Download Wang Qiang . 2000. A Course in English Language Teaching

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Current Trends for FL Teaching and
• Researches are focused on language
learning rather than on language teaching.
Three main factors :
1. Learner and learning (How to learn)
2. Language and culture( What to learn)
3.Teacher and teaching (How to teach)
Current Trends for FL Teaching and
Post-Method Era
• The notion of methods came under criticism in the 1990s
for other reasons, and a number of limitations implicit in
the notion of all-purpose methods were raised. By the
end of the twentieth century, mainstream language
teaching no longer regarded methods as the key factor
in accounting for success or failure in language teaching.
Some spoke of the death of methods and approaches
and the term "post-methods era" was sometimes used.
• “ Some methods are useful to some people sometimes
in some places; no methods are useful to all people all
times in all places.” _____ by Wang Zuoliang
Current Trends for FL Teaching and
• The research on language teaching and
learning are closed related with other
sciences which are involved in linguistics,
psychology, sociology, philosophy,
education, anthropology and so on, for
example, leaning motivation, learners’
differences learning enviroment and
assessment are in the research field of
educational psychology.
language teaching
• Language teaching can be defined as the
activities which are intended to bring about
language learning.
• Language teaching is more widely interpreted
than instructing a language class. Formal
instruction or methods of training are included;
but so is individualized instruction, self-study,
computer-assisted instruction, and the use of
media, such as radio or television.
language learning
• Language learning refers to the process by
which change in behaviour, knowledge, skills etc.
comes about through practice, instruction or
experience and the result of such a process.
• Learning includes not only the learning of skills
(for example, swimming or sewing) or the
acquisition of knowledge. It refers also to
learning to learn and learning to think;the
modification of attitudes; the acquisition of
interests, social values, or social roles; and even
changes in personality.
teaching methodology
• 1. (in language teaching) the study of practices and procedures
used in teaching, and the principles and beliefs that underlie them.
• Methodology includes:
• a. study of the nature of language skills (e.g. reading, writing,
speaking, listening) and procedures for teaching them
• b. study of the preparation of lesson plan, materials, and textbooks
for reading language skills
• c. the evaluation and comparison of language teaching method (e.g.
the audiolingual method)
• 2. such practices, procedures, beliefes themselves. One can for
examle criticize or praise the methodology of a particular language
• 3. (in research) the procedures used in carrying out an investigation,
including the methods used to collect and analyze data.
second language ( L2)
• in a broad sense, any language learned
after one has learnt one’s native language.
However, when contrasted with foreign
language, the term refers more narrowly to
language that plays a major role in a
particular country or reign though it may
not be the first language of many people
who use it.
foreign language (FL)
a language which is not the native language
of large numbers of people in a particular
country or reign, is not used as a medium
of instruction in schools, and is not widely
used as a medium of communication in
government, media, etc. Foreign
languages are typically taught as school
subjects for the purpose of communicating
with foreigners or for reading printed
materials in the language.
• 1. Anita Woolfolk. 2003. Educational Psychology. Higher
Education Press
• 2. David Crystal. 2002. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of
Language. Cambridge University Press
• 3. Jack. C. Richards & Richard Schmidt. 2002. Longman
Dictionary of Language Teaching & Applied Linguistics.
Longman Press
• 4. H.H. Stern . 1983. Fundamental Concepts of Language
Teaching. Oxford University Press
• 5. Jack. C. Richards.2003. Approaches and Methods in
Language Teaching. Cambridge University Press
• 6. Penny Ur. 2000. A Course in Language Teaching Practice.
Cambridge University Press
• 7. Keith Johnson. 2002. An Introduction to Foreign Language
Learning and Teaching. Cambridge University Press
• 8.Wang Qiang . 2000. A Course in English Language
Teaching . Higher Education Press
Discussion on English Language
Teaching Classroom
• Classroom management
• Classroom Activity
• Teacher’s role
Second language learning and
language teaching
• Aims of the unit
• In this unit we will discuss some general
understandings of language learning and
teaching. We are going to talk about the four
questions in particular:
• 1.How does a teaching method work?
• 2.What are the goals of language teaching?
• 3.How can we understand the relationship between
L1acquisition and L2 learning?
• 4.What are the factors that affect our language teaching?
Some views of language and
language learning
• Aims of the unit
• In this unit we will discuss some general
views of language and language learning.
They are:
• 1.The conflict between empiricism and
• 2.The effects of behaviourism and
mentalism on language learning.
• 3. Sensible middle view.
• 4.The sociolinguistic revolution and
communicative competence.
Structural linguistics
• An approach to linguistics which stresses
the importance of language as a system
and which investigates the place that
linguistic units such as sounds , words,
sentences have within this system. For
example it studied the distribution of
sounds within the words of a language;
that is whether certain sound appear only
at the beginning of words.
Transformational grammar
• Also transformational-generative, TG,
Generative-transformational grammar
• It emphasizes the relationship among
sentences that can be seen as
transformations of each other, for example
the relationships among simple active
declarative sentences.( He went to store.)
• The study of language in relation to social
factors, that is social class, educational
level and type of education, age, sex, etc.
Linguists differ as to what they include
under social linguistics. Many would
include the detailed study of inter personal
communication, sometimes called microsociolinguistics. Macro-sociolinguistics
refers to language planning, language
attitudes, or multilingual communities and
so on.
Communicative Competence
• Communicative competence includes
knowledge of what to say, when,
how ,where, and to whom.
Questions for discussion
• 1. How can you related structural
linguistics with our English teaching?
• 2. What is the importance of
understanding behaviourism ?
• 3. How does Chomsky’s TG affect
language teaching and learning?
• 4. How well do you understand sensible
middle view?
The nature of learner language
• Aims of the unit
• In this unit we will learn:
• 1. What is the significance of
understanding learner language.
• 2.How to make error analysis.
• 3.How learner language develops.
• learner language varies.
Learners as Individuals
• Motivation:
• Motivation is the extent to which you
make choice about goals to pursue
and the effort that you will devote to
that pursuit.
Motivation by Brown (2002)
• Intrinsic motivation:
• Extrinsic motivation
• Possessed by people
who are interested in
doing something, not
in rewarding.
• Possessed by people
who are interested in
rewarding given by