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Overview of European Union policies &
legislation with a focus on coal
Thomas H A SCHNEIDER
German Hard Coal Association
EUROPEAN
COMMISSION
TAIEX workshop « European experience with restructuring, privatisation and investment in the
coal industry », Kiev, November 5th, 2010

.
..
.
Outline
Introduction: policy objectives influencing
the coal value chain
Treaties and legislation - an overview
Clean Coal Technologies
CO2 Capture & Storage
CCS COMMUNICATION
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
European Union Energy Policy
Competitiveness:
Lisbon
Sustainability: Security of Supply:
Kyoto
Moscow
Principles of EU Energy Policy
.
Competitiveness: internal
market, competition,
interconnections (TEN-T),
European electricity grid, research
& innovation (clean coal, CO2
capture & storage, alternative
fuels, energy efficiency, nuclear)
.
Sustainability: renewable
energies, energy efficiency,
nuclear, innovation & research,
emission trading
.
Security of Supply: international
dialogue, European stock
management (oil/gas), refining
capacity and storage of energy,
protection against terrorism,
diversification
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TARGETS OVERVIEW

20 (30)%
2020
>50%
2050
CO 2
20 %
2020
EFFICIENCY
ETS
ENERGY MIX
COAL
CCS
NUCLEAR
12 % 2010 15 % 2015 20% 2020
RENEWABLES
BIO-FUELS
ELECTRICITY
1%
2005
5.75 % 2010
8%
2015
10% 2020
15 %
21 %
Nuclear Safety
and Waste
Management
2005
2010
GAS OIL
HEATING & COOLING
9 % 2005
[12 % 2010]
POLICIES & TECHNOLOGIES
ROAD MAP
Offshore wind, 2nd generation of bio-fuels,
smart grid, etc.
CCS
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
Core Objectives in the Commission‘s 2007
Energy and Climate Package: 3 x 20% by 2020
..
.
..
20% Energy Efficiency increase
20% GHG reduction compared to 1990
» Independent commitment
30% GHG reduction compared to 1990
» In case of international agreement
20% renewables in energy mix
10% biofuels in transport
» If production is sustainable
» If second generation biofuels commercially
available
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
The EU’s Strategic Objectives
 Within the EU at least 20% reduction of greenhouse gas emissions
by 2020, as compared to 1990
 Negotiations with developed countries: 30% reduction of
greenhouse gas emissions by 2020, as compared to 1990
 Developing countries: Immediate decoupling of GHG emissions
and economic development, absolute emissions reductions after
2020
 Deforestation: Stop within two decades, reforestation afterwards
Developed countries GHG emissions
Developing countries GHG emissions
320%
140%
280%
120%
240%
100%
200%
80%
160%
60%
120%
40%
80%
20%
40%
0%
0%
1990
2005
2020
Baseline
2030
2040
Reduction Scenario
2050
1990
2005
2020
Baseline
2030
2040
2050
Reduction Scenario
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
.
..
.
Outline
Introduction: Policy objectives influencing
the coal value chain
Treaties and legislation - an overview
Clean Coal Technologies
CO2 Capture & Storage
CCS COMMUNICATION
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
..
..
Treaties and Legislation (I)
Lisbon Treaty
Kyoto Protocol (binding GHG reduction
targets)
Energy Community for South East Europe
Int’l maritime treaties (London protocol,
OSPAR convention)
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
Lisbon Treaty
..
..
.
..
.
Entry into force on December 1st, 2009
The Treaty of Lisbon amends the current EU and EC treaties,
without replacing them. It provides the Union with the legal
framework and tools necessary to meet future challenges
and to respond to citizens' demands:
A more democratic and transparent Europe
A more efficient Europe
A Europe of rights and values, freedom, solidarity and
security
Europe as an actor on the global stage
New: Energy chapter („Europeanisiation“ of energy policy)
http://europa.eu/lisbon_treaty/glance/index_en.htm
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
Energy Community for SE Europe
..
.
.
..
The Energy Community entered into force on 1 July 2006
The parties have committed themselves to liberalise their
energy markets and implement key EU legal acts in the area
of electricity, gas, environment and renewable energy
The secretariat in Vienna monitors and assists in the
implementation process
Full Members: The European Union, Albania, Bosnia and
Herzegovina, Croatia, Former Yugoslav Republic of
Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and the United Nations
Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo and Moldova
Observer Status: Georgia, Norway and Turkey.
http://www.energycommunity.org/portal/page/portal/ENC_HOME
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
Treaties and Legislation (II)
.
R&D
- European Community for Steel and Coal
- Research Fund for Coal and Steel, RFCS
- FP7 Research framework programme
(2007-2013)
- Strategic Energy Technology Plan (SETPlan)
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
EU Coal Research & Development
►European Community for Steel & Coal, ECSC
○R & D since 1950s
○ expired in 2002
►Early R & D Framework Programmes, FP 1 – 5
○1st CCS project as early as 1993 (Weyburn oilfield)
○ fossil fuels not covered in FP6
►Special Programmes (Thermie, Carnot)
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
European Community for Steel & Coal
-Examples of major developments –
►Hard Coal Mining
○ Enhancing occupational health & safety
○ Mechanisation/automation of underground extraction
○ Mine waste management/ by-products
► Lignite mining
○ Transition to large scale opencast operations
○ Change to conveyor transport systems
○ Airborne surveying methods/ Photogrammetry
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WHAT is the RFCS Programme?

..
.
.
A research fund with a budget of ~60 M€/year
Promoting industrial research in the field of
» Coal
» Steel
27.2%
~ 16 M€/y
Open call for proposals for
Steel
»
»
»
»
72.8%
Research projects
Pilot & Demonstration projects
Accompanying measures
Deadline: September 15th of each year
Coal
~ 44 M€/y
RFCS funding allocation
Outside the FP…yet closely co-ordinated & complementary
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WHY the RFCS Programme?

.
.
History
» ECSC* Treaty expired in July 2002
» Assets left: ~ 1.6 bn€
» 1 Feb 2003: creation of the RFCS
RFCS
» Management of ECSC assets
» A smart financial design
•yearly returns (60 M€) used for R&D in Coal
& European
Steel Coal and Steel Community
* ECSC:
•R&D activities are cost-neutral for EU tax-payers
»
»
‘Continuity & Change’
http://cordis.europa.eu/coal-steel-rtd/
Support competitiveness & sustainable development
in the EU Coal and Steel industry
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RFCS research priorities - Coal

Improving the competitive
position of Community Coal
Health and Safety
in Mines
Efficient protection
of the Environment
& improvement
of the use of coal
as a clean energy source
Management of external
dependence on
energy supply
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Technical Groups Coal

SOURCING
CONVERSION
• Coal mining
• Mine infrastructure & Mgt.
• CO2 geol. storage
• Underground gasification
• CBM, ECBM,
•…
•Coal preparation
• Coal gasification
• Hydrogen from coal
• Synfuels
•…
35%
22%
COMBUSTION
• Clean & efficient coal combustion
• Carbon management strategies
• CO2 capture
• Zero emissions & high efficient PG
• Co-combustion coal & biomass/waste
• CHP from coal
•…
43%
Average RFCS funding allocation for COAL projects (2005-2007)
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
Fossil Fuel Value Chain in FP7
Specific Programme COOPERATION, thematic areas:
ENERGY (€2.35bn)
NANO-SCIENCES/TECHNOLOGIES AND NEW PRODUCTION
TECHNOLOGIES (€ 3.475bn)
ENVIRONMENT (€1.89bn)
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
Thematic Area ENERGY
CO2 capture and storage technologies for zero emission
power generation
►Costs of CO2 capture down to €20/t
►Capture rates above 90%
Clean coal technologies
►Conversion technologies, incl. poly-generation
►Increase plant efficiency and reliability
►Minimize pollutant emissions
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
Treaties and Legislation (III)
.
State Aid
- Council regulation 1407/2002 on state aid
to the coal industry
- Public service obligations: Electricity
production of up to 15% from indigenous
primary fuel sources (2nd Electricity market
directive 2003/54/EC)
- Regional aid
- State aid for environmental purposes
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
Treaties and Legislation (IV)
.
.
Coal market
- Regular meetings of National Coal Experts
- Coal imports: reporting of border prices per semester
- EU Energy Recovery Plan 2009 (
Internal market for energy: common rules for the
internal market in electricity
- 1st Electricity Market directive 96/92/EC
- 2nd Electricity Market directive 2003/54/EC
- 3rd Electricity Market directive 2009/72/EC
http://europa.eu/legislation_summaries/energy/internal_ener
gy_market/l27005_en.htm
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
.
Treaties and Legislation (V)
Environment
- Environmental impact assessment: EIA Directive
(Directive 85/337/EEC, as amended by Directives
97/11/EC and 2003/35/EC)
- Directive on Strategic Environmental Assessment
(Directive 2001/42/EC)
- Flora Fauna Habitat directive 92/43/EEC incl.
„Natura 2000“ network
- EU water framework directive 2000/60/EC
- Soil framework directive, proposal COM(2006) 232
of 22 September 2006
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
.
Treaties and Legislation (VI)
Occupational safety and health
-
-
Council Directive 89/391/EEC of 12 June 1989 on
the introduction of measures to encourage
improvements in the safety and health of workers
at work
Human Vibration Directive 2002/44/EC
Noise at Work Directive 2003/10/EC
EU Working Time Directive (2003/88/EC)
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
.
..
.
Outline
Introduction: policy objectives influencing
the coal value chain
Treaties and legislation - an overview
Clean Coal Technologies
CO2 Capture & Storage
CCS COMMUNICATION
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
Sustainable use of coal: starting point
.
.
.
.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, IPCC:
unless we cut greenhouse gas emissions - especially
CO2 - by 50%-80% (compared to today) by 2050, the
impact on global warming will be disastrous
World energy demand is expected to double by this
date, the challenge will be enormous.
It means we must act fast, using a portfolio of
solutions, no single solution being capable of reducing
CO2 emissions on the massive scale required. This
includes renewable energies, energy efficiency, and
CO2_CAPTURE_&_STORAGE_(CCS).
If deployed in all industry sectors, CCS could reduce
CO2 emissions by over 50% by 2050.
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
European Commission: concept of
sustainable coal utilisation
Sustainable use of coal =
Clean Coal Technologies + CO2 Capture &
Storage
Source:
Communication of the Commission of 10 January
2007, COM(2006) 843 final: “Sustainable power
generation from fossile fuels - Aim: near emissionfree coal use after 2020”
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
Clean Coal Technologies Implementation in the EU
.
.
.
.
.
Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC)
Directive), COM 96/61/EC of 24 September 1996
Large Combustion Plant (LCP) Directive, COM
2001/80/EC of 23 October 2001
Mining Waste Directive, COM 2006/21/EC of 15 March
2006
Industrial Emissions Directive, COM 2008/1/EC of 15
January 2008 (codification of IPPC Directive)
Commission proposal of 21 December 2007 on a
extended IE directive, aiming at merging IPPC
directive and six “sectoral” directives, endorsed by
the European Parliament on 7 July 2010
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
IPPC Directive – Kategorien der
behandelten industriellen Aktivitäten
1
Energiesektor
1.1 Verbrennungsanlagen mit einem thermischen
Eingangsleistung > 50MW
1.2 Öl- und Gasraffinerien
1.3 Kokereien
1.4 Anlagen zur Kohlevergasung und -verflüssigung
2
Gewinnung und Verarbeitung von Metallen
3
Mineralverarbeitende Industrie
4
Chemische Industrie
5
Behandlung von Abfällen
6
Andere Aktivitäten (z. B. Papier- und Textilherstellung,
Schlachthäuser)
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
IPPC Directive - Principles
The IPPC Directive is based on several
principles, namely
..
..
(1) an integrated approach,
(2) best available techniques,
(3) flexibility and
(4) public participation.
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
Best available techniques, BAT
Net plant efficiencies for construction of
power stations (with specific CO2 emissions):
..
.
Lignite
Hard coal
Natgas (Gas & steam)
% Kg/MWel
43,5 935
46,5 735
57,0 354
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
.
..
.
Outline
Introduction: policy objectives influencing
the coal value chain
Treaties and legislation - an overview
Clean Coal Technologies
CO2 Capture & Storage
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
CO2-Abscheidung und Speicherung –
Beitrag zur Emissionsreduzierung und eine
neue Wertschöpfungskette
.
.
.
Abscheidung des CO2
► vor oder nach dem Verbrennungs- bzw. Konversionsprozess
Transport des hochreinen CO2
► Kontinuerlich, d. h. per Rohrleitung
► Diskontinuerlich, z. B. durch Tankschiffe
Speicherung bzw. Verwertung des CO2
► Geologische Speicherung
► “Ocean storage”: offene Lagerung auf dem Meeresboden
► Verwertung: begrenzte Optionen
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
CO2-Abscheidung: bevorzugte Technologieoptionen
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
CO2-Abscheidung: Maßnahmen zur
Verringerung der Kosten
.
.
.
.
Reduzierung der Investitionskosten durch
► einfaches, robustes Equipment
► Maximierung der Skaleneffekte (economies of scale)
► Sicherstellung von genügendem Marktpotential für die Technologien
Reduzierung der Unterhaltungskosten durch
► einfaches, robustes Equipment mit langen Lebenszeiten der Komponenten
► Diskontinuerlich, z. B. durch Tankschiffe
Minimierung des Energiebedarfs durch
► Erhöhung der Energeeffizienz der CO2-Abscheide- & Speicherprozesse und deren
Integration in die Stromerzeugung
► Verringerung der Betriebsstoffmengen
Sicherstellung einer hohen Betriebsverfügbarkeit durch
► Ausbildung und Schulung der Mitarbeiter
► Verbesserte System- und Prozesssteuerung für integrierte Abscheide-, Verbrennungs-,
transport- und Speichersysteme
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
CO2-Abscheidung: Erwartete Vermeidungskosten für industrielles Kraftwerk in 2020
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
Post Combustion CO2-Abscheidung:
Entwicklungsstand der Technologie
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
Pre Combustion CO2-Abscheidung:
Entwicklungsstand der Technologie
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
Oxyfuel-Prozess: Entwicklungsstand der
Technologie
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
30 MW Oxyfuel-Pilotanlage am Standort
Schwarze Pumpe der Vattenfall Europe AG
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 Braunkohlekraftwerk Jänschwalde: Planung
für 250 MWel-eq Oxyfuel-Demonstrationsanlage
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
Cluster-Bildung mit Infrastruktur am Beispiel
der Niederlande
300 Mton
7000 Mton
1600 Mton
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
CO2 -Transport per Schiff
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
Optionen der geologischen CO2- Speicherung
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
Globale Potentiale für die geologische
Speicherung von CO2
Abschätzung der Dimensionen bei den Potentialen für
geologische Speicherung:
x 1000 Tiefe saline Aquifere (Porenspeicher)
x 100 Nutzung in Öl- & Gasfeldern incl. Speicherung
x 10 Ungewinnbare Kohleflöze incl. Flözgasgewinnung (enhanced coal bed methane recovery)
x 1 Sequestrierung durch Mineralisation
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
Bisherige und aktuelle Projekte zur geologischen Speicherung von CO2
.
.
.
.
..
..
.
Perm-Becken, USA: 35 Mt/a, seit 1972; mehr als 70 Projekte
mit einer Gesamtmenge von 500Mt
Sleipner-Gasfeld, Norwegen: 1 Mt/a unter der Nordsee seit
1996
Weburn/Saskatchewan, Kanada: 2 Mt/a seit 2000 für EOR
(enhanced oil recovery)
K12B-Feld, Niederlande: einige 100 Kt/a für EGR (enhanced
gas recovery) seit 2004
In Salah-Gasfeld, Algerien: 1,2 Mt/a seit 2004
Nagaoka, Japan: 10,4 Kt in 2004/2005
Ketzin/Potsdam, Deutschland: ca. 60Kt total, seit 2007
Snøvit-Gasfeld, Norwegen/Barentsee: 0,8 Mt/a, seit 2007
Gorgon-Gasfeld, Westaustralien: 129 Mt total, ab 2008-2010
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
Sedimentäre Becken in Europa
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
Industrielle CO2 -Quellen in Europa
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
Prinzipielle Hürden zur Umsetzung der CO2 Abscheidung & Speicherung
..
.
.
Technische Barrieren
Ökonomische Barrieren
Geeigneter Rechtsrahmen auf nationaler,
europäischer und internationaler Ebene
Öffentliche Akzeptanz für das integrierte
Konzept, insbesondere Speicherung
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
Dokumente/Entscheidungen der EU zur Förderung
der CO2 -Abscheidung & Speicherung
.
..
.
Mitteilung der Kommission vom 10. Januar 2007, COM(2006)
843 final: “Nachhaltige Stromerzeugung aus fossilen
Brennstoffen - Ziel: weitgehend emissionsfreie
Kohlenutzung nach 2020”
EU-Ratsgipfel, März 2007: volle Unterstützung für o. e.
Dokument
Plan für Strategische Energie-Technologien (“SET-Plan”)
vom 29. September 2007
“Energie- und Klimaschutz-Paket” der Kommission vom 23.
Januar 2008:
» Richtlinie zur Speicherung von CO2 (“CCS Directive”)
» Mitteilung zur Unterstützung der frühzeitigen
Demonstration der nachhaltigen Kohlenutzung (“CCS
Communication”)
» Vorschlag für Handel mit Emissionszertifikaten (“EU
ETS post 2012 Directive”)
» Rahmenrichtlinie für Beihilfen zum Umweltschutz
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
Interesse der EU-Staaten an CCS-Demoprojekten
Country
No. of demo
plants wanted/
considered
Current R & D
Budget for CCS
demo projects
Choice of add.
support
Bulgaria
1
SCF
Czech Republic
1
SCF, ETS
Germany
Latvia
At least 2-3
> €30M/y
FIT
1
SCF
< €100M by
2012
€92M by 2012
The Netherlands
At least 1
Norway
At least 1
Poland
1-2
Spain
2
Slovenia
1
SCF
Romania
1
SCF
United Kingdom
At least 1
> €600M
O
SCF
ca. €100M
£35M
FIT
Up to £1bn
FIT
ETS: Emissions Trading System
FIT: Feed-In Tariffs
SCF: Structural/Cohesion Fund
O: Other means
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
Thank You for Your Attention
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