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6. Penilaian Kurikulum
The Meaning of Evaluation
1. Evaluation is a process or group of processes by
which evaluators gather data in order to make
decisions
2. Worthen and Sanders define evaluation as “ the
formal determination of the quality, effectiveness,
or value of a program, product, project, process,
objective or curriculum. Evaluation includes
inquiry and and judgment methods: a)
“determining standards for judging quality and
deciding whether those standards should be
relative or absolute; b) collect relevant
information; and c) applying the standards to
determine quality”
Penilaian Kurikulum
The Meaning of Evaluation
• 3. Daniel Stufflebeam has defined
evaluation as the process of delineating,
obtaining, and providing useful information
for judging decision alternatives.
•
Penilaian Kurikulum
Approaches to Evaluation/Pendekatan Penilaian
1.
Essentially, evaluation consists of gathering and combining data in
relation to a weighted set of goals or scales so as to allow people to
make judgment about worth.
2.
In general, evaluation focuses on and results in decisions in one or
more of three areas: a. decision about the curriculum, the subject
matter, as to whether to maintain the curriculum, revise and improve
the curriculum, or to replace the existing curriculum with a new one; b.
decisions about individuals, primarily the teachers and students, which
focus on instruction and learning, c). decisions about administrative
regulation, which focus on the existing management of the school and
its program, to determine whether the existing school organization
should be maintained or reformed. Also, part of this focus is centering
attention on the school environment and the community environment
within which the school exists, what Schwab calls the milieu and
Goodlad calls the ecosystem.
Penilaian Kurikulum
• Scientific and Humanistic Approaches
to Evaluation
Lee Cronbach had identified the scientific
and humanistic approaches to evaluation
as opposite extremes on an evaluation
continuum.
Penilaian Kurikulum
Scientific Approach
• Persons in this camp tend to concentrate their
efforts on the learners. Data, frequently in the
form of test scores, are employed to compare
students’ achievement in different situations.
• Information collected is quantitative, so it can be
analyzed statistically.
• Most scientific approaches to evaluation draw on
methods that have been used by physical
scientists.
Penilaian Kurikulum
Humanistic/naturalistic Approach
Data collected in a way that differ significantly from
that found in a scientific evaluation. The data
gathered in a naturalistic investigation are more
qualitative than quantitative in nature.
The evaluator engages in what are called “thick”
descriptions of actual incidents that were
observed during the evaluation efforts. Data
gained from interviews and discussions with
participants are included in the evaluation.
Patterns observed from the many observations
form much of the data for analysis.
Penilaian Formatif & Sumatif
Penilaian Formatif
• Formative evaluation encompasses /includes those
activities undertaken to improve an intended program. It
is carried out both the development of a new program
and the implementation of the program.
• In the curriculum development phase, formative
evaluation furnishes evidence that will direct decisions
that can be made about how to revise a program while it
is being developed. Formative evaluation takes place at
a number of specified points during the curriculum
development process. It provides the opportunity for the
evaluators to modify, reject or accept the program as it is
evolving.
Penilaian Sumatif
• Summative evaluation aims at getting the
total picture of the quality of a produced
and then taught curriculum.
• When applied to a newly developed
curriculum, summative evaluation is
usually undertaken after the project has
been completely developed and after it
has been implemented schoolwide or
districtwide.
Penilaian Sumatif
• Once implemented, this type of evaluation is used to
determine whether students have been successful in
obtaining the final goals of the curriculum. Have the
students met the educational standards of the school
or state. Likewise, it is employed to judge whether
teachers have been successful in meeting the
minimum accountability standards.
• Overall, it asks the question, “Has the curriculum
worked”
• The name summative has been applied because this
type of evaluation obtains evidence about the
“summed” effects of the various components or units
in a particular curriculum
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