally-planned economies of the communist countries have collapsed, and the remaining
communist nations are either tilting strongly toward the market system - China - or are on the verge of collapse Cuba. Yet, the market system, even though it seems to have emerged as the winner, is based on morally dubious
values - greed, desire for profit, competition. It leaves in its wake many victims. How can the market system be
reformed to make it more humane? Or should the economy be concerned with morality in the first place? What can
we do with those who fall by the wayside, for whom the market system does not work?
Answer:
Page Ref:
2) With the economy in a transition from industrial to postindustrial and from national to global, some social
commentators have suggested that no new jobs are likely to be created. This would leave a large proportion of
people who lack the training necessary to become symbolic analysts - as well as the opportunity to obtain such
training - forever unemployed. What social problems would such a phenomenon create? How can these problems be
solved? Can we rethink the institution of the economy in totally different terms, so that jobs and income from jobs
will no longer be paramount to our lives? Which institution would have to take the lead in this rethinking process?
Answer:
Page Ref:
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TEST BANK
3) Centrally-planned economies seem like a good idea. Why don't they work? What elements in human nature work
against planning?
Answer:
Page Ref:
4) Do we really need the government to stick its nose in the economy? A number of conservative politicians do not
think so. And yet, would we voluntarily do those things that need to be done in order to maintain a desirable quality
of life?
Answer:
Page Ref:
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Chapter 19 Nation Among Nations: Perspective on International Relations
19.1 True/False Questions
1) Interaction among the nations of the world takes place in a framework of friendship and cooperation.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 536
2) Foreign policy consists of the goals nations attempt to reach through the use of power.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 555
3) American foreign policy is dictated by our ideology, so that we cannot ever act solely in our selfinterest.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 558
4) In regard to the communist nations, American foreign policy has changed from interventionism to
internationalism.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 558
5) The United Nations, foreign aid, the military establishment, and propaganda are among the instruments of
diplomacy.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 559-564
6) Henry Kissinger was the initiator of gunboat diplomacy.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 564
7) Realists in political science assert that the central goal of foreign policy is power to obtain more power.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 566-567
8) The Monroe Doctrine states that the United States will help free people maintain their institutions and national
integrity against totalitarianism.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 557-558
9) The "capacity of a nation to use its resources in such a way as to affect the behavior of other nations," is a
definition of power.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 566-567
10) The coming period in world history will be characterized by a twopower balance.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 569
11) In the perspective of realism, "high politics" is a term that includes issues of war and security, while economic,
social, and cultural interactions are referred to as "low politics."
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 548
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TEST BANK
12) Beginning in the 1950s, international relations were increasingly marked by the emergence of idealistic
theoretical perspectives.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 549
13) Pluralism, globalism, and neorealism are the current dominant theoretical approaches in international relations.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 548-550
14) The actors in international relations include diplomacy, coercion, persuasion, and power.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 550
15) During the Middle Ages in Europe, the overarching universal authority was that of the Roman Catholic Church.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 551 (Box 19.1)
16) The so-called North-South Axis refers to the relation of the state to the equator.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 547
17) Actors in the international relations system include IGOs and NGOs.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 552
18) The most important goal of every state is simply its physical survival.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 554
19) The goals of nations are absolute and clearly defined.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 555
20) The first goal of American foreign policy is to protect the economic security of the nation.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 554
21) European nations interfered with the United States repeatedly during the first hundred years of its existence.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 557
22) Containment was the policy of the United States during the first twenty years of this century.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 557
23) The policy of containment following World War II was a response to the Soviet Union, which instituted
communist governments in all the nations that surrounded it.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 557
24) During the Cold War, the United States pursued a foreign policy in which its military was strengthened to the
point of achieving assured destruction capability.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 562
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25) The United Nations was founded following World War I at the instigation of President Woodrow Wilson.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 559-561
26) In the United Nations, the East-West conflicts which were typical of the Cold War era have been giving way to
the North-South struggles between the developed and the developing nations.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 559
27) The USIA is an agency dedicated almost entirely to propaganda.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 563-564
28) Diplomacy is a creation of Dr. Henry Kissinger who succeeded in establishing relations with China during the
Nixon administration.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 564
29) Psychological attributes of a nation have no relation to the kind of power it wields.
Answer: FALSE
Page Ref: 567
30) Following World War II, the Soviet Union emerged as an economic and military superpower and rival of the
United States.
Answer: TRUE
Page Ref: 568
19.2 Multiple-Choice Questions
1) "The capacity of a nation to use its resources to affect the behavior of other nations" is a definition of:
A) foreign policy
B) diplomacy
C) power in the context of international relations
D) international law
Answer: C
Page Ref: 566
2) Foreign policy decisions may be categorized into those that are:
A) general
B) administrative
C) crisis
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 556
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TEST BANK
3) Among the goals of United States foreign policy are the protection of:
A) our nation's physical and economic security
B) the Warsaw Pact Nations
C) Allies defined by the Treaty of Paris
D) self-determination for former colonies
Answer: A
Page Ref: 557-558
4) The oldest goal of American foreign policy, articulated by the Monroe Doctrine, was to:
A) develop friendly ties with the Soviet Union
B) keep peace in the Middle East
C) keep foreign powers out of North and South America
D) be the first atomic power
Answer: C
Page Ref: 557
5) The U.S. is involved in the international community by means of:
A) providing foreign aid
B) encouraging arms control
C) cooperating in U.N. peacekeeping efforts
D) isolationism
E) only A, B, and C
Answer: E
Page Ref: 559
6) An ideology, or doctrine, spread through persuasion is:
A) propaganda
B) journalism
C) foreign policy
D) diplomacy
Answer: A
Page Ref: 563
7) Diplomacy today gives diplomats:
A) great discretion in making policy decisions
B) limited roles as messengers
C) charge of summit conferences
D) starring roles as celebrities
Answer: B
Page Ref: 564
8) The United Nations today:
A) supports American foreign policy
B) is proWestern
C) is neutral or antiWestern
D) openly supports communist regimes
Answer: C
Page Ref: 559
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9) Which perspective looks at the world-wide context and emphasizes economic factors?
A) Realism
B) Neo-realism
C) Globalism
D) Pluralism
Answer: C
Page Ref: 549
10) Which is FALSE regarding nations' perceptions of reality? They are:
A) responsible for many conflicts that arise in the world
B) difficult to change in spite of data and logic
C) based on truth and moral values
D) based on differing ideologies
Answer: C
Page Ref: 549
11) Which statement is wrong regarding diplomacy? It:
A) is a recent addition to international relations
B) has a long history, predating the creation of the nation state
C) and diplomats have been quite radically altered in recent years
D) has little to do with the failure to solve basic problems among nations
Answer: A
Page Ref: 564
12) The type of foreign policy decisions made by the governmental bureaucracy fall into the category of:
A) crisis decisions
B) administrative foreign policy
C) legislative decisions
D) constructive foreign policy
Answer: B
Page Ref: 557
13) The purpose of the Monroe Doctrine was:
A) to warn the Japanese to steer clear of the Caribbean in exchange for U.S. non-intervention in Afghanistan
B) to warn European powers to keep away from the Western Hemisphere in return for U.S. nonintervention in
Europe
C) to conquer the Soviet regime and attach Siberia to the United States
D) to let the world know who the superpower is
Answer: B
Page Ref: 557
14) U.S. Soviet competition was the focal conflict for a period of time following World War II which resulted in the
doctrine of:
A) detente
B) containment
C) Cold War Internationalism
D) the iron curtain
Answer: B
Page Ref: 557
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TEST BANK
15) Detente was a foreign policy that came to the fore in the administration of President:
A) Washington
B) Lincoln
C) Carter
D) Nixon
Answer: D
Page Ref: 569
16) The U.S. has come to rely quite heavily on the following instruments of foreign policy:
A) trade agreements entered into in the 19th century
B) drug trafficking control treaties of this decade
C) defense treaties and security arrangements formulated in the late 1940s and 1950s
D) air traffic controllers' treaty regulating air travel
Answer: C
Page Ref: 564-565
17) In the present, national power is based on:
A) size and resources
B) location and population
C) political ideology and wealth
D) specific combinations of attributes
Answer: D
Page Ref: 567
18) Which perspective assumes that actors other than states are also important and questions whether states are
unitary actors?
A) Realism
B) Globalism
C) Pluralism
D) Idealism
Answer: C
Page Ref: 549
19) Political scientist Morgenthau and the realist school believe that foreign policy is based on:
A) morality
B) rights of humanity
C) exercise of power
D) what is best for the people of a nation
Answer: C
Page Ref: 548
20) Switzerland is an example of a nation that:
A) wishes to absorb other nations
B) plans to enlarge its power over other nations
C) displays no self-interest
D) looks out for its own interests only
Answer: D
Page Ref: 554
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21) A general aim of the foreign policy of the U.S. for about 50 years after World War II had been:
A) to contain the expansion of the Soviet Union
B) to secure Costa Rica
C) improve relations with Switzerland
D) to reunite West and East Germany
Answer: A
Page Ref: 568
22) The decision to send arms to Iran made by the National Security Council during the Reagan presidency was an
example of the following type of foreign policy:
A) general
B) administrative
C) crisis
D) none, it was an internal matter
Answer: A
Page Ref: 556
23) When President Kennedy told the Soviet leader to withdraw Russian missiles in Cuba, it was an illustration of
one of the following types of foreign policy:
A) administrative
B) crisis
C) general
D) threatening
Answer: B
Page Ref: 557
24) The oldest goal of American foreign policy is the:
A) Monroe Doctrine
B) Truman Doctrine
C) Reagan Doctrine
D) Gunboat doctrine
Answer: A
Page Ref: 557
25) The goal of American foreign policy that has been attained most successfully is:
A) trade policies with Japan
B) the prevention of invasion of the U.S.
C) the absence of communist infiltration in Latin America
D) the fact that the U.S. has won every war it fought
Answer: B
Page Ref: 557
26) Some of the ideals expressed by American foreign policy include:
A) revolutions by the oppressed of the world are good
B) colonialism is wrong
C) only democracies are the proper type of government for all the nations of the world
D) none of the above
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 558
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TEST BANK
27) When considering the role of morality in foreign policy, analysts observe that:
A) there are no restrictions in reaching agreements with other nations
B) the different nations of the world have the same values when it comes to treaties
C) each nation has different standards as to what is proper behavior and values
D) none of the above
Answer: C
Page Ref: 566
28) The Truman Doctrine, Marshall Plan, and NATO are characteristic of which period?
A) isolationism
B) interventionism
C) containment
D) internationalism
Answer: C
Page Ref: 557
29) The Vietnam experience:
A) strengthened America's role as a superpower
B) made the American people eager to send troops to Nicaragua
C) made the American people want to keep troops in Lebanon
D) was followed by relative isolationism
Answer: D
Page Ref: 554
30) American foreign aid after World War II:
A) helped the domestic economies of industrial nations
B) boosted international trade
C) prevented revolutionary movements from starting in a number of nations
D) none of the above
E) all of the above
Answer: E
Page Ref: 561
31) The foreign alliances the U.S. has entered into have resulted in:
A) very dependable allies
B) help in the Middle East
C) assurance that allies will back up U.S.
D) the need to build up the U.S. military apparatus
Answer: D
Page Ref: 564-565
32) American military policy has been built on:
A) assured destruction capability
B) very large number of troops
C) trust in U.S. allies
D) a spirit of peace in the world
Answer: A
Page Ref: 565
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33) Which of the following nations can be trusted NOT to explode atomic bombs on the surface of the earth?
A) China
B) France
C) Russia
D) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 563
34) Entities such as the U.N. and the European Economic Community (Common Market) are classed as:
A) IGOs
B) LDCs
C) ICUs
D) EECs
Answer: A
Page Ref: 552
35) One conclusion that may be drawn regarding American foreign policy is that:
A) morality will be the foundation of foreign policy
B) Americans do not always act according to their ideology
C) the world operates on generous feelings toward others
D) none of the above
Answer: B
Page Ref: 557
36) The instruments of foreign policy may be defined as:
A) tools with which nations try to manipulate other nations
B) exchanges entered into in the spirit of trust
C) expressions of human solidarity around the world
D) ways of competing for the title of superpower
Answer: A
Page Ref: 559
37) It is most accurate to say that:
A) the global social system closely resembles a societal social system
B) the global social system differs considerably from a societal social system
C) a global social system does not exist
D) there exists consensus on values on a global level
Answer: B
Page Ref: 536
38) The pivotal institution of government:
A) exists in every nation
B) is lacking in Third-World nations
C) is represented by the U.N. on a global level
D) exists only theoretically, or in a rudimentary form, on the international level
Answer: D
Page Ref: 536
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TEST BANK
39) Historically, nations are impacted by:
A) change in the distribution of power
B) technological progress
C) climactic changes, from the ice age to global heating
D) BOTH fluctuations in the distribution of power and technological progress
Answer: D
Page Ref: 566-567
40) In the perspective of realism, "high politics" refers to:
A) cultural interaction
B) issues of war and security
C) social and economic issues
D) diplomatic relations
Answer: B
Page Ref: 548
41) Before the Treaty of Westphalia (1648), political organization around the world had been:
A) unilateral and generic
B) universal and local
C) empirical and patriotic
D) uniform and multiform
Answer: B
Page Ref: 551 (Box 19.1)
42) The Treaty of Westphalia established:
A) secure borders between Germany and France
B) the principle that state religions were forbidden
C) King Henry the VIII as the Holy Roman Emperor
D) that the power of the state superseded the power of the Catholic church
Answer: D
Page Ref: 551 (Box 19.1)
43) Which is NOT a common objective of states?
A) Physical survival
B) Territorial integrity
C) Political independence
D) Cultural diversity
Answer: D
Page Ref: 553-555
44) Foreign aid is an instrument of:
A) foreign policy
B) manipulation
C) propaganda
D) the democratic value system
Answer: A
Page Ref: 561
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45) The balance-of-power system in which four or more major powers competed and formed shifting alliances to
avoid any one becoming stronger than any other was called the:
A) multipolar system
B) bipolar system
C) assured destruction system
D) unipolar system
Answer: A
Page Ref: 567-568
46) The end of the Cold War:
A) raised new concerns about nuclear proliferation
B) has shifted American policy toward cooperative internationalism
C) created new possibilities for the world balance of power
D) all of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 569
47) Which is NOT a theoretical perspective on international relations:
A) globalism
B) pluralism
C) scientific democracy
D) neorealism
Answer: C
Page Ref: 548-549
48) The United Nations:
A) is primarily an instrument of the U.S.
B) openly supports communist and socialist regimes
C) is extremely effective in policing the world
D) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 559-561
49) Foreign aid:
A) has been used as an instrument of foreign policy by the U.S.
B) should be abolished until poverty is eliminated in our own society
C) is what ultimately overthrew communism
D) none of the above
Answer: A
Page Ref: 561
50) International relations include:
A) public, but not private diplomacy
B) legal, but not illegal or "black market" trade
C) declared, but not undeclared wars
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 536
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TEST BANK
51) The global social system differs from a societal social system in that:
A) nations contain a variety of ethnic and racial groups
B) no global government exists
C) nations do not have common goals
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 536
52) The widest sphere of human interaction on an international scale is:
A) international law
B) international economics
C) international security affairs
D) international relations
Answer: D
Page Ref: 536
53) The realist school of international relations defines war and security as:
A) brinkmanship
B) statecraft
C) high politics
D) low politics
E) international adventurism
Answer: C
Page Ref: 548
54) Which perspective assumes that the state speaks with one voice and has one policy?
A) realism
B) pluralism
C) globalism
D) all of the above
Answer: A
Page Ref: 548
55) By "dependent relations," globalists mean:
A) the legitimacy of nation-states depends upon propaganda and internal surveillance
B) industrial nations depend upon raw materials located in non-industrial nations
C) Third-World countries are maintained in a state of dependency by First-and Second-World nations
D) the effectiveness of the United Nations depends upon a cohesive Security Council
Answer: C
Page Ref: 549
56) For neo-realists, the international order is one of:
A) total anarchy
B) quasi-anarchy
C) full cooperation
D) centralized power
Answer: D
Page Ref: 550
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57) Actors in international relations include:
A) nation states and their diplomats
B) populations of nation states
C) multinational corporations
D) all of the above
E) none of the above
Answer: D
Page Ref: 550-551
58) Since state and nation are not the same thing, the preferred term for individual political entities is:
A) territories
B) dominions
C) principalities
D) nation-states, or national states
E) sovereignties, or semi-sovereignties
Answer: D
Page Ref: 550
59) The Palestinians are a:
A) state without a nation
B) nation without a state
C) nation split among several states
D) state split among several nations
Answer: B
Page Ref: 551
60) Today's Catholic Church is classified as a:
A) national state
B) nationless state
C) intergovernmental organization
D) nongovernmental organization
Answer: D
Page Ref: 552
61) Terrorist groups differ from liberation organizations in that:
A) only terrorists take credit for bombing museums
B) they do not organize the masses on a large scale
C) they tend to hide in rural areas
D) their leaders are well known
Answer: B
Page Ref: 553
62) An example of a state that has had to worry about and defend its very physical existence is:
A) Egypt
B) Israel
C) Palestine
D) Lebanon
Answer: B
Page Ref: 551
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TEST BANK
63) The United States fought two world wars primarily to preserve:
A) its territorial integrity
B) its economic interests
C) the political independence of European nations
D) its national prestige
Answer: C
Page Ref: 565
64) American foreign policy:
A) has abandoned long-term goals with the eclipse of communism
B) is more or less custom made for each nation
C) is one of pure expediency
D) is unilaterally expressed and acted upon
Answer: B
Page Ref: 557
65) When a state experiences a foreign policy crisis:
A) the United Nations is contacted
B) the Chief of State makes all final decisions
C) both general and administrative personnel are involved
D) Henry Kissinger is contacted
Answer: C
Page Ref: 556-557
66) To export and superimpose American democratic ideology on others:
A) is the American way
B) violates the very principles of the ideology
C) is the only alternative to isolationism
D) forms the basis of internationalism
Answer: B
Page Ref: 558
67) The failure of the League of Nations:
A) occurred after President Wilson's stroke
B) was due to the Republican Senate's opposition
C) illustrated that national interest is more important than collective security or moral opposition to aggression
D) was due to Marxism-Leninism
Answer: C
Page Ref: 567
68) The most advanced form of regional cooperation is exhibited by:
A) Africa
B) The Middle East
C) Europe
D) The Pacific Rim
Answer: C
Page Ref: 537
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69) The breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991:
A) initiated a period of peace in the world
B) caused the 15 republics that made it up to become independent countries
C) brought in an era of economic prosperity for the Russian people
D) occurred through another anti-communist revolution
Answer: B
Page Ref: 539
70) Armenia, Georgia, and Azerbaijan are:
A) Baltic nations
B) Slavic nations
C) Asian nations
D) African nations
Answer: C
Page Ref: 539
71) The desert and semi-arid regions of the Middle East are resource-poor except for:
A) dates
B) oil
C) uranium
D) coal
Answer: B
Page Ref: 540
72) The three most important nations in Asia are:
A) Singapore, South Korea, and Malaysia
B) Hong Kong, Macao, Bali
C) Japan, India, China
D) Taiwan, Indonesia, Tibet
Answer: C
Page Ref: 541
73) The largest of the world regions, containing 44 countries, is:
A) Europe
B) Asia
C) North America
D) Sub-Saharan Africa
Answer: D
Page Ref: 563
74) The unifying themes of Latin American countries include all but:
A) the Catholic religion
B) the Spanish language and culture
C) the Latin language
D) political instability
Answer: C
Page Ref: 543
75) Which is NOT a Third World nation?
A) Burkina Faso
B) China
C) Zimbabwe
D) Ethiopia
Answer: B
Page Ref: 547
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TEST BANK
76) The middle- and low-income nations are located mostly in:
A) the southern regions of the world
B) the North-South Axis
C) the northern regions of the world
D) the North and South Pole
Answer: A
Page Ref: 547
77) Approximately how many people inhabit the earth?
A) 50 billion
B) 6 billion
C) 12 billion
D) 1.2 billion
Answer: B
Page Ref: 457
78) What percentage of the earth's people live in low-income areas?
A) 10%
B) 35%
C) 56%
D) 5%
Answer: C
Page Ref: 547
79) What percentage of the earth's people live in high-income areas?
A) 50%
B) 15%
C) 45%
D) 3%
Answer: B
Page Ref: 547
19.3 Essay Questions
1) Now that the "iron curtain" has fallen away, and the "evil empire" is trying to pull itself together into a friendly
democratic nation, whom do we have to fear? Who is our enemy? Obviously, since 9/11, we realize that the world
has not embarked, for the first time, on a cooperative, collaborating venture. Why is our new enemy much more
dangerous than the USSR was? How can we fight this enemy? More importantly, how and why did this entity
become our enemy?
Answer:
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2) The United States follows the ideology of democracy which states that a government can only govern with the
consent of the governed. From information that has been obtained from objective sources, it appears that the
communist regime of Fidel Castro, while not approved by the entire citizenry, has indeed helped the conditions of
life of the vast majority of Cubans who supported their leader enthusiastically for many years. Then why are we
engaged in an embargo designed to effectively topple the regime? What are the real interests of the United States
here that supersede the democratic ideology?.
Answer:
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3) Sovereignty is a very important principle in international relations, and one that the United States subscribes to.
At the same time, freedom and civil liberties for individuals are also very important principles for Americans. When
these two principles clash, as they did in the Kosovo war, which principle should prevail? Was the United States
right to intervene when the President of Yugoslavia was "ethnically cleansing" his own citizens, or did he have a
right to do, since Kosovo was a province within his sovereign nation? Argue one or the other point basing it on more
than just your opinion.
Answer:
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