Download File

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Transcript
States of Consciousness
SLEEP
Consciousness
Awareness of yourself and
your environment
• Being awake and aware
– Are automatic behaviors conscious
• Freud: what you are actively thinking about
• Which of the following is consciousness
– Sleeping
– Coma
-- Talking to your friend
-- Having Fainted
Consciousness versus Automatic
• What we are not aware of typically falls out
of our definition of consciousness
• Consciousness: when brain activity crosses a
threshold of intensity
– Chord=conscious, notes=unconscious
• Consciousness lags behind brain activity.
• Conscious processing is serial
States of Consciousness
Biological Rhythms
• Biological Rhythms are
physiological/biological patterns
• Types
– Circadian: once/day
• Examples: sleep-wake cycle, others?
– Ultradian: >once/day
• Examples: sleep cycles, others?
– Infradian: <once/day
• Examples?
Sleep Rhythms
• Circadian
• Arousal peaks during the day, dips early
after, and then drops before we go to bed
• As we age we move from night owl to
early birds
– This progresses as we age
– Starts around age 20 (bit earlier for women)
• Light is a key determinate in our sleep
rhythms
Hormones and Sleep
• Light activates light-sensitive retinal
proteinstriggers signals in the brain’s
suprachiasmatic nucleus
• The SUPER NUCLEUUUUUS causes the
pineal gland to increase or decrease
melatonin
• Brain accumulates adenosine over the
day and declines at night
– Adenosine makes us sleepy
• Artificial light delays sleep and shifts our
cycle back
How We Fall Sleep
• Hypothalamus controls body’s rhythm
– Monitors light: when dark sends signals to get
into sleep mode
• Hormones (chemical messengers)
– Melatonin: correlated with hypothalamus’s
regulated schedules and light v. dark, helps
signal us to sleep.
– Used as a therapy for insomnia
• Preserve
Why We Sleep
– Evolutionarily advantageous to sleep when
we can’t see
– Protect us from predators
– Animals that don’t need to hide and need to
graze sleep less
• Restore/Repair
– Rebuild tissues and neurons
– Grow
– Consolidate memories
Sleep Debt
• How much sleep do we need?
– Adolescents: 8ish hours
– Babies: 13-16 hrs!
– Old people: 6ish hours!
• Most adults will ideally sleep 9 hrs
• If we don’t get itsleep debt
Effects of Sleep Debt
• Decreases immune system functioning
• Increase cortisol: weight, memory, learning
• Accidents
• Accidents increase after spring forward and decrease after fall
back
• Decreased productivity and performance
• Increased likelihood for hypertension, irritability,
lower cancer-fighting immune
• Sleep affects people’s moods more than money!
• Sleep is closely correlated with personal life satisfaction
Can we pay back sleep debt?
• Bodies do keep track of sleep debt (2 weeks)
• There is a difference between short term and
long term sleep debt
• One late night can be partially paid back with
a late morning
– Improvement only lasts for six hours!
– Merely masks sleep debt
• Long term accumulation can cause sudden
sleepiness
• Becomes a physiological habit
Sleep Stages
• Occurs in a 90 minute ultradian cycle
• Each cycle has two types of sleep
– Types: REM (rapid eye movement) and NREM
(non-rapid eye movement)
• Five stages (1 stage of REM, 4 NREM)
• To monitor stages we use EEG
(electroencephalograph)
– Electrodes measure brain waves
– Compare electrical activity in different regions of
the brain
– Usually five regions are monitored
Sleep Waves
Wave
Summaries
• Alpha Waves • Delta Waves
– 7.5-14 Hz
– Awake,
relaxed
– Meditation
– .5-4 Hz
– Deep sleep
– Regenerativ
e sleep
• Beta Waves • Gamma
Waves
– 14-40 Hz
– Normal
awakened
alertness
– Higher
stress, but
pretty
common
• Theta Waves
– 4-7.5 Hz
– Sleep
(including
REM)
– >40 Hz
– Very new!
– Short bursts
of
insight/adv
anced
processing
Stages One
• Stage One
– Transition between awake and asleep
– Slowed breathing, irregular brain waves
– Individual might not even claimed to have
been asleep, they were “just resting their
eyes”
– Irregular Waves
– Characteristics: hallucinations, hypnagogic
sensations (falling, floating)
• Stage Two
Stages Two
– Characterized activity
• Burst of brain activity: spindles
• K-Complex, largest event in normal EEG activity
– Clearly asleep, but can be woken
– Sleep talking can occur
Stage Three and Four
• Stage Three
– Deep Sleep
– Presence of delta waves (high amplitude, low
frequency)
• 5-50% at stage three
• Entirely at stage four
– Hard to wake up
– End of stage four is when you see sleep walking
and bed wetting
Stage Five (REM
Sleep)
• REM=Rapid Eye Movement
• Brain waves appear almost as if you were awake
– Paradoxical Sleep: mind awake, but can’t be aroused
• Eyes move, pulse and breathing are faster, blood
flow increases
• Eyes dart under closed lids every 30 seconds
• Temporary paralysis through the brainstem
• Dreams occur
• Sexual arousal occurs (and can last after REM)
– Nightmares are an exception
Your Body Asleep
• We process information outside of
conscious awareness
– Sound of a baby versus a train
– Falling out of bed
• Motor cortex is active
– Brainstem blocks messages from the motor
cortex
– Fundamental paralyzed minus slight muscle
twitches
Dreams
• Occurs during REM sleep
• Often emotional and storylike seeming to
include almost hallucinations
• Visual and auditory areas are more active in
REM and inactive in other stages
• Eye movement does not match dream
content or watching dream
• On average people spend 100 minutes in
REM (20-25%)
– Everyone dreams!
Lucid Dreams
• Dreams where you are aware you are
dreaming
• Having some control over role in dream
• More beta waves and parietal lobe activity
Why We Dream
• Reason 1: Information Processing
– Shift and sort through the day’s experiences
– Delta sleep stabilizes memories and REM
sleep helps cement them into learning
• Correlation between grades and sleep
– More stress, more sleep
– What about dreams about nothing we have
experienced?
Why We Dream
• Reason 2: Physiological Function
– REM activity (aka dreams) provides brain
stimulation to support growth (remember your
neurons!)
– Growth hormone is secreted during delta sleep
– Babies need much more REM sleep than other
individuals
– Problem: what about meaningful dreams?
Why We Dream
• Reason 3: ActivationSynthesis
– Minds way of making
sense out of random
neural firings
– Problem: why does it
make the stories that it
does? Where does the
content come from?
Why We Dream
• Reason Four: Freud’s
Wish Fulfillment
– The Interpretation of
Dreams
– Manifest Content
• Story line of dreams
• Symbolic
– Latent Content
• What the symbols mean
• Usually sexual
– Problems
• Lack scientific evidence
Why We Dream
• Reason Five: Cognitive Development
– Part of intellectual/brain development
– Dreams move from slideshows in childhood to
movie where dreamer is an actor
– Dreams use our concepts, knowledge, and skills
Good chart on page 289
Sleep Disorders
1. Insomnia: Can’t stay or fall asleep
2. Narcolepsy: Sudden, overwhelming sleeping
3. Sleep Apnea: Snoring to the extent one stops
breathing
4. Night Terrors
5. Somnambulism: Sleep walking
6. Enuresis: Bed wetting
1: Insomnia
• Consistent problems staying or falling asleep
• People tend to overestimate how long it takes them to
fall asleep
• Solutions
–
–
–
–
–
Sleeping pills/alcohol: aggravate the problem!
Relax before bedtime
Establish routine
Use dimmer light
Avoid caffeine and rich food (glass of milk can be okay
because it provides serotonin)
– Build a consistent schedule and avoid naps
– Exercise regularly but not in the late evening
– Aim for less sleep
2: Narcolepsy
• Periodic, overwhelming sleepiness for
(usually) < 3 minutes
• Can collapse into REM sleep
• Affects about 1 in 2000 people
• There seems to be a correlation with birth
month and disorder
• Genetic
– Absence of the hypothalamic neural center that
produces hypocretin
• Temporary cessations of
breathing during sleep with
momentary awakenings
• Affects mostly overweight
men
• Symptoms: tired and irritable
during the day (spouse often
has similar symptoms)
• Affects about 1 in 20
• Solutions
– CPAP Machine (mask with air
pump to help keep airways
open)
3: Sleep
Apnea
4: Night Terrors
• High arousal and terror mid-stage four sleep
• Sufferer is usually a child and will have no
recollection of the event
• Usually outgrown
• As we spend less time in stage four we see less of
this, that’s why it is outgrown
5: Somnambulism
• Sleep walking
• Stage four disorder
– As we spend less time in stage four we see less of
this, that’s why it is outgrown
• Runs in families (much like sleep talking)
HYPNOSIS
DRUGS
Document related concepts

Neuropsychopharmacology wikipedia, lookup

Neuroanatomy wikipedia, lookup

Neural oscillation wikipedia, lookup

Clinical neurochemistry wikipedia, lookup

Metastability in the brain wikipedia, lookup

Neuroplasticity wikipedia, lookup

Biology of depression wikipedia, lookup

Holonomic brain theory wikipedia, lookup

Brain wikipedia, lookup

Neuroeconomics wikipedia, lookup

Cognitive neuroscience wikipedia, lookup

Neuropsychology wikipedia, lookup

Neural correlates of consciousness wikipedia, lookup

Brain Rules wikipedia, lookup

History of neuroimaging wikipedia, lookup

Neurolinguistics wikipedia, lookup

Haemodynamic response wikipedia, lookup

Start School Later movement wikipedia, lookup

Sleep deprivation wikipedia, lookup

Sleep paralysis wikipedia, lookup

Insomnia wikipedia, lookup

Memory consolidation wikipedia, lookup

Neuroscience in space wikipedia, lookup

Philosophy of experience wikipedia, lookup

Artificial consciousness wikipedia, lookup

Hard problem of consciousness wikipedia, lookup

Animal consciousness wikipedia, lookup

Effects of sleep deprivation on cognitive performance wikipedia, lookup

Sleep medicine wikipedia, lookup

Sleep and memory wikipedia, lookup

Sleep apnea wikipedia, lookup

Neuroscience of sleep wikipedia, lookup

Rapid eye movement sleep wikipedia, lookup

Delayed sleep phase disorder wikipedia, lookup

Sleep wikipedia, lookup

Shift work wikipedia, lookup

Effects of blue light technology wikipedia, lookup

Lunar effect wikipedia, lookup

Circadian rhythm wikipedia, lookup

Dream wikipedia, lookup

Similar