Download Sample - COLLEGE EXAM TEST BANK

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Transcript
Defining Deviance
Part 1
Defining Deviance
Article Questions
Chapter 1: On the Sociology of Deviance by Kai T. Erikson
Multiple Choice Questions
1. Human communities maintain boundaries for all of the following reasons EXCEPT
a.
b.
c.
d.
to retain a given pattern of consistent activity and behavior.
to make possible a degree of stability.
to retain cultural integrity.
to allow freedom of expression.
ANS: D
REF: Page 18
2. Communities solve the problem of instructing members about its boundaries by such
practices as
a.
b.
c.
d.
political elections.
criminal trials.
family gatherings.
holiday celebrations.
ANS: B
REF: Page 19
3. The only “material” or resource found in society for making boundaries is
a.
b.
c.
d.
networks of social interaction.
geographical landmarks.
records and documents.
tools and technology.
ANS: A
REF: Page 18
4. The fact that we no longer punish deviants in public is connected with the
a.
b.
c.
d.
sympathy and acceptance of deviants.
new technologies for punishment.
large increase in number of deviants.
emergence of newspapers, radio and TV.
ANS: D
REF: Page 19
6
Part 1: Questions
5. Boundaries are not altogether fixed and constant, for all of the following reasons EXCEPT
a.
b.
c.
d.
over time there are changes in group structure and leadership.
over time the level of deviance decreases to low levels.
the new generation may challenge the old guard.
there may be changes in the surrounding environment.
ANS: B
REF: Page 20
6. Erikson makes the unexpected observation that many of the institutions designed to
discourage deviant behavior may in fact
a.
b.
c.
d.
serve to lower or even eliminate deviance.
serve to perpetuate or even increase deviance
challenge community standards and norms.
result in the emergence of new agents of control.
ANS: B
REF: Pages 20-21
7. Commitment ceremonies have all of the following features EXCEPT
a.
b.
c.
d.
represent a more or less permanent change in a person’s status as deviant.
involve a formal stage of confrontation between society and the deviant.
mark a temporary change in a person’s status as deviant.
represent an announcement about the nature and limits of deviance.
ANS: C
REF: Pages 21-22
8. Erikson suggests that the self-fulfilling prophecy as applied to the study of deviance means
that
a. society views self-fulfillment as the only option for the ex-deviant to embrace conformity
and return to society.
b. society’s view that “once deviant, always deviant” creates a situation that limits the
opportunities for the ex-deviant to conform.
c. predictions about the future of deviance are likely to be incorrect.
d. persons of lower economic status will have greater likelihood of committing deviance.
ANS: B
REF: Page 22
Essays or Discussion Questions
1. Describe the function(s) of boundary maintaining for a community. How are boundaries
maintained and why is this important for a social group? What if any is the downside to this
social process?
7
Defining Deviance
2. Discuss the causes and consequences of the fact that community boundaries are not fixed but
over time do shift and change. Does this suggest that there may be some positive functions to
deviance? Explain, giving examples.
3. Explain and provide two examples of how institutions designed to discourage deviant
behavior operate in ways to perpetuate it.
8
Part 1: Questions
Chapter 2: An Integrated Typology of Deviance Applied to Ten
Middle-Class Norms by Alex Heckert and Druann Maria Heckert
Multiple Choice Questions
1. According to Heckert/Heckert’s typology, negative deviance is
a.
b.
c.
d.
overconformity that is positively evaluated.
overconformity that is negatively evaluated.
underconformity that is positively evaluated.
underconformity that is negatively evaluated.
ANS: D
REF: Pages 26, 30
2. According to Heckert/Heckert’s typology, deviance admiration refers to
a.
b.
c.
d.
overconformity that is positively evaluated.
overconformity that is negatively evaluated.
underconformity that is positively evaluated.
underconformity that is negatively evaluated.
ANS: C
REF: Page 27
3. According to Heckert/Heckert’s typology, rate busting refers to
a.
b.
c.
d.
overconformity that is positively evaluated.
overconformity that is negatively evaluated.
underconformity that is positively evaluated.
underconformity that is negatively evaluated.
ANS: B
REF: Page 27
4. According to Heckert/Heckert’s typology, positive deviance is
a.
b.
c.
d.
underconformity that is negatively evaluated.
underconformity that is positively evaluated.
overconformity that is negatively evaluated.
overconformity that is positively evaluated.
ANS: D
REF: Page 28
9
Defining Deviance
5. Examples of apostasy, middle-class negative deviance related to the norm of group loyalty,
are
a.
b.
c.
d.
treason, revolution, draft dodging, flag defilement.
revolution, treason, atheism, homosexuality.
family desertion, alcoholism, price-fixing, flag defilement.
homicide, treason, suicide, draft dodging.
ANS: A
REF: Page 31
6. Examples of fanaticism, middle-class rate busting related to the norm of group loyalty, are
a.
b.
c.
d.
Stepford wives, hermits, loners, KKK.
loners, Amish, Martha Stewart, too honest with friends.
Amish, workaholics, Howard Hughes, brownnosers.
religious cults, KKK, super-patriots, Aryan Nation.
ANS: D
REF: Page 32
7. Examples of rebellion, middle-class deviance admiration related to the norm of group loyalty,
are
a.
b.
c.
d.
James Dean, Vietnam draft-resistor, tattoos, extreme sports.
Vietnam draft-resistor, transvestite, gay rights movement, explorers.
American Revolution, body-piercing, explorers, investigative journalism.
Pentagon papers, Vietnam draft-resistor, James Dean, American Revolution.
ANS: D
REF: Page 35
8. Examples of altruism, middle-class positive deviance related to the norm of group loyalty, are
a.
b.
c.
d.
Terrorist bombers, Kamikaze pilots, martyrs, patriots.
CIA operatives, Junior League members, monks, overachievers.
FBI agents, priests, Abe Lincoln, discrete friends.
CIA operatives, FBI agents, monks, martyrs.
ANS: A
REF: Page 37
10
Part 1: Questions
Essays or Discussion Questions
1. Discuss 3 types of positive deviance related to at least 3 middle class norms. Provide
examples of each.
2. Discuss 3 types of negative deviance related to at least 3 middle class norms with examples.
3. Explain how rate busting can be defined as deviant behavior. Identify and discuss three
examples of rate busting deviance.
11
Defining Deviance
Three Perspectives
Chapter 3: Labeling Theory by Howard S. Becker
Multiple Choice Questions
1. When Becker suggests that society creates deviance he means that
a. society creates differential opportunities for members of different social classes.
b. society creates barriers to normative conformity through dysfunctional families and
disorganized neighborhoods.
c. society creates the rules which define deviance and applies the label of deviant to those
who are ultimately labeled deviant.
d. society creates deviant groups such as street gangs which foster deviant attitudes and
lifestyles.
ANS: C
REF: Pages 41-42
2. Labeling theory holds that deviance is not a quality of the act because it
a.
b.
c.
d.
is the result of personality factors associated with committing deviance.
is the result of the application by others of rules and sanctions to one labeled deviant.
is a consequence of the violation of the criminal code and being caught.
reflects a condition of anomie for those trapped in social structure.
ANS: B
REF: Page 42
3. Labeling theory suggests that the primary thing deviants have in common is
a. common background factors such as low IQs, personality issues, family problems, and/or
low social class.
b. a common history of previous deviant behavior in their background.
c. commission of a deviant act and subsequent arrest.
d. they share a deviant label and the experience of being labeled as an outsider.
ANS: D
REF: Page 42
4. Labeling theory points out that there is much variability to how others may respond to a given
act as deviant, including all of the following EXCEPT
a.
b.
c.
d.
variation over time.
who commits the act and who feels they have been harmed by it.
when there is enough evidence to warrant an investigation.
only if the act results in certain consequences deemed serious.
ANS: C
REF: Pages 42-43
12
Part 1: Questions
5. Becker, citing Hughes’ distinction between master and subordinate statuses, to explain
a.
b.
c.
d.
the tendency to define a person’s identity primarily in terms of their deviant status.
whenever a person is labeled deviant they become subordinate to others.
how physicians and other people of high status are masters of their own fate.
the fact that members of minority groups are more likely to be labeled deviant.
ANS: A
REF: Page 44
6. According to Becker, being labeled as deviant has important consequences
a.
b.
c.
d.
for society which must ensure there are adequate rehabilitation programs.
for families who must learn to do without their loved one now in prison.
for police investigators who must be sure their case holds up in a court proceeding.
for individuals who face important consequences regarding their subsequent social
participation, self-image and public identity.
ANS: D
REF: Page 44
Essays or Discussion Questions
1. Discuss the consequences of labeling theory’s emphasis on the labeling process, rather than
the violation of a norm, as the starting point for the study of deviance. Give an example of
how you would apply labeling theory in examining a concrete case of deviance. What do you
see as the strengths and weakness of labeling theory?
2. Becker suggests that branding someone as a deviant carries strong consequences for the
person labeled deviant in terms of a new master status. Explain how this is the case. Why is
this a problem or issue, according to labeling theory?
3. Explain why Becker distinguishes rule-breaking behavior and the use of the label deviant.
Provide and explain an example of rule-breaking behavior that does not result in the label of
deviance, and conversely explain how the label of deviant may be applied without there
having been rule-breaking behavior.
13
Defining Deviance
Chapter 4: The Morality of Deviance by Anne Hendershott
Multiple Choice Questions
1. Hendershott points out that sociologists from the 19th century to the 1960s held all of the
following views except which one?
a. Moral judgments are integral to the study of deviance.
b. Cultural relativism is the best vantage point from which to study social behavior.
c. We face a situation today of rapid social change much like the era of the Industrial
Revolution.
d. A shared moral order assumes a consensus about right and wrong.
ANS: B
REF: Page 47
2. Moral boundaries
a.
b.
c.
d.
mark the outer edges of group life, defining what behavior is acceptable.
signify a particular type of religious behavior.
help to explain why some persons have a higher status than others.
encourage a laissez-faire attitude toward deviant behavior.
ANS: A
REF: Page 48
3. Durkheim explained that when all types of behavior are permitted and condoned,
a. society thrives and prospers because of its tolerance.
b. deviance becomes a major force for positive social change.
c. a state of normlessness or anomie exists that may foster moral panics and
demoralization.
d. a strong sense of group and personal identity is fostered.
ANS: C
REF: Page 49
4. Hendershott uses the concept of “Psychological man” to refer to
a.
b.
c.
d.
the globalization of society and the pursuit of self-interest.
those who reject moral notions of good and evil.
persons who study the science of psychology.
people who suffer from various forms of mental disorders.
ANS: B
REF: Page 49
14
Part 1: Questions
5. Hendershott uses “Christian man” to refer to a distinct character type
a. that rejects the ideas of right and wrong, replacing them with medical notions of health
and illness.
b. that represents the triumph of a value-free ideology and cultural relativism in which all
behaviors are acceptable.
c. that insists upon a moral compass of right and wrong as a guide for conduct.
d. that attends church on a regular basis and avoids the secular world.
ANS: C
REF: Page 49
6. Hendershott argues that for the past 30 years social scientists have been more likely to attack
Senator (and sociologist) Moynihan instead of
a.
b.
c.
d.
attacking the problem of fatherless children in the inner cities.
doing empirical research to come up with their own answers.
recognizing the role of alienation in causing this problem.
blaming Durkheim for his outmoded theory of moral and social order.
ANS: A
REF: Page 48
Essays or Discussion Questions
1. Hendershott argues that many sociologists today have embraced a culture of relativism, and
in doing so, have lost the critical edge of classical sociologists like Durkheim, who rejected
the notion that all behavior has positive results for the individual and group (anomie). Do
you agree that tolerance for all behavior has limits, and moral boundaries must be defined and
maintained? Why or why not? Cite specific examples in your response.
2. Hendershott discusses and contrasts two distinct character types, “Psychological man” and
“Christian man,” in order to challenge what she sees as the dominant ideology of cultural
relativism in our society. Describe and explain these two character types in terms of their
relevance for contemporary discussions of problems like terrorism. Do you agree with
Hendershott that “Psychological man” is the prototype of our age? Explain.
15
Defining Deviance
Chapter 5: Social Power: Conflict Theory of Crime by Richard Quinney
Multiple Choice Questions
1. According to Quinney, the social reality of crime theory is based on
a.
b.
c.
d.
conflict in society.
the reality of crime as a social problem.
consensus about the nature of real crime.
the need to control serious crime realistically.
ANS: A
REF: Page 52
2. According to the social reality of crime theory, the official definition of crime is
a.
b.
c.
d.
based on social consensus.
a reflection of the realities of crime in the streets.
inherently harmful to society.
created by agents of the dominant class.
ANS: D
REF: Page 52
3. According to the social reality of crime theory, definitions of crime are
a.
b.
c.
d.
based on a long standing legal tradition going back to the 18th century.
based on public opinion surveys and victimization surveys.
composed of behaviors everyone would agree are harmful to society.
composed of behaviors that conflict with interests of the dominant class.
ANS: D
REF: Page 52
4. According to the social reality of crime theory, definitions of crime are applied by
a.
b.
c.
d.
authorities, who are fair to all, and only target conduct deemed criminal in nature.
the class that has the power to shape the enforcement and administration of criminal law.
the police and courts in response to the realities of crime.
the administrative apparatus of the criminal justice system as an agent of the state.
ANS: B
REF: Page 52
16
Part 1: Questions
5. According to the social reality of crime theory, behavior patterns are structured in relation to
definitions of crime and within this context
a. personality factors will account for most criminal behavior.
b. persons will likely join street gangs and commit crime.
c. people will interact with others, learn attitudes and engage in actions likely to be defined
as criminal.
d. some people will become police officers and resist crime.
ANS: C
REF: Page 53
6. According to the social reality of crime theory, an ideology of crime is constructed
a.
b.
c.
d.
and applied by the dominant class to secure its dominance.
and applied by criminologists to help explain the causes of crime.
by the criminal class to counter the moral standards of society.
and supported by the motion picture industry and reflected in various films and movies.
ANS: A
REF: Page 54
Essays or Discussion Questions
1. Describe and explain the 5-6 major propositions Quinney outlines as the social reality theory
of crime. What do you find useful or persuasive about this point of view? What do you find
less accurate or useful about this perspective? Do you find this theory overall to be a good
explanation of crime in our society—why or why not? Explain.
2. Quinney’s social reality theory of crime seems to make use of some basic assumptions of
Becker’s labeling theory. Discuss the points of agreement and any potential differences
between Becker and Quinney’s theories of deviance. Which position do you prefer—why?
Explain.
3. Using Quinney discuss and provide an example to show how personal-action patterns
develop in relation to definitions of crime. How, according to Quinney’s social reality of
crime theory, do the definers of crime impact the self-conceptions of those labeled as
criminals?
17