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The Reproductive System
Chapter 16
• ___________________-primary sex organs-ie. Testes and
ovaries
• _______________________--sex cells produced by gonads as
well as gonads secrete sex hormones
• _______________________________-remaining
reproductive structures
• Joint purpose of Reproductive system is produce offspring--via sperm in males and ___________ in females
gonads
gametes
Accessory reproductive
organs
ova
• Zygote becomes embryo and then fetus
• Anatomy of Male Reproductive System
• Testes have exocrine-sperm producingfunction and endocrine-testosterone
producing
• Accessory structures in delivery of sperm to
exterior or to female
TESTES-
Tunica albuginea
• Plum shaped---4 cm –sized surrounded by fibrous connective
tissue capsule-_____________________________-“white
coat”
• Extensions of capsule extend into testes and divide into
wedge-shaped ______________________each containing 14 _____________________________-sperm producing
portion
lobules
Seminiferous tubules
• Seminiferous tubules empty into another set of tubules--____________________on each side of testis-sperm
travel from rete to enter 1st part of duct system____________________-hugging external testis
• In soft tissue around seminiferous tubules are __________________-that produce androgens-esp.
testosterone---thus different tissue process sperm and
then hormones
Rete testis
epididymis
Interstitial cells
• DUCT SYSTEM-inc. edididymis,ducus deferns, and urethra
• A.___________________________-highly coiled tube-~6 mcapping superior testis and extends posterolaterallytemporary storage for immature sperm entering from testis
• Takes sperm about _____________days to travel
epididymis,maturing along the way...and become motile
• During ejaculation,epididymis contracts to expel
___________into--_________________________________
epididymis
20
Sperm….ductus deferens
• . Ductus Deferens (= vas deferens)-extends upward
from epididymis through inguinal canal,to pelvic
cavity and arches over superior bladder…enclosed w/
blood vessels and nerves and connective tissue
sheath-______________________ and it travels up
through inguinal canal
Spermatic cord
• Loops medially over ureter and goes down posterior
bladder-expands as ampulla and empties into
_________________--this passes through prostate
gland and merges w/ urethra
• Main function of ductus deferens is to
_________________________
• At ejaculation smooth muscle squeeze sperm
forward by ___________________
Ejaculatory duct
Propel live sperm
from storageepididymis and distal
vas deferns
peristalsis
• A __________________________________is
a contraceptive procedure that ligates-“tiesoff” ducus deferns in part that lies in
scrotum---sperm are still produced-but don’t
reach body exterior and are phagocytizedrendering male sterile
vasectomy
Urethra
• From base bladder to tip of penis-terminal feature
of male system-carries urine and sperm-however
both never travel @ same time---bladder sphincter
constricts @ ejaculation preventing this
• 3 regions: 1) ______________-surrounded by
prostrate
• 2)_____________-from prostatic urethra to penis
and 3)__________-runs length of penis
Prostatic
urethra
Membranous
urethra
Spongy
(penile)urethra
ACCESSORY GLANDS AND SEMEN
-inc. paired seminal vesicles,single prostate,bulbourethral
glands and semen
• A.____________________@ base of bladder make
~60% of seminal fluid-secretion rich in
_________________which nourish and activate sperm
• Each of its duct joins vas deferens on same side to form
__________----thus sperm and seminal fluid enter
urethra during ejaculation
Seminal vesicles
Fructose, vitamin C,
proglastins…
Ejaculatory duct
Prostate-single doughnut –shaped gland-encircles
prostatic urethra below bladder
• Its glandular , milky secretion helps activate
sperm---during ejaculation-fluid enters
urethra through several small ducts
• Since near rectum,can be palpitated rectally
• Older men suffer hypertrophy of gland, strangling urethramaking urination difficult and increases risk of bladder
infections-________________ and kidney damage
• Treatments include :surgery,drugs or microwaves to shrink
prostate,insertion of small balloon to push prostate away
from urethra,incineration w/low energy radiation
• ___________________-inflammation of prostate-common
• _______________-most prevalent cancer in men-slow
growing,usually
cystitis
prostatitis
Prostatic
cancer
• C. _______________________-tiny pea-sized glands
posterior to prostate, produce thick,c lear mucus
draining into penile urethra----is 1st secretion to
pass upon sexual arousal ---functions in cleansing
urethra of acidic urine and is a sexual lubricant
Bulbourethral
glands
D. Semen-milky white, somewhat sticky mixture of sperm and
gland secretions ;transport medium for nutrients and chemicals
that protect and aid in movement of sperm
• Sperm have little cytoplasm or stored nutrients so
__________________ is energy fuel
• pH ~ 7.2-7.6 helps neutralize acidic vagina(3.5-4.0)protecting sperm(sperm are sluggish in acidic environment)
• ________________-antibiotic chemical destroying certain
bacteria
• Hormone_______________-………………………….
fructose
seminalplasmin
relaxin
Semen cont’d
• Enzymes to enhance sperm motility
• Substances to inhibit female reproductive immune
response
• Male infertility---causes include obstruction of duct
system, hormone imbalance , environmental
estrogens ,pesticides, too much alcohol….often
_________________is checked to analyze sperm
count, motility, and morphology,semen volume ,pH,
fructose amount…sperm count should not be below
20 million /mL
Semen analysis
EXTERNAL GENITALIA-ie. Scrotum and penis
• Scrotum-divided sac of skin outside abdominal cavity,
normally hangs loosely, rendering testes temperature below
body temp.( @ ~ 5.4 degrees lower)-necessary for healthy
sperm production ,changes in scrotal surface area help
maintain temp—example -wrinkles as pulls toward body
during external cold temp’s
• Penis-delivers sperm-consists of shaft ,glans penis tip and
prepuce or foreskin-loose skin covering-often removed at
circumcision/Internally-spongy urethra SURROUNDED by 3
elongated areas of _______________________that fill w/
blood during arousal-causing rigid erection
Erectile
tissue
Male Reproductive Functions
• SPERMATOGENESIS=sperm production-begins @
puberty and is lifelong
• Millions/day
• _________________primitive stem cells @
periphery of each seminiferous tubule/rapid mitotic
division to build stem cell line….from birth to
puberty
spermatogonia
Follicle-stimulating
hormone
Spermatogeneisis cont’d
• @ puberty _______________________(FSH) is secreted in
increasing amounts by ant. Pituitary gland…from here on out
,each division produces 1 stem cell-type A daughter ---which
remains @ tubule periphery to maintain stem
population…and 2nd,type B daughter-pushed toward tubule
lumen to become primary spermatocyte and will undergo
MEIOSIS
• Gametes @ this stage are called _______-made by meiosis
and have ½ genetic material (2n in humans=23 x 2)
• As meiosis occurs ,primar y,then secondary spermatocytes
pushed toward tubule of lumen
• Spermatids NOT functional sperm-nonmotile and excess
cellular baggage
spermatids
Spermatogenesis cont’d
• During last stage-_______________-excess
cytoplasm sloughed off and now have
_________________________,equipped w/high
metabolism and motility
• Sperm head has DNA---essentailly nucleus
• Anterior to head is ______________made by golgi
and similar to large lysosome---which breaks down
@ membrane and releases to help sperm penetrate
follicle of egg
Mature sperm
compacted into 3
regionshead,midpiece and
tail
Acrosomehelmutlike
Spermatogenesis cont’d
• Filaments make long tail from centriloes in midpiece
w/mitochondria wrapped around for necessary ATP
• All of spermatogenesis-from primary spermatocyte to
release of immature sperm takes 64-72 days
• Sperm in lumen nonmotile and can’t fertilize….moved by
peristalsis from tubules into epididymis---there further
maturation and increased motility
• Things that can alter sperm formation:________________-
Some
antibiotics,radiation,lead,some
pesticides,marijuana,tobacco,
excessive alcohol
Testosterone production
• PRODUCED BY INTERSITIAL CELLS
• @ puberty FSH prods sperm production and
________________(LH) is also released by anterior pituitary
on from here on out testosterone is produced
continuosly,rising levels responsible for secondary sexual
characteristics:___________________-testosterone not
produced and secondary sex characteristics not
produced_____________….castration will cause this or
malfunction of interstitial cells…also cause sterility
Luteinizing hormone
Sexual
infantilism
Deeping voice,increased hair all
over most of body-esp. axillary
and pubic;skeletal muscle
enlargement-more muscle
mass;increased bone growth and
density of bone
FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE ANATOMY
• Function in producing gametes(ova) and
nurture/protect developing fetus
• _____________________primary reproductive organsboth exocrine and endocrine in nature
ovaries
Ovarian
follicles
OVARIES
Follicle cells
• Shape of almonds but about twice as large
• Internally __________________-each consisting of an
immature egg-oocyte-surrounded by 1 or more layers called
__________
• As developing egg matures follicle enlarges and produces fluid
filled antrum-At this point follicle is called vesicular or
_________________follicle,which is mature and ready to
released during ____________________.
• After ovulation,ruptured follicle is transformed into
___________________--“yellow body”,which degenerates
Graafian follicle
ovulation
Corpus luteum
Ovarian follicle
Follicle
cells
Ovaries cont’d
Ovarian ligaments
• Ovulation ~ every 28 days….in older women ovaries are
scarred and pitted from release of many eggs
• Ovaries secured to lateral pelvis by _________________and
medially by ______________and in between held by fold of
peritoneum-broad ligament
Suspensory ligaments
DUCT SYSTEM-uterine tube,uterus and vagina
• Fallopian(uterine) tubes—internal duct system
• receive ovulated oocyte and provide fertilization site
• each about 4” long,extends medially from ovary to empty in
superior uterus
• enclosed and supported by broad ligament
•
•
•
•
Fallopian tubes cont’d
little or no contact between fallopian tubes and ovariesinstead contact @ distal end is by funnel-shaped
____________________that has fingerlike projectionsfimbriae that surround ovary-- WHICH create fluidlike
current that carries oocyte into fallopian tube---to thus
journey to uterus
At this point is where many potential eggs are lost in
peritoneal cavity
Cilia and peristalsis move oocyte along to uterus-taking
about 3-4 days,but egg is viable ~24 hrs. after ovulation,so
fertilization is usually in fallopian tube
To reach oocyte,sperm must swim up through vagina and
uterus to fallopian tubes---swimming against a downward
beat of Cilia!
infundibulum
Fallopian tubes cont’d
Pelvic inflammatory disease
• Because fallopian tubes and ovaries are not physically
continuous,this makes this area vulnerable to infection,such
as bacteria of Gonorrhea…maybe causing
__________________which can cause scarring and closing of
tubes
Uterus-located in pelvis between bladder and rectum
• Hallow/functions to receive,retain,and nourish a fertilized
egg
• About the size and shape of a pear in women who haven’t
been pregnant
• Suspended by broad ligament and anchored by round and
uterosacral ligaments
• _________________=main portion
• _________________-superior,rounded region above
fallopian tube entrance
fundus
body
Uterus cont’d
• ______________-narrow outlet into vagina
below
• Wall is thick w/3 layers:1)inner mucosa________________-At implantation-fertilized
egg burrows here/This layer sloughs off during
________________-menstruation every 28 days- if not fertilized
• 2)______________-interlacing bundles of
smooth muscle making bulky middle layercontracts during labor 3) perimetrium-outer
serous layer(visceral peritoneum
cervix
endometrium
myometrium
menses
• __________________________________common in women 30-50-risks factors inc.
cervical inflammation,STDs,multiple
pregnancies,promiscuity/detected w/Pap
smear/slow growing ,usually
Cervical cancer
• Vagina-thin-walled tube 3-4”long/between bladder
and rectum from cervix to body exterior=birth
canal./also organ of copulation
• Distally partially enclosed by __________mucosawhich is very vascular and bleeds when ruptured
hymen
EXTERNAL GENITALIA=VULVA
• mons pubis-fatty,rounded area overlying pubic symphysishair after puberty
• laterally are 2 skin folds w/hair-labia majora (encloses
vestibule which houses external urethra opening and
vagina)and l.minora
• ______________ surround vagina and secretes for distal
vagina
• Clitoris-small protrusion that is corresponding to penis
w/erectile tissue but no reproductive duct
• ___________________-between ant. labial folds,anus and
ischial tuberosities
Greater vestibular
glands
perineum
FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTIONS AND CYCLES
• OOGENESIS AND THE OVARIAN CYCLE
• Females’ reproductive ability begins at puberty and ends around
50’s(menopause)
• In developing female fetus,_________-female stem cells multiply
rapidly to increase their numbers,then daughter cells-primary
oocytes-push into ovary connective tissue and primary follicle
forms around them
• By birth,oogonia cease to exist and a lifetime supply of primary
oocytes are in place---waiting 10-14 years to undergo MEIOSIS!
• @ puberty , ant. Pituitary produces_________FSH-stimulates a
small # of primary follicles to grow and mature each month and
then ovulation occurs monthly….constituting the _________cycle
oogonia
Follicle-stimulating
hormone
ovarian
•
•
•
•
•
Oogenesis and ovarian cycle cont’d
@ puberty ~ 250,000 oocytes remain w/ a small # activated
each month….appx 500 of the 250,000 ova are released in
the limited # of years of fertility
The FSH prods the follicle to enlarge ,accumulating fluid in
central antrum/Primary oocyte replicates chromosomes and
MEIOSIS occurs-producing 1 ________________and
polar
Secondary oocyte
body
Follicle development to the point of rupture takes about 14
days with ___ovulation________________ occurring at just
about this time
Ovulation occurs at the response to _luteinizing
hormone__LH
Secondary oocyte is still surrounded by follicle cell capsule
now called_corona radiata(“radiating crown”)…abdominal
pain can accompany this-mittelschmerz
• 1 developing follicle dominates each month/mature follicles
not ovulated are overripe and deteriorate
• Besides triggering ovulation each month,LH aso causes
ruptured follicle to turn into corpus luteum(Both c.luteum
and maturing follicle produce hormones)
• If ovulated, secondary oocyte is penetrated by sperm in
fallopian tube,THEN oocyte
undergoes_________________________________making
another polar body and ovum
2nd meiotic division
• ….its 23 chromosomes are combined w/23 of sperm in
fertilized egg
• If not fertilized, deteriorates
• Polar bodies deteriorate
• Sperm v. egg:-sperm relies mostly on surrounding for
nutrients,while—egg larger and______________________stocked w/ nutrients
nonmotile
UTERINE (MENSTRUAL) CYCLE
• receptive to implantation only briefly---~ 7 days after
ovulation
• events of _____________________ are cyclic
changes that endometrium goes through monthly in
response to ovarian hormone changes
• Anterior pituitary ____________________ hormones
FSH and LH regulate Ovarian estrogen and
progesterone
• Typically cycle is 28 days w/ovulation occurring
midway
Menstrual cycle
gonadotropic
Menstrual cycle cont’d
• 3 stages:
• 1)______________________--superficial functional layer of
thick endometrium is sloughed off-accompanied by 3-5 days
bleeding---passing out vagina as menstrual flow/average
blood loss 50-150mL(1/4-1/2 cup)….By day 5 ovarian follicles
begin to produce estrogen
• 2)__________________---is stimulated by estrogen levels to
cause basal layer of endometrium to regenerate ,glands
form w/in and endometrial blood supply
increases…endometrium restores to velvety,thick and well
vascularized—ovulation @ end of this phase in response to
LH
Days 1-5Menstrual
phase
Days 6-14-Proliferative
phase
Menstrual cycle cont’d
• 3)______________________-progestrone levels have
risen(by corpus luteum) and act on estrogen charged
endometrium and increase blood supply more/also
increasing size of endometrial glands and begin supplying
nutrients into uterine cavity to sustain an embryo until
implanted
Days 15-28-Secretory
phase
• If fertilization does occur,embryo produces hormone similar
to LH-causes ______________________________
• If fertilization does NOT occur,c. luteum degenerates and LH
levels drop…This causes vessels supplying endometrium to
go into spasms and kink—causing endometrial cells-deprived
of O2 –to die ….setting stage for next menses
• Cycle can vary from 21-40 days ,but time of ovulation is
usually @ 14-15 days
Corpus luteum to cont. producing
its hormones
HORMONE PRODUCTION BY OVARIES
• Begin @ puberty
• Follicle cells of growing follicles
produce_______________________-causing the appearance
of secondary sex characteristics :enlargement of fallopian
tubes, vagina and external genitalia ;development of breasts
;axillary and pubic hair ;increased fat in hips and breasts and
in general; Widening and lightening of pelvis; Onset of
menses
• Estrogen also has metabolic effects---ex-maintaing blood
cholesterol(high HDL) and help Ca2+ uptake
estrogens
• Other ovarian hormone is
______________________________made by c.luteum as
long as LH is present in blood…stopping 10-14 days after
ovulation/helps establish menses w/estrogen,but does NOT
contribute to secondary sex traits…plays a role in pregnancy
by inhibiting contraction of endometrium and
prepares_____________________(source of progesterone in
pregnancy is placenta)
For lactation
progesterone
Mammary glands
•
•
•
•
• In both sexes ,but has normal functions in female---being
important only once reproduction is accomplished—
stimulated to increase size by estrogen
Are actually modified sweat glands and part of integument
,in that sense….and anterior to pectoral muscles
________________-center pigmented area w/protruding
nipple
Internally has 15-25 lobes radiating around nipple/lobes are
padded and separated by connective tissue and fat
Within each lobe are smaller _________________ w/clusters
of alveolar glands that _______________-produce milk into
lactiferous ducts opening via the nipple to the outside
areola
lobules
lactate
• ______________________-2nd most common cause of death
in American women---1 in 8 developing this
condition….~10% hereditary and half traced to BRCA 1 and 2
gene/80% of women w/ gene contract cancer---other risk
factors inc. early menses,late menopause,estrogen
replacement therapy….Breast cancer is signaled by change in
skin texture ,puckering and nipple leakage…can be detected
by self examination and by ___________________-X-rays
that reveal tumors too small to feel(<1 cm.)
Breast cancer
mammography
ACCOMPLISHING FERTILIZATION
• Sperm must reach secondary oocyte-viable 12-24 hours after
leaving ovary/sperm viable ~ 24-48 hrs….Therfore, intercourse must
occur no more than 2 days before ovulation and no later than 24
hrs. after ovulation---when oocyte is appx. 1/3 way down fallopian
tube
• Sperm attracted to oocyte by “homing device” chemicals—locating
oocyte
• Sperm take __hours to reach fallopian tube,however many leak out
or are destroyed by vagina’s acidity---only a few hundred –few
thousand make it to area of egg’s location
• When sperm reach oocyte,cell surface hyraluronidase enzymes
break down “cement” holding follicle cells of corona radiate
around oocyte
1-2
• Once path cleared through corona,1000’s sperm
undergo_______________________where acrosome
membrane break down-releasing enzymes to lyse through
oocyte membrane….then a single sperm can make contact
w/oocyte membrane receptors---pulling head(nucleus) of
sperm pulled into oocyte cytoplasm….****sperm reaching
this point after acrosomal reactions have started are the
more likely to fertilize
• After a sperm has reached oocyte,2nd meiosis occurs--making ovum and polar body
• Changes in fertilized egg preventing other sperm entry
• _________________occurs @ moment genetic material of
sperm combines w/ that of ovum to
make________________-fertilized egg
Acrosomal reaction
zygote
fertilization
EVENTS OF EMBRYONIC AND FETAL
DEVELOPMENT
• Rapid MITOTIC division as zygote goes down fallopian
tube-________________,w/daughter cells becoming
smaller and smaller—large # of cells will be building
block of embryo-until 9th week
• By time embryo reaches uterus(3 days after
ovulation)=_________________-ball of 16 cells looking
like a raspberry…Since uterus not totally prepared for
embryo yet, embryo floats in uterine cavity---using
uterine secretions for nutreints @ this time--Unattached,continues to develop to ~ 100 cells---It then
hallows out to form_________or chorionic vesicle
morula
cleavage
blastocyst
• @ this same time ,it is secreting a hormone
called______________________(hCG)-this prods c.luteum of
ovary continue hormone
production(otherwise,endometrium would shed)
• Pregnancy tests usually detect______________levels
• Blastocyst also has __________________-forming large fluidfilled sphere and also an inner cell mass-small cell cluster to
one side
• By day 7 after ovulation,blastocyst attahes to
endometrium,eroding away some of lining and envelops into
thick mucosa
Human chorionic
gonadotropin
hcg
trophoblast
• During this time the primary germ layers are forming from
inner mass:
• ______________________gives rise to nervous system and
epidermis
• ______________________forms mucosa and associated
glands
• __________________________gives rises to basically
everything else
ectoderm
endoderm
mesoderm
• By day 14 after ovulation,implantation is complete and
mucosa grown over embryo…The ______________of the
blastocyst develops projections called chorionic
villi,combining w/uterus to produce
__________________________
trohoblast
placenta
• Once placenta has formed,embryonic body is surrounded
by_____________________________-fluid –filled sac and
attaches w/blood vessel stalk_____________________________________
• By 3rd week,placenta delivers nutrients and O2 to and
removes wastes from embryonic blood---all through
____________________________
• By end of 2nd month,placeta becomes endocrine organ
producing estrogen,progesterone,and other hormones to
maintain pregnancy…c.luteum becomes inactive
amnion
Umbilical
cord
Placental barrier
• By week 8--all organ systems laid down in
some form and looks human
• Week 9—Now called__________-now growth
and organ specialization are major activities
• As fetus,grows from ~ 3cm. and 1g to 36
cm(14”),~4kg(6-10 lbs.)…at birth ~ 22”
• 270 days-10th lunar month-full term
fetus
7 wks.
EFFECTS OF PREGNANCY ON MOTHER
• ___________________________-period from conception to birth
• Anatomical changes• Uterus goes from fist sized to eventually nearing level of xiphoid processthorax widens as organs press on diaphragm
• Center of gravity changes sometimes causing lordosois---thus backaches
• Placental hormone____________________causes pelvic ligaments and
pubic symphsis to relax,widen and become more flexible
• Good nutrition necessary—needing only about 300 calories extra/day
• Substances that can cross placental barriers are alcohol,nicotine,many
drugs and maternal infections
• _________________ termination of pregnancy by loss of fetus--spontaneous abortion is a miscarriage
pregnancy
relaxin
abortion
• Physiological Changes
• GI system-morning sickness usually first trimester,as mother
adjusts to elevated estrogens;heartburn because of displaced
esophagus and displaced stomach;constipation –because GI
motility decreased
• Urinary system-kidneys now need to dispose of fetal
metabolic wastes,producing MORE urine;also uterus
compresses bladder---frequent urination-Ie. stress
incontinence
• Respiratory System-nasal mucosa responds to estrogen by
swelling and congested,maybe nosebleeds ;respiratory rate
increases but residual volume declines
causing_______________-difficult breathing in later stages
• Cardiovascular system-Total body water rises and blood
volume increases 25-40%---helping in safeguarding from
blood loss effects during labor;BP and pulse increase and raise
cardiac output 20-40%;venous return from lower limbs may
be impaired---maybe causing varicose veins
dyspnea
parturition
CHILDBIRTH=________________________
• Usually w/in 15 days of calculated due date (280 days from
last menstrual period)
• _________________-series of events that expel infant from
uterus
• Initiation of labor
• Estrogen has reached highest levels causing myometrium to
form much ________________receptors-to be receptive to
that hormone
• AND interfering with progesterone’s quieting influence on
uterine muscle—causing weak uterine contractions---called
_________________contractions—often producing false
labor
labor
oxytocin
Braxton-Hicks
contractions
• Then ,cells of fetus produce oxytocin and this stimulates
placenta to release _______________________stimulating
more frequent and powerful contractions
• Mom’s hypothalamus activated by emotional and physical
stress---signals oxytocin release by posterior pituitary gland --rhythmic ,expulsive contractions-TRUE LABOR…positive
feedback mechanism now w/hypothalamus,strengthening
contractions
• Anything that interferes w/oxytocin or proglastins can
hinder onset of labor….example--antiproglastin drugs such
as aspirin and ibuprofen
proglastins
Stages of Labor
• 1st-_____________________________from time of
true contractions until full-10 cm-dilation of
cervix….contractions move from upper uterus to
vagina,becoming more vigorous and softening cervix
and thinning….amnion ruptures-“water –breaking”----usually 6-12 hours or MORE!!!
Dilation stage
• 2nd-Expulsion stage-full dilation to delivery…urge increases
to push 20 min -50 min.---sometimes 2 hrs
• Infant should be head first-Vertex position-skull as a wedge
to dilate cervix…after head,rest of body comes out more
easily…umbilical cord clamped off
• _______________-buttocks-first
• _________________-during a difficult 2nd stage,O2 delivery
inadequate leading to cerebral palsy or epilepsy….often a Csection done to prevent these
•
3rd-____________________-w/in 15 min.placenta
usually expelled---placenta and other fetal membranes
constitute ____________________
breech
dystocia
Placental
stage
afterbirth
DEVELOPMENTAL ASPECTS
• Gonads from 8th week and then accessory structures and
external genitalia….all depends on presence or absence of
testosterone
• If genetic male fails to produce testosterone-female
accessory structures form and external genitalia…
• --If genetic female exposed to testosterone-male accessory
ducts and glands as well as penis and scrotum….both cases
are pseudohermaphrodites----a true hermaphrodite
possesses ovaries and testes-rare case
• XO female appears normal but lacks ovaries/YO males perish
• __________________narrowing of foreskin of penis and
misplaced urethral openings
• _______________________-failure of full descent of testes
phimosis
cryptorchidism
• _______________=period ~11-13---taking another 2 years
for dependable ovulation
• Most common problem in females are infection-sometimes
caused by STD’s
• Male inflammatory conditions include
_______________________,maybe following STD
transmission
• ______________-inflammation of testes….maybe following
STD or mumps
• Neoplasms a danger in both genders
orchiditis
• Women reach peak reproductive abilities @ late
20’s,estrogen declines eventually
producing________________-producing a ceasing of
menses—irritability and mood changes can accompany
• Dangers can accompany HRT
• Its all downhill…! 
Urethritis,prostatitis,epi
• Puberty @ 10-15 yrs.
didymitis
puberty
menopause
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