Current Trends for FL Teaching and Learning • Researches are focused on language learning rather than on language teaching. Three main factors : 1. Learner and learning (How to learn) 2. Language and culture( What to learn) 3.Teacher and teaching (How to teach) Current Trends for FL Teaching and Learning Post-Method Era • The notion of methods came under criticism in the 1990s for other reasons, and a number of limitations implicit in the notion of all-purpose methods were raised. By the end of the twentieth century, mainstream language teaching no longer regarded methods as the key factor in accounting for success or failure in language teaching. Some spoke of the death of methods and approaches and the term "post-methods era" was sometimes used. • “ Some methods are useful to some people sometimes in some places; no methods are useful to all people all times in all places.” _____ by Wang Zuoliang Current Trends for FL Teaching and Learning • The research on language teaching and learning are closed related with other sciences which are involved in linguistics, psychology, sociology, philosophy, education, anthropology and so on, for example, leaning motivation, learners’ differences learning enviroment and assessment are in the research field of educational psychology. language teaching • Language teaching can be defined as the activities which are intended to bring about language learning. • Language teaching is more widely interpreted than instructing a language class. Formal instruction or methods of training are included; but so is individualized instruction, self-study, computer-assisted instruction, and the use of media, such as radio or television. language learning • • Language learning refers to the process by which change in behaviour, knowledge, skills etc. comes about through practice, instruction or experience and the result of such a process. • Learning includes not only the learning of skills (for example, swimming or sewing) or the acquisition of knowledge. It refers also to learning to learn and learning to think；the modification of attitudes; the acquisition of interests, social values, or social roles; and even changes in personality. teaching methodology • 1. (in language teaching) the study of practices and procedures used in teaching, and the principles and beliefs that underlie them. • Methodology includes: • a. study of the nature of language skills (e.g. reading, writing, speaking, listening) and procedures for teaching them • b. study of the preparation of lesson plan, materials, and textbooks for reading language skills • c. the evaluation and comparison of language teaching method (e.g. the audiolingual method) • 2. such practices, procedures, beliefes themselves. One can for examle criticize or praise the methodology of a particular language course. • 3. (in research) the procedures used in carrying out an investigation, including the methods used to collect and analyze data. second language ( L2) • in a broad sense, any language learned after one has learnt one’s native language. However, when contrasted with foreign language, the term refers more narrowly to language that plays a major role in a particular country or reign though it may not be the first language of many people who use it. foreign language (FL) a language which is not the native language of large numbers of people in a particular country or reign, is not used as a medium of instruction in schools, and is not widely used as a medium of communication in government, media, etc. Foreign languages are typically taught as school subjects for the purpose of communicating with foreigners or for reading printed materials in the language. Bibliography • • 1. Anita Woolfolk. 2003. Educational Psychology. Higher Education Press • 2. David Crystal. 2002. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language. Cambridge University Press • 3. Jack. C. Richards & Richard Schmidt. 2002. Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching & Applied Linguistics. Longman Press • 4. H.H. Stern . 1983. Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching. Oxford University Press • 5. Jack. C. Richards.2003. Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching. Cambridge University Press • 6. Penny Ur. 2000. A Course in Language Teaching Practice. Cambridge University Press • 7. Keith Johnson. 2002. An Introduction to Foreign Language Learning and Teaching. Cambridge University Press • 8．Wang Qiang . 2000. A Course in English Language Teaching . Higher Education Press Discussion on English Language Teaching Classroom • Classroom management • Classroom Activity • Teacher’s role Second language learning and language teaching • Aims of the unit • In this unit we will discuss some general understandings of language learning and teaching. We are going to talk about the four questions in particular: • 1.How does a teaching method work? • 2.What are the goals of language teaching? • 3.How can we understand the relationship between L1acquisition and L2 learning? • 4.What are the factors that affect our language teaching? Some views of language and language learning • Aims of the unit • In this unit we will discuss some general views of language and language learning. They are: • 1.The conflict between empiricism and mentalism. • 2.The effects of behaviourism and mentalism on language learning. • 3. Sensible middle view. • 4.The sociolinguistic revolution and communicative competence. Structural linguistics • An approach to linguistics which stresses the importance of language as a system and which investigates the place that linguistic units such as sounds , words, sentences have within this system. For example it studied the distribution of sounds within the words of a language; that is whether certain sound appear only at the beginning of words. Transformational grammar • Also transformational-generative, TG, Generative-transformational grammar • It emphasizes the relationship among sentences that can be seen as transformations of each other, for example the relationships among simple active declarative sentences.( He went to store.) Sociolinguistics • The study of language in relation to social factors, that is social class, educational level and type of education, age, sex, etc. Linguists differ as to what they include under social linguistics. Many would include the detailed study of inter personal communication, sometimes called microsociolinguistics. Macro-sociolinguistics refers to language planning, language attitudes, or multilingual communities and so on. Communicative Competence • Communicative competence includes knowledge of what to say, when, how ,where, and to whom. Questions for discussion • 1. How can you related structural linguistics with our English teaching? • 2. What is the importance of understanding behaviourism ? • 3. How does Chomsky’s TG affect language teaching and learning? • 4. How well do you understand sensible middle view? The nature of learner language • Aims of the unit • In this unit we will learn: • 1. What is the significance of understanding learner language. • 2.How to make error analysis. • 3.How learner language develops. • 4.how learner language varies. Learners as Individuals • Motivation: • Motivation is the extent to which you make choice about goals to pursue and the effort that you will devote to that pursuit. Motivation by Brown (2002) • Intrinsic motivation: • Extrinsic motivation • Possessed by people who are interested in doing something, not in rewarding. • Possessed by people who are interested in rewarding given by others.